Relevant Literature

Erroneous Examples - Empirical Studies
  • Booth, J.L., Koedinger, K., & Siegler, R.S. (2007, October). The effect of corrective and typical self-explanation on algebraic problem solving. Poster presented at the Science of Learning Centers Awardee's Meeting in Washington, DC. (See also Pittsburgh Science of Learning Wiki page on Corrective Self-Explanation)
  • Durkin, K.L., & Rittle-Johnson, B. (2008). Comparison of incorrect examples in math learning. Poster session presented at the IES annual research conference, Washington, D.C., June 2008.
  • Durkin, K., & Rittle-Johnson, B. (2012). The effectiveness of using incorrect examples to support learning about decimal magnitude. Learning and Instruction, 22, 206-214.
  • Grosse, C.S. & Renkl, A. (2007). Finding and fixing errors in worked examples: Can this foster learning outcomes? Learning and Instruction, 17(6), 612-634.
  • Huang, T-H., Liu, Y.-C., & Shiu, C.-Y. (2008). Construction of an online learning system for decimal numbers through the use of cognitive conflict strategy.Computers & Education, 50, 61-76.
  • Kawasaki, M. (2010). Learning to solve mathematics problems: The impact of incorrect solutions in fifth grade peers’ presentations. Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology, 21 (1), 12-22.
  • Kopp, V., Stark, R., & Fischer, M. R. (2008). Fostering diagnostic knowledge through computer-supported, case-based worked examples: Effects of erroneous examples and feedback. Medical Education, 42: 823-829.
  • Siegler, R.S. (2002). Microgenetic studies of self-explanation. In N. Granott and J. Parziale (eds). Microdevelopment, Transition Processes in Development and Learning, (pp. 31-58). Cambridge University Press.
  • Siegler, R.S., & Chen, Z. (2008). Differentiation and integration: Guiding principles for analyzing cognitive change. Developmental Science, 11, 433-448.
  • Swan, M. (1983). Teaching decimal place value: A comparative study of "conflict" and "positive only" approaches. Nottingham: Shell Centre for Mathematical Education.
  • Tsovaltzi, D., Melis, E., McLaren, B.M., Dietrich, M., Goguadze, G., & Meyer, A-K. (2009). Erroneous examples: A preliminary investigation into learning benefits. In U. Cress, V. Dimitrova, & M. Specht (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, Learning in the Synergy of Multiple Disciplines (EC-TEL 2009), LNCS 5794, September/October 2009, Nice, France. (pp. 688-693). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
  • Tsovaltzi, D., Melis, E., McLaren, B.M., Meyer, A-K., Dietrich, M. & Goguadze, G. (2010). Learning from erroneous examples: When and how do students benefit from them? In M. Wolpers, P. A. Kirschner, M. Scheffel, S. Lindstaedt, & V. Dimitrova (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, Sustaining TEL: From Innovation to Learning and Practice (EC-TEL 2010), LNCS 6383, September/October, Barcelona, Spain. (pp. 357-373). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Erroneous Examples - Theory and/or Analysis of Possible Effects
  • Borasi, R. (1987). Exploring mathematics through the analysis of errors. For the Learning of Mathematics: An International Journal of Mathematics Education, 7(3), 2-8
  • Borasi, R. (1994). Capitalizing on errors as "springboards for inquiry": A teaching experiment. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 25(2), 166-208
  • Damon, W., & Killen, M. (1982). Peer interaction and the process of change in children's moral reasoning. Merrill-palmer Quarterly, 28, 347-367.
  • Melis, E. (2005). Design of erroneous examples for ActiveMath. In B. Bredeweg Ch.-K. Looi, G. McCalla and J. Brueker (eds.). Artificial Intelligence in Education. Supporting Learning Through Intelligent and Socially Informed Technology. 12th International Conference (AIED 2005), (pp. 451-458). IOS Press.
  • Melis, E. (2004). Erroneous examples as a source of learning in mathematics. In P. Isaias Kinshuk, D. G. Sampson (eds). Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2004), (pp. 311-318), Lisbon.
