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Natural Language Processing (NLU, NLG, Parsing, Morphology, Machine Translation ...)


   bookcode/  Machine readable parts of various NLP textbooks.
   corpora/   Natural Language Corpora and Dictionaries
   discours/  Discourse Structure
   doc/       Information about Natural Language Processing
   faq/       NLP FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) 
              postings for
   fonts/     Fonts for Natural Language Processing
   misc/      Miscellaneous Natural Language Processing 
   morph/     Morphology
   mt/        Machine Translation
   nlg/       Natural Language Generation
   nli/       Natural Language Interfaces
   nlp/       Natural Language Processing Newsgroup Archives
   nlu/       Natural Language Understanding
   parsing/   Parsing
This directory contains natural language processing software and related materials. Topics include natural language understanding, natural language generation, parsing, and morphology.
References: Gazdar, G. and Mellish, C., "Natural Language Processing in Lisp: An Introduction to Computational Linguistics", Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1989. (There are three different editions of the book, one for Lisp, one for Prolog, and one for Pop-11.) Michael A. Covington, "Natural Language Processing for Prolog Programmers", Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1994. ISBN 0-13-629213-5. Grosz, Barbara J., Sparck-Jones, Karen, and Webber, Bonnie L., "Readings in Natural Language Processing", Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Los Altos, CA, 1986, 664 pages. ISBN 0-934613-11-7, $44.95. Robert C. Berwick, "Computational Linguistics", MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1989, ISBN 0262-02266-4. Brady, Michael, and Berwick, Robert C., "Computational Models of Discourse", MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1983. Klaus K. Obermeier, "Natural Language Processing Technologies in Artificial Intelligence: The Science and Industry Perspective", John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1989. Allen, James F., "Natural Language Understanding", The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Menlo Park, California, (Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, Massachusetts), 1988, 550 pages, ISBN 0-8053-0330-8. [A new edition is forthcoming.] Code for the book is available from Terry Winograd, "Language as a Cognitive Process", Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1983. Schank, R. and Abelson, R. "Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understanding," Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, New Jersey, 1977. David Crystal, "A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics", 3rd Edition, Basil Blackwell Publishers, New York, 1991. Tomita, M. (Editor), "Current Issues in Parsing Technology", Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA, 1991. Tomita, M., "An Efficient Context-Free Parsing Algorithm", Computational Linguistics 13:31-46, 1987. Marcus, M. "A Theory of Syntactic Recognition for Natural Language," The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1980. Pereira, F. and Sheiber, S. "Prolog and Natural-Language Analysis," Center for the Study of Language and Information, 1987. Dick Grune and Ceriel J.H. Jacobs, "Parsing Techniques -- A Practical Guide", Ellis Horwood, Chichester, England, 1990. 320 pages, ISBN 0-13-651431-6. [Covers most parsing algorithms and includes an extensive annotated bibliography.] For more information, see or Wright, J., "LR Parsing of Probabilistic Grammars with Input Uncertainty for Speech Recognition", Computer Speech and Language 4:297-323, 1990. Ted Briscoe and John Carroll, "Generalised Probabilistic LR Parsing of Natural Language (Corpora) with Unification-based Grammars", University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory, Technical Report Number 224, 1991. Zhi Biao Wu, Loke Soo Hsu, and Chew Lim Tan, "A Survey of Statistical Approaches to Natural Language Processing", Technical report TRA4/92, Department of Information Systems and Computer Science, National University of Singapore, 1992 E. Charniak, "Passing Markers: A Theory of Contextual Influence in Language Comprehension", Cognitive Science, 7:171-190, 1983. Bertram C. Bruce, "Case systems for natural language", Artificial Intelligence 6:327-360, 1975. Yorick Wilks, "A Preferential, Pattern-Seeking, Semantics For Natural Language Inference", Artificial Intelligence, 6:53-74, 1975. Dyer, M. "In-Depth Understanding: A Computer Model of Integrated Processing for Narrative Comprehension," MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1983. Aravind Joshi, Bonnie Webber and Ivan Sag, "Elements of Discourse Understanding", Cambridge University Press, New York, 1981. Grosz, Barbara J. and Sidner, Candace L., "Attention, Intention, and the Structure of Discourse", Computational Linguistics 12(3):175-204, 1986. Cohen, P. R., Morgan, J. and Pollack, M., editors, "Intentions