2018

Eshed Ohn-Bar, Kris Kitani, Chieko Asakawa.
Personalized Dynamics Models for Adaptive Assistive Navigation Interfaces.
arXiv:1804.04118.

Benjamin A. Newman, Reuben M. Aronson, Siddartha S. Srinivasa, Kris Kitani, Henny Admoni.
HARMONIC: A Multimodal Dataset of Assistive Human-Robot Collaboration.
arXiv:1807.11154.

Nick Rhinehart, Paul Vernaza, Kris Kitani.
R2P2: A ReparameteRized Pushforward Policy for Diverse, Precise Generative Path Forecasting.
European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV) 2018.

Ye Yuan, Kris Kitani.
3D Ego-Pose Estimation via Imitation Learning.
European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV) 2018.

Xiang Xu, Xiaofang Wang, Kris Kitani.
Error Correction Maximization for Deep Image Hashing.
British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC) 2018.

Mohit Sharma, Joachim Groeger, Robert Miller, Kris M. Kitani.
Inverse Reinforcement Learning with Conditional Choice Probabilities.
Workshop on Perspectives in Robot Learning: Causality and Imitation, Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS) 2018.

Tanmay Shankar, Nicholas Rhinehart, Katharina Muelling, Kris M. Kitani.
Learning Neural Parsers with Deterministic Differentiable Imitation Learning.
Workshop on Perspectives in Robot Learning: Causality and Imitation, Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS) 2018.

Mohit Sharma*, Arjun Sharma*, Nicholas Rhinehart, Kris M. Kitani.
Learning Hierarchical Policies from Unsegmented Demonstrations using Causal Information.
Workshop on Perspectives in Robot Learning: Causality and Imitation, Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS) 2018.
* equal contribution

Navyata Sanghvi, Ryo Yonetani, and Kris Kitani.
Learning Group Communication from Demonstration.
Workshop on Models and Representations for Natural Human-Robot Communication, Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS) 2018.

Saki Asakawa, João Guerreiro, Dragan Ahmetovic, Kris M. Kitani, Chieko Asakawa.
The Present and Future of Museum Accessibility for People with Visual Impairments.
International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility (ASSETS) 2018.

Tatsuya Ishihara, Kris M. Kitani, Chieko Asakawa, Michitaka Hirose.
Deep Learning and Geometry-Based Image Localization Enhanced by Bluetooth Signals.
Journal of Information Processing Vol.26, 2018.

Anubhav Ashok, Nicholas Rhinehart, Fares Beainy, Kris M. Kitani.
N2N learning: Network to Network Compression via Policy Gradient Reinforcement Learning.
International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR) 2018.

Hironori Hattori, Namhoon Lee, Vishnu Naresh Boddeti, Fares Beainy, Kris M. Kitani, Takeo Kanade.
Synthesizing a Scene-Specific Pedestrian Detector and Pose Estimator for Static Video Surveillance.
International Journal of Computer Vision 2018.

Ryo Yonetani, Kris M. Kitani, Yoichi Sato.
Ego-Surfing: Person Localization in First-Person Videos Using Ego-Motion Signatures.
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (TPAMI) 2018.

Eshed Ohn-Bar, Joao Guerreiro, Kris M. Kitani, Chieko Asakawa.
Variability in Reactions to Instructional Guidance During Smartphone-Based Assisted Navigation of Blind Users.
ACM Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies 2(1), 9, ACM, 2018.

Cole Gleason, Dragan Ahmetovic, Saiph Savage, Carlos Toxtli, Carl Posthuma, Chieko Asakawa, Kris M. Kitani, Jeffery P. Bigham.
Crowdsourcing the Installation and Maintenance of Indoor Localization Infrastructure to Support Blind Navigation.
ACM Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies 2(1), 9, ACM, 2018.