  • Mischel, T. (1971). Piaget: Cognitive cognitive conflict and the motivation of though. In T. Mischel (Ed.), Cognitive development and epistemology (pp. 311-335). New York: Academic Press.
  • Ohlsson, S. (1996). Learning from performance errors. Psychological Review, Vol. 103, No. 2, 241-262.
  • Oser, F. & Spychiger, M. (eds.) (2005). Lernen ist schmerzhaft: zur Theorie des Negativen Wissens und zur Praxis der Fehlerkultur. [English Translation: Learning is painful. On the theory of negative knowledge and the practice of error management.] Weinheim: Beltz (See Kopp et al article for an interpretation of this article.)
  • Shumway, R. J. (1974). Students Should See "Wrong" Examples: An Idea From Research on Learning. Arithmetic Teacher, 21(4) 344-348
  • Tsamir, P. & Tirosh, D. (2003). In-service mathematics teachers' views of errors in the classroom. In International Symposium: Elementary Mathematics Teaching, Prague, August 2003.
  • Van den Broek, P., & Kendeou, P. (2008). Cognitive processes in comprehension of science texts: The role of co-activation in confronting misconceptions. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22, 335-351.
Math Education - Learning of Decimals
  • Bell, A. (1982). Diagnosing students' misconceptions. Australian Mathematics Teacher, 38, 6-10.
  • Bell, A., Fischbein, E. & Greer, B. (1984) Choice of operation in verbal arithmetic problems: The effects of number size, problem structure and context. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 15 (2), 127-147.
  • Bell, A. M. Swan, and G. Taylor (1981). Choice of operations in verbal problems with decimal numbers. Educational Studies in Mathematics 12: 399-420.
  • Bell, A., Fischbein, E. & Greer, B. (1984). Choice of operation in verbal arithmetic problems: The effects of number size, problem structure and context. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 15 (2), 127-147.
  • Bell, A. (1993). Principles for the design of teaching. Educational Studies in Mathematics 24, 5-34.
  • Brekke, G. (1996). A decimal number is a pair of whole numbers. In L. Puig & A. Gutierrez (Eds.), Proceedings of the 20th conference for the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (Vol. 2, pp. 137-144). Valencia, Spain: PME.
  • Brown, M. (1981). Place value and decimals. In K. Hart (Ed.), Children's Understanding of Mathematics, 11-16 (pp. 48-65). London: John Murray.
  • Brown, M. (1981). 'Is it an 'add', Miss?' Mathematics in School 10:1, 26-28.
  • Brueckner, L.J. (1928). Analysis of difficulties in decimals. Elementary School Journal, 29, 32-41.
  • Fischbein, E., M. Deri, M. Nello, & M. Marino (1985). The role of implicit models in solving verbal problems in multiplication and division. Journal of Research in Mathematics Education, 16: 3-17.
  • Fuglestad, A. B. (1998). Computer support for diagnostic teaching.  A case of decimal numbers. Nordic Studies in Mathematics Education (Nordisk Matematikk Didaktikk), 6(3-4), 25-50.
  • Greer, B. (1987). Nonconservation of multiplication and division involving decimals. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 18(1), 37-45.
  • Graeber, A. & Tirosh, D. (1988). Multiplication and division involving decimals: Preservice elementary teachers' performance and beliefs. Journal of Mathematics Behavior, 7, 263-280.
  • Graeber, A., Tirosh, D. & Glover, R. (1986). Preservice teachers' beliefs and performance on measurement and partitive division problems. In: G. Lappen & R. Even (Eds.) Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Psychology of Mathematics Education North America Conference. East Lansing, MI.
  • Grossnickle, Foster E. (1941). Types of errors in division of decimals. The Elementary School Journal, 42(3), 184-194
  • Harel, G., Behr, M., Post, T., & Lesh, R. (1994). The impact of number type on the solution of multiplication and division problems: Further considerations. In G. Harel & J. Confrey (Eds.), The development of multiplicative reasoning in the learning of mathematics (pp. 365-388). Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
  • Hayes, R. L. (1998). Teaching Negative Number Operations. Doctor of Education Thesis, University of Melbourne.