in Communication", MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1990. Raymond C. Perrault and Barbara J. Grosz, "Natural Language Interfaces", Annual Review of Computer Science, volume 1, J.F. Traub, editor, pages 435-452, Annual Reviews Inc., Palo Alto, CA, 1986. McKeown, Kathleen R. and Swartout, William R., "Language Generation and Explanation", in Zock, M. and Sabah, G., editors, Advances in Natural Language Generation, Volume 1, Pages 1-51, Ablex Publishing Company, Norwood, NJ, 1988. (Overview of the state of the art in natural language generation.) John Allen, Sharon Hunnicut and Dennis H. Klatt, "From Text to Speech: The MITalk System", Cambridge University Press, 1987. [Synthesis, precursor of DECtalk.] Frank Fallside and William A. Woods (editors), "Computer Speech Processing" Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1985. X. D. Huang, Y. Ariki and M. A. Jack, "Hidden Markov Models for Speech Recognition", Edinburgh University Press, 1990. [Analysis] A. Nejat Ince (editor), "Digital Speech Processing: Speech Coding, Synthesis, and Recognition", Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 1992. [Analysis and Synthesis] Dennis H. Klatt, "Review of Text-To-Speech Conversion for English", Journal of the Acoustic Society of America (JASA), 82(3):737-793, September 1987. [Synthesis. Seminal article; biased toward formant synthesis.] Kai-Fu Lee, "Automatic Speech Recognition: The Development of the SPHINX System", Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA, 1989. [Analysis] S. E. Levinson, L. R. Rabiner and M. M. Sondhi, "An Introduction to the Application of the Theory of Probabilistic Functions of a Markov Process to Automatic Speech Recognition" in Bell Syst. Tech. Journal 62(4):1035-1074, April 1983. [Analysis] R. P. Lippmann, "Review of Neural Networks for Speech Recognition", Neural Computation, 1(1):1-38, 1989. [Analysis] Douglas O'Shaughnessy, "Speech Communication: Human and Machine" Addison-Wesley, MA, 1987. [Analysis and Synthesis] Lawrence R. Rabiner and Ronald W. Schafer, "Digital Processing of Speech Signals", Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1978. [Analysis and Synthesis] Lawrence R. Rabiner and Biing-Hwang Juang, "Fundamentals of Speech Recognition", Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1993. ISBN 0-13-015157-2. [Analysis] Ronald W. Schafer and John D. Markel (editors), "Speech Analysis", IEEE Press, New York, 1979. [Analysis] Alex Waibel and Kai-Fu Lee (editors), "Readings in Speech Recognition" Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, CA, 1990, 680 pages. ISBN 1-55860-124-4, $49.95. [Analysis] Alex Waibel, "Prosody and Speech Recognition", Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, CA, 1988. [Analysis] W. John Hutchins and Harold L. Somers, "An Introduction to Machine Translation", Academic Press, San Diego, 1992. 362 pages, ISBN 0-123-62830-X. Bonnie J. Dorr, "Machine Translation: A View from the Lexicon" MIT Press, Cambridge, MA 1993. 408 pages, ISBN 0-262-04138-3 ($45). Kenneth Goodman and Sergei Nirenburg., editors, "The KBMT Project: A Case Study in Knowledge-Based Machine Translation", Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, CA, 1991. 331 pages, ISBN 1-558-60129-5, $34.95. The journal "Machine Translation" is the principle forum for current research. A review of MT systems on the market appeared in BYTE 18(1), January 1993. Gertjan van Noord, "Reversible Unification Based Machine Translation", COLING-90, pages 299-304, 1990. Tomek Strzalkowski, "Reversible logic grammars for natural language parsing and generation", Computational Intelligence 6(3):145-171, August 1990. Tomek Strzalkowski, editor, "Reversible Grammar in Natural Language Processing", Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993. Proceedings of the ACL Workshop on Reversible Grammar in Natural Language Processing, UC Berkeley, 1991. (See especially Remi Zajac's paper.) Vivian J. Cook, "Chomsky's Universal Grammar: An Introduction", Basil Blackwell Publisher, New York, 1988, 201 pages. Victoria Fromkin and Robert Rodman, "An Introduction to Language", Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York, 4th edition, 1988, 474 pages. Ralph Grishman, "Computational Linguistics: An Introduction", Cambridge University Press, New York, 1986, 193 pages. Liliane M.V. Haegeman, "Introduction to Government and Binding Theory", Basil Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, 1991, 618 pages. Michael A. K. Halliday, "An Introduction to Functional Grammar", Edward Arnold, London, 1985. Geoffrey C. Horrocks, "Generative Grammar", Longman, London, 1987, 339 pages. Andrew Radford, "Transformational Grammar: A First Course", Cambridge University Press, New York, 1988, 625 pages. CD-ROM: Prime Time Freeware for AI, Issue 1-1 Keywords: AI Software Packages, Corpora, Discourse, Machine Translation, Morphology, NLG, NLP, NLU, Natural Language Interfaces, Parsing, Software Packages
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