Thanassis Rikakis, Aisling Kelliher, Jinwoo Choi, Jia-Bin Huang, Kris M. Kitani, Steve Wolf, Setor Zilevu.
Semi-automated home-based therapy for the upper extremity of stoke survivors.
Pervasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments (PETRA) 2018.

Joao Guerreiro, Eshed Ohn-Bar, Dragan Ahmetovic, Kris M. Kitani, Chieko Asakawa.
How Context and User Behavior Affect Indoor Navigation Assistance for Blind People.
Conference on Web For All 2018.

Hernisa Kacorri, Eshed Ohn-Bar, Kris M. Kitani, Chieko Asakawa.
Environmental Factors in Indoor Navigation Based on Real-World Trajectories of Blind Users.
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’18) 2018.

Masayuki Murata, Daisuke Sato, Dragan Ahmetovic, Hironobu Takagi, Kris M. Kitani, Chieko Asakawa.
Smartphone-based Indoor Localization for Blind Navigation across Building Complexes.
International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (PerCom) 2018.

Eshed Ohn-Bar, João Guerreiro, Dragan Ahmetovic, Kris M. Kitani, Chieko Asakawa.
Assessing and Modeling Expertise in Assistive Navigation Interfaces for Blind People.
International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI), 2018.

Pedro Costa, Aurelio Campilho, B. Hooi, Asim Smailagic, Kris Kitani, S Liu, Christos Faloutsos, Adrian Galdran.
EyeQual: Accurate, Explainable, Retinal Image Quality Assessment.
Conference on Machine Learning and Applications 2017.

Arjun Sharma, Kris M. Kitani.
Phase-Parametric Policies for Reinforcement Learning in Cyclic Environments.
Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 2018.

Donghyun Yoo, Haoqi Fan, Vishnu Bodetti, Kris M. Kitani.
Efficient K-Shot Learning with Regularized Deep Networks.
Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 2018.

Arun Venkatraman, Nicholas Rhinehart, Wen Sun, Lerrel Pinto, Martial Hebert, Byron Boots, Kris M. Kitani, Andrew J. Bagnell.
Predictive-State Decoders: Encoding the Future into Recurrent Networks.
Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS) 2018.

Xinshuo Weng, Shangxuan Wu, Fares Beainy, Kris Kitani.
Rotational Rectification Network: Enabling Pedestrian Detection for Mobile Vision.
Winter Conference on the Applications of Computer Vision (WACV) 2018.

Mohit Sharma, Dragan Ahmetovic, Kris M. Kitani, Laszlo Jeni.
Recognizing Visual Signatures of Spontaneous Head Gestures.
Winter Conference on the Applications of Computer Vision (WACV) 2018.

Tatsuya Ishihara, Kris M. Kitani, Chieko Asakawa, Michitaka Hirose.
Deep Radio-Visual Localization.
Winter Conference on the Applications of Computer Vision (WACV) 2018.

Heng Yu, Eshed Ohn-Bar, Donghyun Yoo, Kris M. Kitani.
SmartPartNet: Part-Informed Person Detection for Body-Worn Smartphones.
Winter Conference on the Applications of Computer Vision (WACV) 2018.

2017

Ryo Yonetani, Kris M. Kitani, Yoichi Sato.
Ego-Surfing First-Person Videos.
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence Nov 2017.

Nicholas Rhinehart, Kris M. Kitani.
First-Person Forecasting with Online Inverse Reinforcement Learning.
International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) 2017.
[Oral Presentation] [Marr Prize Honorable Mention]

Ryo Yonetani, Vishnu Naresh Boddeti, Kris M. Kitani, Yoichi Sato.
Privacy-Preserving Visual Learning Using Doubly Permuted Homomorphic Encryption.
International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) 2017.