  • Hiebert, J. & Tonnessen, L.H. (1978). Development of the fraction concept in two physical contexts: An exploratory investigation. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 9, 374-378. (Cataloging of decimal misconceptions)
  • Hiebert, J. (1992). Mathematical, cognitive, and instructional analyses of decimal fractions. Chapter 5 in Analysis of arithmetic for mathematics teaching. Lawrence Erlbaum. 283-322.
  • Hiebert, J., & Wearne, D. (1985). Procedures over concepts: The acquisition of decimal number knowledge. In J. Hiebert (Ed.), Conceptual and procedural knowledge: the case of mathematics (pp. 199-223). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Hiebert, J., & Wearne, D. (1986). Procedures over concepts: The acquisition of decimal number knowledge. In J. Hiebert (Ed.), Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge: The Case of Mathematics (pp. 199-223). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Hiebert, J., Wearne, D., & Taber, S. (1991). Fourth graders' gradual construction of decimal fractions during instruction using different physical representations. The Elementary School Journal, 91(4), 321-341.
  • Irwin, K.C. (2001). Using everyday knowledge of decimals to enhance understanding. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 32(4), 399-420.
  • Isotani, S., McLaren, B.M., &  Altman, M. (2010). Towards intelligent tutoring with erroneous examples: A taxonomy of decimal misconceptions.  In V. Aleven, J. Kay, J. Mostow (Eds.), Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS-2010). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 6094 (pp. 346-348). Berlin: Springer.   [ pdf ]
  • Liu, Man-Li (2003). Study of students' decimal concepts from decimal symbol issues. Pingdong Normal College Journal(18), 459-494.
  • Owens, D., & Super, D. (1993). Teaching and learning decimal fractions. In D. Owens (Ed.), Research Ideas for the Classroom: Middle Grade Mathematics (pp. 137-158). New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Co.
  • Prediger, S. (2008). The relevance of didactic categories for analysing obstacles in conceptual change: Revisiting the case of multiplication of fractions. Learning and Instruction, 18(1), 1-15.
  • Putt, I. J. (1995). Preservice teachers ordering of decimal numbers: When more is smaller and less is larger! Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 17(3), 1-15.
  • Resnick, L. B., Nesher, P., Leonard, F., Magone, M., Omanson, S., & Peled, I. (1989). Conceptual bases of arithmetic errors: The case of decimal fractions. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 20(1), 8-27.
  • Rittle-Johnson, B. & Koedinger, K. R. (2002). Comparing instructional strategies for integrating conceptual and procedural knowledge. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting [of the] North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, 969-978.
  • Sackur-Grisvard, C., & Leonard, F. (1985). Intermediate cognitive organizations in the process of learning a mathematical concept: The order of positive decimal numbers. Cognition and Instruction, 2, 157-174.
  • Stacey, K., & Steinle, V. (1999). A Longitudinal study of children's thinking about decimals: A preliminary analysis. Paper presented at the 23rd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Haifa, Israel.
  • Stacey, K. & Steinle, V. (1998). Refining the classification of students' interpretations of decimal notation. Hiroshima Journal of Mathematics Education, 6, 49-69.
  • Stacey, K., Helme, S., & Steinle, V. (2001). Confusions between decimals, fractions and negative numbers: A consequence of the mirror as a conceptual metaphor in three different ways. In M. v. d. Heuvel-Panhuizen (Ed.), Proceedings of the 25th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (Vol. 4, pp. 217-224). Utrecht: PME.
  • Stacey, K., Helme, S., Steinle, V., Baturo, A., Irwin, K., & Bana, J. (2001). Preservice teachers' knowledge of difficulties in decimal numeration. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 4(3),205-25.
