|Introduction, Discussion of Projects||
Overview of Evaluation Techniques
Hodgins, J. K., O'Brien, J. F., Tumblin, J., Perception of Human Motion with Different Geometric Models. IEEE: Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, December 1998, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 307-316.
Jason Harrison, Ron Rensink, and Michiel van de Panne, Obscuring Length Changes During Animated Motion. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 23(3), Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2004.
Comparing Humanoid Robot Motion to Human Motion: Stuart Anderson
Biped gait transitions Hodgins, J. K. Robotics and Automation, 1991. Proceedings., 1991 IEEE International Conference on 9-11 April 1991 Page(s):2092 - 2097 vol.3
Measurement and comparison of human and humanoid walking Kagami, S. Mochimaru, M. Ehara, Y. Miyata, N. Nishiwaki, K. Kanade, T. Inoue, H. Proceedings, 2003 IEEE International Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation, 2003. Volume: 2, pp918- 922.
We suggest that you read the intro and then skip to section 3 if you don't have the background for the earlier sections.
Focus on the air jet example:
Spacetime constraints. Andrew Witkin, Michael Kass June 1988 ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics , Proceedings of the 15th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques SIGGRAPH '88, Volume 22 Issue 4
Synthesizing physically realistic human motion in low-dimensional, behavior-specific spaces. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), 2004. 23(3), 514 - 521.
Finish discussing potential project topics
Automated extraction and parameterization of motions in large data sets Kovar, L. and Gleicher, M. 2004. ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 3 (Aug. 2004), 559-568.
Verbs and adverbs: multidimensional motion interpolation Rose, C., Cohen, M.F., Bodenheimer, B., IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 1998 18(5), 32 - 40.
Resequencing motion clips
Motion graphs Kovar, L., Gleicher, M., and Pighin, F. 2002. ACM Trans. Graph. 21, 3.
Interactive motion generation from examples Arikan, O. and Forsyth, D. A. 2002. ACM Trans. Graph. 21, 3.
Project proposals due (1 page or 2 pages at most)
Animating human athletics Jessica K. Hodgins, Wayne L. Wooten, David C. Brogan, and James F. O'Brien. SIGGRAPH 1995.
Dynamic response for motion capture animation Victor Brian Zordan, Anna Majkowska, Bill Chiu, and Matthew Fast. SIGGRAPH 2005.
Gaze: Bilge Mutlu
Some functions of gaze direction in social interaction. Kendon, A. Acta Psychologica, 26: 22-63, 1967.
note: requires webiso authentication
Where to look: A study of human-robot engagement. Candy L. Sidner, Cory Kidd, Christopher Lee, and Neal Lesh. In Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI), pages 78–84, Funchal, Island of Madeira, Portugal, January 2004.
||no class -- jkh out of town||February 28
Style 1: Ronit Slyper
Emotion from Motion Kenji Amaya, Armin Bruderlin, and Tom Calvert. Graphics Interface 1996.
Style Translation for Human Motion Eugene Hsu, Kari Pulli, Jovan Popovic. SIGGRAPH 2005.
Recognizing friends by their walk: Gait perception without familiarity cues. Cutting and Kozlowski, Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 1977 9(5), 353-356.
Style 1: Katya Mirochnik
Style-Based Motion Synthesis Raquel Urtasun, Pascal Glardon, Ronan Boulic, Daniel Thalmann, Pascal Fua. Computer Graphics Forum. 23(4), pp. 799-812, 2004.
Style-based Inverse Kinematics Keith Grochow, Steven L. Martin, Aaron Hertzmann, Zoran Popovic. ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2004), 2004.
Learning Physics-based Motion Style with Nonlinear Inverse Optimization Liu, C. K., Hertzmann, A. and Popovic, Z. ACM SIGGRAPH 2005.
Introduction to the IRB
Carnegie Mellon's instructions
The EMOTE Model for Effort and Shape Diane M. Chi, Monica Costa, Liwei Zhao, Norman I. Badler. Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2000. pp. 173-182, 2000. Paper available here
Speaking with Hands: Creating Animated Conversational Characters from Recordings of Human Performance, 2004. Matthew Stone, Doug DeCarlo, Insuk Oh, Christian Rodriguez, Adrian Stere, Alyssa Lees, Chris Bregler. SIGGRAPH 2004.