Sima Behpour, Kris M. Kitani, Brian D. Ziebart.
Adversarially Optimizing Intersection over Union for Object Localization Tasks.
arXiv:1710.07735

Donghyun Yoo, Haoqi Fan, Vishnu Naresh Boddeti, Kris M. Kitani.
Efficient K-Shot Learning with Regularized Deep Networks.
arXiv:1710.02277

Arun Venkatraman, Nicholas Rhinehart, Wen Sun, Lerrel Pinto, Martial Hebert, Byron Boots, Kris M. Kitani, Andrew J. Bagnell.
Predictive-State Decoders: Encoding the Future into Recurrent Networks.
Conference on Robot Learning (CoRL) 2017.

Mohit Sharma, Kris M. Kitani, Joachim Groeger.
Inverse Reinforcement Learning with Conditional Choice Probabilities.
arXiv:1709.07597

Anubhav Ashok, Nicholas Rhinehart, Fares Beainy, Kris M. Kitani.
N2N Learning: Network to Network Compression via Policy Gradient Reinforcement Learning.
arXiv:1709.06030

Xinshuo Weng, Shangxuan Wu, Fares Beainy, Kris Kitani.
Rotational Rectification Network: Enabling Pedestrian Detection for Mobile Vision.
arXiv:1706.08917

Aisling Kelliher, Jinwoo Choi, Jia-Bin Huang, Thanassis Rikakis, Kris Kitani.
HOMER: An Interactive System for Home Based Stroke Rehabilitation.
International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility (ASSETS) 2017.

Daisuke Sato, Uran Oh, Kakuya Naito, Hironobu Takagi, Chieko Asakawa and Kris Kitani.
NavCog3: An Evaluation of a Smartphone-Based Blind Indoor Navigation Assistant with Semantic Features in a Large-Scale Environment.
International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility (ASSETS) 2017.

João Guerreiro, Dragan Ahmetovic, Chieko Asakawa and Kris Kitani.
Virtual Navigation for Blind People: Building Sequential Representations of the Real-World.
International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility (ASSETS) 2017.

Wei-Chiu Ma, De-An Huang, Namhoon Lee, Kris M. Kitani.
Forecasting Interactive Dynamics of Pedestrians with Fictitious Play.
Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2017.

Kris M. Kitani, Wei-Chiu Ma, De-An Huang.
Activity Forecasting: An Invitation to Predictive Perception.
Book: Group and Crowd Behavior for Computer Vision. Chapter 12, 2017.

Dragan Ahmetovic, Masayuki Murata, Cole Gleason, Erin Brady, Hironobu Takagi, Kris Kitani and Chieko Asakawa.
Achieving Practical and Accurate Indoor Navigation for People with Visual Impairments.
Conference on Web For All 2017.

[Best Technical Paper]

Minjie Cai, Kris M. Kitani, Yoichi Sato.
An Ego-vision System for Hand Grasp Analysis.
IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, 2017.

Tatsuya Ishihara, Jayakorn Vongkulbhisal, Kris M. Kitani, Chieko Asakawa.
Beacon-guided Structure from Motion for Smartphone-based Navigation.
Winter Conference on Computer Vision (WACV) 2017.

Tatsuya Ishihara, Kris M. Kitani, Chieko Asakawa, Michitaka Hirose.
Inference Machines for Supervised Bluetooth Localization.
International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processsing (ICASSP) 2017.

Ryohei Funakoshi, Vishnu Naresh Boddeti, Kris Kitani, Hideki Koike.
Video segmentation and stabilization for BallCam.
Augmented Human International Conference (AH) 2017.

Hernisa Kacorri, Kris M. Kitani, Jeff Bigham, Chieko Asakawa.
People with Visual Impairment Training Personal Object Recognizers: Feasibility and Challenges.
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) 2017.