  • Standiford, S. N., Klein, M. F., & Tatsuoka, K. K. (1982). Decimal fraction arithmetic: Logical Error Analysis and Its validation. Research report - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
  • Steinle, V., & Stacey, K. (1998a). Students and decimal notation: Do they see what we see? Paper presented at the Thirty-fifth Annual Conference of the Mathematical Association of Victoria. The Mathematical Association of Victoria, Brunswick, Vic.
  • Steinle, V. & Stacey, K. (1998). The incidence of misconceptions of decimal notation amongst students in grades 5 to 10. In C. Kanes, M. Goos and E. Warren (Eds), Teaching Mathematics in New Times. Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of MERGA, (2) 548-555. Brisbane: MERGA.
  • Steinle, V. (2004). Detection and remediation of decimal misconceptions. In B. Tadich, S. Tobias, C. Brew, B. Beatty, & P. Sullivan (Eds.), Towards Excellence in Mathematics (pp. 460-478). Brunswick: The Mathematical Association of Victoria.
  • Swan, M. (1983). Teaching decimal place value: A comparative study of "conflict" and "positive only" approaches. Nottingham: Shell Centre for Mathematical Education.
  • Thipkong, S. & Davis, E.J. (1991). Preservice teacher's misconceptions in interpreting and applying decimals. School Science and Mathematics, 9, 93-99. (Considerable difficult that both adults and children have difficulty with decimals; A catalog of decimal misconceptions)
  • Woodward, J., Baxter, J., & Robinson, R. (1999). Rules and reasons: Decimal Instruction for academically low achieving students. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 14(1), 15-24
Math Education - Relevant General Work about Mathematics Learning
  • Brown, J.S. & Burton, R.R. (1978). Diagnostic models for procedural bugs in basic mathematical skills. Cognitive Science, 2, 155-192.
  • Brown, J.S. & VanLehn, K. (1980). Repair Theory: A generative theory of bugs in Procedural Skills. Cognitive Science, 4, 379-426.
  • Brown, J.S. & VanLehn, K. (1982). Towards a generative theory of "bugs." In T.P. Carpenter, J.M. Moser, & T.A. Romberg (Eds.), Addition and Subtraction: A Cognitive Perspective (pp. 117-135). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Curtis, D.A., Heller, J.I., Clarke, C., Rabe-Hesketh, S., & Ramirez, A. (2009). The impact of math pathways and pitfalls on students' mathematics achievement. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA)
  • Eryilmaz, A. (2002). Effects of conceptual assignments and conceptual change discussions on students' misconceptions and achievement regarding force and motion. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 39(10), 1001-10015.
  • Greeno, J.G. (1980). Analysis of understanding in problem solving. In R.H. Kluwe & H. Spada (Eds.), Developmental Models of Thinking (pp. 199-212). New York: Academic Press.
  • Rittle-Johnson, B., Siegler, R.S., & Alibali, M.W. (2001). Developing conceptual understanding and procedural skill in mathematics: An iterative process. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(2), 346-362.
  • Silver, E.A. (1986). Using conceptual and procedural knowledge: A focus on relationships. In J. Hiebert (Ed.), Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge: The Case of Mathematics (pp. 181-198). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Correct Worked Examples
  • Atkinson, R.K., Derry, S.J., Renkl, A., & Wortham, D. (2000). Learning from examples: Instructional principles from the worked examples research. Review of Educational Research, 70(2), 181-214.
  • Catrambone, R. (1994). Improving examples to improve transfer to novel problems. Memory & Cognition, 22, 606-615.
  • Catrambone, R. (1998). The subgoal learning model: Creating better examples so that students can solve novel problems. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 1998, Vol. 127, No. 4, 355-376.
  • Chi, M.T.H., Bassok, M., Lewis, M.W., Reimann, P., & Glaser, R. (1989). Self explanations: How students study and use examples in learning to solve problems. Cognitive Science, 13, 145-182.
  • Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P., Tuovinen, J., & Sweller, J. (2001). When problem solving is superior to studying worked examples. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 579-588.