Design of Experiments -- Guest Speaker: Sara Kiesler
The Utility of Affect Expression in Natural Language Interactions in Joint Human-Robot Tasks 2005. Matthias Scheutz, Paul Schermerhorn, and James Kramer. HRI Conference.
||spring break -- no class||spring break -- no class||March 21
Anatomical Models: Mike Lentine
SCAPE: Shape Completion and Animation of People D. Anguelov, P. Srinivasan, D. Koller, S. Thrun, J. Rodgers, J. Davis, SIGGRAPH 2005
Continuous Capture of Skin Deformation Peter Sand, Leonard McMillan, Jovan Popovic ACM Transactions on Graphics 22(3), 2003, pages 578-586
IRB tests and proposals due
Biomechanical Models: James McCann
Josh Hale's PhD Thesis (for background)
Read pages 38-42 and 47-55
Signal Dependent Noise
Making Faces Henrique Malvar; Brain Guenter; Cindy Grimm; Daniel Wood; Fredrick Pighin SIGGRAPH 1998.
Spacetime Faces: High-Resolution Capture for Modeling and Animation. Zhang, Li, Snavely, Noah, Curless, Brian, Seitz, Steven M.. ACM Transactions on Graphics 23(3), July 2004.
Psychophysical evaluation of animated facial expressions. Wallraven, C., M. Breidt, D. Cunningham and H. Bulthoff. Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization, 17 - 24, ACM Press, New York, NY, USA (08 2005)
Automatic Determination of Facial Muscle Activations from Sparse Motion Capture Marker Data Sifakis, E., Neverov, I. and Fedkiw, R., SIGGRAPH 2005, ACM TOG 24, 417-425 (2005).
Dance: Octavio Juarez-Espinosa
Rhythmic-Motion Synthesis Based on Motion-Beat Analysis Tae-hoon Kim, Sang Il Park, Sung Yong Shin. ACM Transactions on Graphics. 22(3), pp. 392-401, 2003.
Learning Silhouette Features for Control of Human Motion 2005. Liu Ren, Gregory Shakhnarovich, Jessica Hodgins, Hanspeter Pfister and Paul Viola. ACM Transactions on Graphics, Vol.24(4), October, 2005.
Group Motion Graphs. 2005 Yu-Chi Lai, Stephen Chenney, ShaoHua Fan. 2005 ACM SIGGRAPH / Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation. pp. 281-290, 2005.
Synthesis and evaluation of linear motion transitions
Guest speaker: Bobby Bodenheimer
Wang/Bodenheimer paper sent via email
Motion Synthesis by Example Alexis Lamouret and Michiel van de Panne, Eurgraphics Workshop on Computer Animation and Simulation, 1996
Motion Texture: A Two-Level Statistical Model for Character Motion Synthesis Yan Li, Tianshu Wang, Heung-Yeung Shum. ACM Transactions on Graphics. 21(3), pp. 465-472, 2002.
A Data-Driven Approach to Quantifying Natural Human Motion Liu Ren, Alton Patrick, Alexei A. Efros, Jessica K. Hodgins, James M. Rehg, ACM Transactions on Graphics (SIGGRAPH 2005), Vol. 24(3), 1090-1097, August, 2005.
Introduction to fMRI
Guest Speaker: Svetlana V Shinkareva
fMRI background reading
fMRI for understanding the perception of animation
Brain areas involved in perception of biological motion. Grossman, E., Donnelly, M., Price, R., Pickens, D., Morgan, V., Neighbor, G., et al. (2000). J Cogn Neurosci, 12(5), 711-720.
Brain Activity Evoked by the Perception of Human Walking: Controlling for Meaningful Coherent Motion. Kevin A. Pelphrey, Teresa V. Mitchell, Martin J. McKeown, Jeremy Goldstein, Truett Allison, and Gregory McCarthy. The Journal of Neuroscience, July 30, 2003 23(17):68196825
Transitions and Motion Graphs: Charles Pratt
Realistic Synthesis of Novel Human Movements from a Database of Motion Capture Examples Tanco and Hilton. Proceeding of the IEEE Workshop on Human Motion. 2000.