[Best Paper Honorable Mention]

2016

Nick Rhinehart, Kris M. Kitani.
Online Semantic Activity Forecasting with DARKO.
arXiv:1612.07796 [cs.CV] project page

Wei-Chiu Ma, De-An Huang, Namhoon Lee, Kris M. Kitani.
A Game-Theoretic Approach to Multi-Pedestrian Activity Forecasting.
arXiv:1604.01431

Namhoon Lee, Xinshuo Weng, Vishnu Naresh Boddeti, Yu Zhang, Fares Beainy, Kris Kitani, Takeo Kanade.
Visual Compiler: Synthesizing a Scene-Specific Pedestrian Detector and Pose Estimator.
arXiv:1612.05234

Haoqi Fan, Yu Zhang, and Kris M. Kitani.
OMG: Orthogonal Method of Grouping with Application of K-Shot Learning.
https://openreview.net/pdf?id=S1HcOI5le

Yubo Zhang, Vishnu Naresh Boddeti, Kris M. Kitani.
Gesture-based Bootstrapping for Egocentric Hand Segmentation.
arXiv:1612.02889

Xiaofang Wang, Kris M. Kitani, Martial Hebert.
Contextual Visual Similarity.
arXiv:1612.02534

Jonathan Shen, Noranart Vesdapunt, Vishnu N. Boddeti, Kris M. Kitani.
In Teacher We Trust: Learning Compressed Models for Pedestrian Detection.
arXiv:1612.00478

Cole Gleason, Anhong Guo, Gierad Laput, Kris M. Kitani, Jeffrey P. Bigham.
VizMap: Accessible Visual Information Through Crowdsourced Map Reconstruction.
International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility (ASSETS) 2016.

Xiaofang Wang, Yi Shi, Kris M. Kitani.
Deep Supervised Hashing with Triplet Labels.
Asian Conference on Computer Vision (ACCV) 2016.

Syed Zahir Bokhari, Kris M. Kitani.
Long-Term Activity Forecasting using First-Person Vision.
Asian Conference on Computer Vision (ACCV) 2016.

Ryohei Funakoshi, Vishnu Naresh Boddeti, Kris Kitani, Hideki Koike.
Activity-Aware Video Stabilization for BallCam.
ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST) 2016.

Ryo Yonetani, Kris M. Kitani, Yoichi Sato.
Visual Motif Discovery via First-Person Vision.
European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV) 2016.

Dragan Ahmetovic, Cole Gleason, Chengxiong Ruan, Kris M. Kitani, Hironobu Takagi, Chieko Asakawa.
NavCog: A Navigational Cognitive Assistant for the Blind.
International Conference on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices (MobileHCI) 2016.

Ken Sakurada, Takayuki Okatani, Kris M Kitani.
Hybrid macro–micro visual analysis for city-scale state estimation.
Computer Vision and Image Understanding 146, 86-98.

Minjie Cai, Kris M. Kitani, Yoichi Sato.
Understanding Hand-Object Manipulation with Grasp Types and Object Attributes.
Conference on Robotics Science and Systems (RSS) 2016.

Nicholas Rhinehart, Kris M. Kitani.
Learning Action Maps of Large Environments via First-Person Vision.
Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2016.

Minghuang Ma, Haoqi Fan, Kris M. Kitani.
Going Deeper into First-Person Activity Recognition.
Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2016.

Ryo Yonetani, Kris M. Kitani, Yoichi Sato.
Recognizing micro-actions and reactions from paired egocentric videos.
Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2016.

Rohit Girdhar, David Fouhey, Kris M. Kitani, Abhinav Gupta, Martial Hebert.
Cutting through the Clutter: Task-Relevant Features for Image Matching.
Winter Conference on the Applications of Computer Vision (WACV) 2016.

Namhoon Lee, Kris M. Kitani.
Predicting Wide Receiver Trajectories in American Football.
Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV) 2016.

2015

Akanksha Saran, Damien Teney, Kris M. Kitani.
Hand Parsing for Fine-Grained Recognition of Human Grasps in Monocular Images.
International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) 2015.

