J. R. Driscoll, N. Sarnak, D. D. Sleator, R. E. Tarjan, Making Data Structures Persistent, Journal of Computer and System Sciences, Vol. 38, No. 1, 1989
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This paper is a study of persistence in data structures. Ordinary data structures are ephemeral in the sense that a change to the structure destroys the old version, leaving only the new version available for use. In contrast, a persistent structure allows access to any version, old or new, at any time. We develop simple, systematic, and effiient techniques for making linked data structures persistent. We use our techniques to devise persistent forms of binary search trees with logarithmic access, insertion, and deletion times and O(1) space bounds for insertion and deletion.