Calypso for Cozmo Vocabulary

The Calypso Language

Term Meaning
ruleAn instruction in the Calypso language. Rules have a WHEN part and a DO part.
tileA rectangular picture consisting of a graphic icon and a word. Tiles can be strung together to make rules.
NOT decoratorAn attachment to a tile that reverses its meaning, e.g., "NOT-blue" matches any object that is not blue.
predicateA test that can be true or false. The first tile in the WHEN part of a rule must be a predicate, such as "see" or "bumped".
conditionA specification of a situation that might be true, such as "see red cube". A condition begins with a predicate tile; it may also contain argument tiles. The WHEN half of a rule expresses a condition.
actionSomething a character can do. The first tile in the DO part of a rule must be an action, such as "move" or "say". It may be followed by argument tiles.
argumentA tile attached to a predicate or action that provides additional information. In the condition "see red cube", "red" and "cube" are arguments to the "see" predicate. Similarly, in "move toward it", "toward" and "it" are arguments to the "move" action.
pageCalypso programs are organized into pages numbered from 1 to 20. Each page contains a list of rules.
state machineA state machine is a way of organizing a complex program as a collection of nodes (states) and links (state transitions). In Calypso, each page is a state, and the "switch to page" action causes a transition to a new state.
scoreScores in Calypso have color names (e.g., the red score) and serve as variables. They can be used to count things.
LOS indicatorLine of Sight indicator. A line on the world map running from a character (typically Cozmo) to an object he is seeing, hearing, or feeling. Each rule with a see/hear/feel tile generates its own LOS indicator.
lawsThe Laws of Calypso explain how rules work. There are five major laws, and many minor ones. The First Law is: "Each rule picks the closest matching object."
idiomsAn idiom (or "design pattern") is a commonly used set of instructions that can be found in many programs. Some Calypso idioms have been collected into a deck of flash cards. The first Calypso idiom most students learn is "Let Me Drive".

The Cozmo Robot

Term Meaning
head Cozmo's head contains the display, camera, and speaker. It can tilt up and down.
display The display shows Cozmo's facial expressions.
camera The camera built in to Cozmo's head is what he uses to see the world. It's located at the bottom of the display, where his mouth would be if he had one.
liftThe U-shaped lever that Cozmo can raise or lower to pick up cubes.
treadsThe rubber tracks, driven by wheels, that Cozmo drives with.
chargerThe black plastic base that Cozmo rests in to recharge his battery.
light cubesThe three plastic cubes that are Cozmo's "toys". They can light up, and also sense when they are tapped or moved.
paperclipCube 1. Its marker resembles a paperclip.
anglepoise lampCube 2. Its marker resembles an Anglepoise lamp.
deli slicerCube 3. Its marker resembles a deli slicer.

The Gamepad Controller

Term Meaning
sticksThe left and right sticks (or "joysticks") are operated with the thumbs and provide smooth directional input. The left stick can be used to move the pencil or to drive Cozmo.
bumpersThe left and right bumpers (also called shoulder buttons) lie just above the triggers, and like the triggers, are operated with the index fingers.
shoulder buttonsAnother name for the bumpers.
triggersThe left and right triggers, located below the shoulder buttons, are operated with the index fingers. They are used in the rule editor to cut and paste.
A/B/X/Y buttonsThe A/B/X/Y buttons are operated with the right thumb and can serve various functions. The green A button is used to confirm inputs, like the Enter key on the keyboard.
D-padDirectional pad. The plus-shaped control below the left stick. The D-pad can be pushed in one of four directions: up, down, left, or right. It does not blend directions like the joysticks; it's actually four distinct buttons. It is used in the rule editor.
'back' buttonThe 'back' button is a tiny button located to the left of the large Xbox player button. It is used to start or stop Calypso programs.
'home' buttonThe 'home' button is a tiny button located to the right of the large Xbox player button. It is used to call up the Home Menu.

General Robotics

Term Meaning
robotA programmable machine that can sense the world and carry out actions.
perceptionThe ability to become aware of the world through the senses, such as sight or hearing.
sensorA device that measures some physical property such as light, heat, sound, or vibration.
actuatorA part of a machine that causes controlled movement. Cozmo's head, lift, and wheels are moved by actuators called 'servos', which is short for 'servo motor'.
speech recognitionThe ability of a computer to understand spoken words sensed by a microphone.
text to speechSpeech generation: the ability of a computer to turn printed words into a stream of sound with proper pronunciation and phrasing.
computer visionThe ability of a computer to recognize objects in images, typically coming from a video camera. These might include objects (such as the light cubes), faces, or custom markers.
face recognitionThe ability to recognize specific faces in an image. This is more a difficult problem than 'face detection', which doesn't distinguish between different faces.
field of viewThe area in front of a camera that is visible to the camera. Field of view is often measured in degrees. For a robot or webcam a typical horizontal field of view is about 60 degrees.
markerA distinctive pattern that can be recognized by computer vision. The designs on Cozmo's light cubes are markers, as are the custom markers that come on adhesive stickers, and the ArUco markers on the walls in Cozmo's clubhouse. QR codes, and the UPC symbols printed on merchandise, are also markers.
teleoperationRemote operation of a robot or device by a human. Compare with 'autonomy'. Cozmo can be teleoperated with the game controller if the program includes the Let Me Drive idiom.
autonomyThe ability to operate independently, without human intervention. Self-driving cars are autonomous vehicles. Cozmo can operate autonomously if he has rules that tell him what to do and we're not overriding them with the gamepad.

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