Tatsuya Ishihara, Kris M. Kitani, Wei-Chiu Ma, Hironobu Takagi, Chieko Asakawa.
Recognizing Hand-Object Interactions in Wearable Camera Videos.
International Conference on Image Processsing (ICIP) 2015.

Hiro Hattori, Vishnu Bodetti, Kris M. Kitani, Takeo Kanade.
Learning Scene-Specific Pedestrian Detectors without Real Data.
Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR 2015).
Project page

De-An Huang, Wei-Chiu Ma, Minghuang Ma, Kris M. Kitani.
How Do We Use Our Hands? Discovering a Diverse Set of Common Grasps.
Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR 2015).

Ryo Yonetani, Kris M. Kitani, Yoichi Sato.
Ego-Surfing First-Person Videos.
Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR 2015).
Project page

Minjie Cai, Kris M. Kitani, Yoichi Sato.
A Scalable Approach for Understanding the Visual Structures of Hand Grasps
International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2015)

De-An Huang, Amir M. Farahmand, Kris M. Kitani, and James A. Bagnell.
Approximate MaxEnt Inverse Optimal Control and its Application for Mental Simulation of Human Interactions
Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI 2015)

Jihwan Woo, Kris Kitani, Sehoon Kim, Hantak Kwak, Woosung Shim.
Semantic video segmentation using both appearance and geometric information.
Proc. SPIE 9406, Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision XXXII: Algorithms and Techniques, 94060B (February 8, 2015).

Andy Zeng, Vishnu Naresh Boddeti, Kris M. Kitani and Takeo Kanade.
Face Alignment Refinement
Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV 2015)

2014

Ken Sakurada, Takayuki Okatani and Kris M. Kitani.
Massive City-scale Surface Condition Analysis using Ground and Aerial Imagery
Asian Conference on Computer Vision (ACCV 2014)

[Best Application Paper Honorable Mention]  

De-An Huang and Kris M. Kitani.
Action-Reaction: Forecasting the Dynamics of Human Interaction.
European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV 2014), Sept 2014.

2013

Kodai Horita, Hideki Sasaki, Kris M. Kitani and Hideki Koike.
Experiencing the Ball’s POV for Ballistic Sports (Extended Version).
Augmented Human International Conference (AH 2013), Jan 2013.

Cheng Li and Kris M. Kitani.
Model Recommendation with Virtual Probes for Ego-Centric Hand Detection.
International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV 2013). Dec 2013.

Cheng Li and Kris M. Kitani.
Pixel-level Hand Detection for Ego-centric Videos.
Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR 2013). Jun 2013.

Hamid Izadinia, Varun Ramakrishna, Kris M. Kitani and Daniel Huber.
Multi-Pose Multi-Target Tracking for Activity Understanding.
Workshop on the Applications of Computer Vision (WACV 2013). Jan 2013.

2012

Kris M. Kitani, Brian Ziebart, James A. Bagnell and Martial Hebert.
Activity Forecasting.
European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV 2012), Oct 2012.
[Best Paper Honorable Mention]

Yuichi Ito, Kris M. Kitani, James A. Bagnell and Martial Hebert.
Detecting Interesting Events using Unsupervised Density Ratio Estimation.
ECCV Workshop on Analysis and Retrieval of Tracked Events and Motion in Imagery Streams (ARTEMIS2012), Oct 2012.

Keisuke Ogaki, Kris M. Kitani, Yusuke Sugano and Yoichi Sato.
Coupling Eye-Motion and Ego-Motion features for First-Person Activity Recognition.
CVPR workshop on Ego-Centric Vision (ECV2012), Jun 2012.

Kris M. Kitani, Kodai Horita and Hideki Koike.
BallCam! Dynamic View Synthesis from Spinning Cameras.
ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST2012), Oct 2012.

Tomohiro Ozawa, Kris M. Kitani and Hideki Koike.
Human-centric Panoramic Image Stitching
Augmented Human International Conference (AH 2012), Jan 2012.