Interactive Control of Avatars Animated With Human Motion Data Jehee Lee, Jinxiang Chai, Paul S. A. Reitsma, Jessica K. Hodgins, Nancy S. Pollard. ACM Transactions on Graphics. 21(3), pp. 491-500, 2002.
Efficient Generation of Motion Transitions using Space-time Constraints Rose, Guenter, Bodenheimer, and Cohen, SIGGRAPH '96.
|no class -- carnival||April 25
The Uncanny Valley
Mori's original paper (translated from Japanese). 1970.
Mori's recent comments on the Humaniods Uncanny Valley workshop 2005
Android Science: Toward a new cross-interdisciplinary framework Hiroshi Ishiguro.
Androids as an Experimental Apparatus: Why is there an Uncanny Valley and can we exploit it? Karl MacDorman. Draft submitted to The Cognitive Science Socity, 2006.
Retargeting: Ting Ting Wu
Using an intermediate skeleton and inverse Kinematics for Motion Retargeting. Eurographics 2000. Monzani, Baerlocher, Boulic, and Thalmann.
Retargeting Motion to New Characters Michael Gleicher. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 98. pp. 33-42, 1998.
Online Motion Retargeting Choi and Ko. The Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation. 2000
Computer Puppetry: An Importance-Based Approach Hyun Joon Shin, Jehee Lee, Michael Gleicher, Sung Yong Shin. ACM Transactions on Graphics. 20(2), pp. 67-94, 2001.
|Luis Sentis at 10am in NSH 3305||
Video Games with Human Characters and the Interfaces used to Control them (Jim McCann)
||Final Exam Slot May 15th 8:30-11:30am||
May 15th 8:30-11:30 Final Presentations
Measures of Immersion
Oesker, Hecht, and Jung. 2000. Psychological evidence for unconscious processing of detail in real-time animation of multiple character. Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation 11, 105-112.
Papers from workshop at Humanoids
The Process of Motion Capture: Dealing with the Data
Bodenheimer, Rose, Rosenthal, and Pella. EGCAS 1997.
Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation and Video Games.
A. Menache. 2000.
Automatic Joint Parameter Estimation from Magnetic Motion Capture Data
O'Brien, Bodenheimer, Brostow, Hodgins
Local and Global Skeleton Fitting Techniques for Optical Motion Capture.
Silaghi, PLankers, Boulic, Fua, and Thalmann.
Modelling and Motion Capture Techniques for Virtual Environments. International Workshop, CAPTECH'98, Geneva, Switzerland, November 26-27, 1998, Proceedings (Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 1537)
Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann, Daniel Thalmann
Mapping Optical Motion Capture Data to Skeletal Motion using a Physical Model
Zordan and van der Horst
Processing Motion Capture Data to Achieve Positional Accuracy
Kwang-Jin Choi, Sanghyun Park and Hyeongseok Ko.
The Journal of Graphical Models and Image Processing, 260--273, 1999
Footskate Cleanup for Motion Capture Editing
Kovan, Schreiner, and Gleicher. SCA 2002.
Witkin and Popovic
Synthesizing Animatable Body Models with Parameterized Shape Modification
Seo, Cordier, Magnenat-Thalmann
Evaluating Video-based Motion Capture
Gleicher and Ferrier
Motion Editing with Spacetime Constraints
Comparing Constraint-based Motion Editing Methods
A Hierarchical Approach to Interactive Motion Editing for Humanlike Figures
Lee and Shin. SIGGRAPH 99.
Force-based Motion Editing for Locomotion Tasks
Pollard and Behmaram-Mosavat.
Physically based Motion Transformation
Popovic and Witkin.
Retargeting Motion to New Characters
Gleicher SIGGRAPH 98
Online Motion Retargeting
Choi and Ko.
The Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation. 2000
Interpolation Synthesis of Articulated Figure Motion
Wiley and Hahn. IEEE CG&A 1997.
Verbs and Adverbs: Multidimensional Motion Interpolation
Rose, Cohen, and Bodenheimer. IEEE CG&A 1998.