  • Kalyuga, S. & Sweller, J. (2004). Measuring Knowledge to Optimize Cognitive Load Factors During Instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 96, No. 3, 558 -568
  • McLaren, B.M., Lim, S., & Koedinger, K.R. (2008). When and how often should worked examples be given to students? New results and a summary of the current state of research. In B. C. Love, K. McRae, & V. M. Sloutsky (Eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2176-2181). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
  • McLaren, B.M., Lim, S., Gagnon, F., Yaron, D., & Koedinger, K.R. (2006). Studying the effects of personalized language and worked examples in the context of a web-based intelligent tutor; In the Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS-2006). Jhongli, Taiwan, June 26-30. (p. 318-328).
  • Paas, F. & Van Merrienboer, J.J.G. (1994). Variability of worked examples and transfer of geometrical problem-solving skills: A cognitive-load approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(1), 122-133.
  • Renkl, A. (1997). Learning from worked-out examples: A study on individual differences. Cognitive Science, 21, 1-29.
  • Schwonke, R., Wittwer, J., Aleven, V., Salden, R.J.C.M., Krieg, C., & Renkl, A. (2007). Can tutored problem solving benefit from faded worked-out examples? Proceedings of the 2nd European Cognitive Science Conference (pp. 59-64).
  • Schworm, S. & Renkl, A. (2002). Learning by solved example problems: Instructional explanations reduce self-explanation activity. In W. D. Gray and C. D. Schunn, editors, 24th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, pages 816-821. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Sweller, J. and Cooper, G.A. (1985). The use of worked examples as a substitute for problem solving in learning algebra. Cognition and Instruction, 2, 59-89.
  • Trafton, J.G. & Reiser, B.J. (1993). The contributions of studying examples and solving problems to skill acquisition. Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1017-1022).
  • van Gog, T., Kester, L. & Paas, F. (submitted). Effectiveness of different example-based learning strategies: Should worked examples be alternated with problems and how? Submitted for publication.
  • Zhu, X., and H.A. Simon (1987). Learning mathematics from examples and by doing. Cognition and Instruction 4 (3): 137-66.
Adaptation in Tutoring or Learning Systems
  • Boneh, T. Nicholson, A., Sonenberg, L., Stacey, K., & Steinle, V. (2003). Decsys: An intelligent tutoring system for decimal numeration. Technical Report 134, School of CSSE, Monash University, Australia.
  • Evangelos, T., Andreas, P., & Stavros, D. (2003). The design and the formative evaluation of an adaptive educational system based on cognitive styles. Computers & Education, 41(1), 87-103.
  • Huang, T-H., Liu, Y.-C., & Shiu, C.-Y. (2008). Construction of an online learning system for decimal numbers through the use of cognitive conflict strategy. Computers & Education, 50, 61-76.
  • Kalyuga, S. (2009). Managing cognitive load in adaptive multimedia learning, Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.
  • Melis, E., Budenbender, J., Andres, E., Frischauf, A., Goguadze, G., Libbrecht, P., Pollet, M. & Ullrich, C. (2001). ActiveMath: A generic and adaptive web-based learning environment. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Education, 12(4): 385-407.
  • Monthienvichienchai, R. & Melis, E. (2005). Implementing Courseware to Support Learning Through Real-World Erroneous Examples: Student's Perceptions of Tertiary Courseware and Obstacles to Implementing Effective Delivery Through VLE, In D. Remenyi (ed). Proceedings of European Conference on eLearning (ECEL-2005), (pp. 281-289). Academic Conferences International.
  • Stacey, K., Sonenberg, E., Nicholson, A., Boneh, T., & Steinle, V. (2003), A teacher model exploiting cognitive conflict driven by a bayesian network. In Peter Brusilovsky, Albert T. Corbett, Fiorella De Rosis (Eds), User Modeling 2003: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference. (pp. 352-362) New York: Springer-Verlag (ISBN 3540403817).
