Interleaving Planning and Robot Execution
for Asynchronous User Requests

Karen Zita Haigh and Manuela M. Veloso,

Computer Science Department, Carnegie Mellon University

Invited submission to Autonomous Robots, 5(1):79-95, March 1998.

ROGUE is an architecture built on a real robot which provides algorithms for the integration of high-level planning, low-level robotic execution, and learning. ROGUE addresses successfully several of the challenges of a dynamic office gopher environment. This article presents the techniques for the integration of planning and execution.

ROGUE uses and extends a classical planning algorithm to create plans for multiple interacting goals introduced by asynchronous user requests. ROGUE translates the planner's actions to robot execution actions and monitors real world execution. ROGUE is currently implemented using the ROGUE planner and the Xavier robot. This article describes how plans are created for multiple asynchronous goals, and how task priority and compatibility information is used to achieve appropriate efficient execution. We describe how ROGUE communicates with the planner and the robot to interleave planning with execution so that the planner can replan for failed actions, identify the actual outcome of an action with multiple possible outcomes, and take opportunities from changes in the environment.

ROGUE represents a successful integration of a classical artificial intelligence planner with a real mobile robot.

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  • This paper is a thoroughly revised and combined version of several workshop and conference proceedings: Agents 97, IROS 96, AAAI FS 96, and AAAI Workshop.
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