2011

Kris M. Kitani, Takahiro Okabe, Yoichi Sato, and Akihiro Sugimoto.
Fast Unsupervised Ego-Action Learning for First-person Sports Videos
Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR2011), June 2011.

Tsubasa Yoshida, Kris M. Kitani, Serge Belongie, Kevin Schlei and Hideki Koike.
EdgeSonic: Image Feature Sonification for the Visually Impaired
Augmented Human International Conference (AH 2011), Jan 2011.

2010

Kris M. Kitani, Hideki Koike.
ImprovGenerator: Online Grammatical Induction for On-the-Fly Improvisation Accompaniment
New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME 2010), Jun 2010.

Akito Hyakutake, Koichiro Ozaki, Kris M. Kitani, Hideki Koike
3-D Interaction with a Large Wall Display using Transparent Markers
Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2010), May 2010.

2009

Daisuke Sugimura, Kris M. Kitani, Takahiro Okabe, Yoichi Sato and Akihiro Sugimoto.
[Using Individuality to Track Individuals: Clustering Individual Trajectories in Crowds using Local Appearance and Frequency Trait]
International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV2009), Sept 2009.

Takahiro Okabe, Yuhi Kondo, Kris M. Kitani and Yoichi Sato. Recognizing Multiple Objects via Regression Incorporating the Co-occurrence of Categories.
Pacific-Rim Symposium on Image and Video Technology (PSIVT2009), pp. 497-508, January 2009.

2008

Kris M. Kitani, Yoichi Sato and Akihiro Sugimoto.
Recovering the basic structure of human activities from noisy video-based symbol strings
International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence. Vol. 22 No. 8, pp.1621-1646, 2008.

Kris M. Kitani, Yoichi Sato and Akihiro Sugimoto.
Recognizing overlapped human activities from a sequence of primitive actions via deleted interpolation
International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence. Vol. 22 No. 7, pp. 1343-1362, 2008.

Kris M. Kitani, Takahiro Okabe, Yoichi Sato and Akihiro Sugimoto.
Discovering Primitive Action Categories by Leveraging Relevant Visual Context
ECCV Workshop on Visual Surveillance (VS2008), October 2008.

2007

Kris M. Kitani, Yoichi Sato and Akihiro Sugimoto.
Recovering the Basic Structure of Human Activities From a Video-Based Symbol String
Workshop on Motion and Video Computing (WMVC 2007), February 2007.

2006

Kris M. Kitani, Yoichi Sato and Akihiro Sugimoto.
An MDL Approach to Learning Activity Grammars.
Korea-Japan Joint Workshop on Pattern Recognition (KJPR 2006), November 2006.

2005

Kris M. Kitani, Yoichi Sato and Akihiro Sugimoto.
Deleted Interpolation Using a Hierarchical Bayesian Grammar Network for Recognizing Human Activity.
ICCV Workshop on Visual Surveillance and Performance Evaluation of Tracking and Surveillance (VS-PETS 2005), October 2005.


MISC

Kris M. Kitani.
Ego-Action Analysis for First-Person Sports Videos.
IEEE Pervasive Computing Magazine. April-May (vol. 11 no. 2), pp. 92-95, 2012.

Jake K. Aggarwal, Michael S. Ryoo and Kris M. Kitani.
Frontiers of Human Activity Analysis.
Tutorials of Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2011.
http://cvrc.ece.utexas.edu/mryoo/cvpr2011tutorial/

Michael S. Ryoo and Kris M. Kitani.
Understanding Videos – Human Activity Analysis.
Tutorials of Pacific Rim International Conference on Artificial Intelligence (PRICAI), 2010.

Kris M. Kitani and Yoichi Sato.
Modeling and Recognizing Human Activities from Video.
International Workshop on Recent Trends in Computer Vision. June 2009.

Kris M. Kitani.
Modeling and Recognizing Human Activities from Video.
PhD Thesis. 2008.