  • Stacey, K. & Flynn, J. (2003) Evaluating an adaptive computer system for teaching about decimals: Two case studies. In V. Aleven, U. Hoppe, J. Kay, R. Mizoguchi, H.Pain, F. Verdejo, K. Yacef (Eds) AI-ED2003 Supplementary Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education. (pp 454-460), Sydney: University of Sydney.
Games for Learning Decimals
  • Boneh, T. Nicholson, A., Sonenberg, L., Stacey, K., & Steinle, V. (2003). Decsys: An intelligent tutoring system for decimal numeration. Technical Report 134, School of CSSE, Monash University, Australia.
  • Klawe, M. (1998). When does the use of computer games and other interactive multimedia software help students learn mathematics? In: NCTM Standards 2000 Technology Conference.
  • McIntosh, J., Stacey, K., Tromp, C., & Lightfoot, D. (2000). Designing constructivist computer games for teaching about decimal numbers. In Bana, J., Chapman, A. (eds) Mathematics Education Beyond 2000. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Mathematics Research Group of Australasia, Freemantle (2000). 409-416.
  • Stacey, K. & Flynn, J. (2003) Evaluating an adaptive computer system for teaching about decimals: Two case studies. In V. Aleven, U. Hoppe, J. Kay, R. Mizoguchi, H.Pain, F. Verdejo, K. Yacef (Eds) AI-ED2003 Supplementary Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education. (pp 454-460), Sydney: University of Sydney.
Erroneous Examples in Science Learning
  • Alvermann, D. E., & Hague, S. A. (1989). Comprehension of counterintuitive science text: Effects of prior knowledge and text structure. Journal of Educational Research, 82, 197-202. (See Siegler and Durkin/Rittle-Johnson papers for relevance)
  • Eryilmaz, A. (2002). Effects of Conceptual Assignments and Conceptual Change Discussions on Students' Misconceptions and Achievement Regarding Force and Motion. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 39(10), 1001-10015. (See Siegler and Durkin/Rittle-Johnson papers for relevance)
  • Hagen, R. & Sonenberg, E.A. (1993). Automated classification of student misconceptions in physics. In C. Rowles, H. Liu, and N. Foo (eds.), Proceedings of the 1993 Australian Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, AI'93, pp 153-159. World Scientific, 1993.
  • Sleeman, D. (1984). Mis-generalisation: An explanation of observed mal-rules. In Proceedings of the 6th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, pp. 51-56.
  • Van den Broek, P., & Kendeou, P. (2008). Cognitive processes in comprehension of science texts: The role of co-activation in confronting misconceptions. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22, 335-351. (See Siegler and Durkin/Rittle-Johnson papers for relevance)
(Possibly) Relevant Collaborative Learning Literature
  • Schwarz, B.B., Neuman, Y., Biezuner, S. (2000). Two wrongs may make a right ... if they argue together! Cognition and Instruction. 18, 461-494.
  • Schwarz, B.B. & Linchevski, L. (2007). The role of task design and argumentation in cognitive development during peer interaction: The case of proportional reasoning. Learning and Instruction. 17, 510-531.
  • Ellis, S., Klahr, D., & Siegler, R.S. (1993). Effects of feedback and collaboration on changes in children's use of mathematical rules. Paper presented at the meetings of the Society for Research in Child Development, New Orleans, March, 1993.
  • Light, P. & Glachan, M. (1985). Facilitation of individual problem solving through peer interaction. Educational Psychology 5, 217-225.
  • Walker, E., Rummel, N., & Koedinger, K. R. (2009). CTRL: A research framework for providing adaptive collaborative learning support. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, 19(5), 387-431. (Some evidence of Tutor learning from the Tutee's errors.)
Open Repositories - the PSLC DataShop
  • Koedinger, K.R., Baker, R.S.J.d., Cunningham, K., Skogsholm, A., Leber, B., Stamper, J. (2010) A Data Repository for the EDM community: The PSLC DataShop. In Romero, C., Ventura, S., Pechenizkiy, M., Baker, R.S.J.d. (Eds.) Handbook of Educational Data Mining. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.