Flexible Automatic Motion Blending with Registration Curves
Kovar and Gleicher
Efficient Generation of Motion Transitions using Space-time Constraints
Rose, Guenter, Bodenheimer, and Cohen, SIGGRAPH '96.
Generation of Human Walking Motion with Emotion for Computer Animation
Unuma and Takeuchi. Proceedings of Computer Animation '91.
Fourier Principles for Emotion-based Human Figure Animation
Unuma, Anjyo, and Takeuchi. SIGGRAPH 1995.
Motion Signal Processing
Bruderlin and Williams.
On-line Locomotion Generation based on Motion Blending
Park, Shin, and Shin. SCA 2002.
Dynamics Filter - Concept and Implementation of On-Line Motion Generator for Human Figures
K. Yamane and Y. Nakamura,
Proc. of IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp.688-695, April 2000.
Realistic Synthesis of Novel Human Movements from a Database of Motion Capture
Tanco and Hilton. Proceeding of the IEEE Workshop on Human Motion. 2000.
Snap-Together Motion: Assembling Run-Time Animations
Gleicher, Shin, Kovar, Jepsen
Rhythmic-Motion Synthesis Based on Motion-Beat Analysis
Kim, Park, and Shin
Kovar, Gleicher, and Pighin SIGGRAPH 2002.
Interactive Motion Generation from Examples
Arikan and Forsyth SIGGRAPH 2002.
Interactive Control of Avatars Animated with Human Motion Data
Lee, Chai, Reitsman, Hodgins and Pollard. SIGGRAPH 2002.
Motion synthesis from Annotations
Arikan, Forsyth, and O'Brien, SIGRAPH 2003.
Straight Line Walking Animation Based on Kinematic Generalization that Preserves
the Original Characteristics. Ko and Badler. Graphics Interface 1993.
Automating Gait Generation
Sun and Metaxas
Synthesis of Complex Dynamic Character Motion from Simple Animations
Liu and Popovic
Motion Capture Assisted Animation: Texturing and Synthesis
Pullen and Bregler
Strength Guided Motion
Lee, Wei, Zhao, and Badler. SIGGRAPH '90.
Animating by Multi-level Sampling
Pullen and Bregler. IEEE Computer Animation Conference 2000.
Animating Human Locomotion in Real-time using Inverse Dynamics
IEEE CG&A. Ko and Badler. 1996.
VLOCO: Real-time Human Locomotion from Positional Input Streams. Ko and Cremer.
Presence 5(4) 1996.
Brand and Hertzmann
Motion Texture: A Two-Level Statistical Model for Character Motion Synthesis
Li, Wang, and Shum
Learning Variable-Length Markov Models of Behavior
Galata, Johnson, and Hoog.
Computer Vision and Image Processing. 2001.
Learning Statistical Models of Human Model Bowden.
IEEE Workshop on Human Modeling, Analysis, and Synthesis. CVPR 2000.
Motion capure-driven Simulation that Hit and React
Zordan and Hodgins, Symposium on Computer Animation 2002
A Dynamic Motion Control Technique for Human-like Articulated Figures
Oshita and Makinouchi. CGF 2001.
Physics-based Simulation of Running using Motion Capture. Playter.
Course notes SIGGRAPH 2000.
Tracking and Modifying Upper-body Human Motion Data with Dynamic Simulation.
Zordan and Hodgins
The Space of Human Body Shapes: Reconstruction and Parameterization from Range Scans
Allen, Curless, and Popovic. SIGGRAPH 2003.
Articulated Body Deformation from Range Scan Data
Allen, Curless, and Popovic. SIGGRAPH 2002
Continuous Capture of Skin Deformation
Sand, McMillan, and Popovic
Turning to the masters: Motion capturing cartoons.
Bregler, Loeb, Chuang, and
Deshpande. SIGGRAPH 2002.
Physically based anatomic Modeling for Construction of Muscleskeletal Systems.
Ng-Thow-Hing. SIGGRAPH 1999. *
Anatomy-based Modeling of the Human Musculature
Scheepers, Parent, Carlson, and May.
Computer Puppetry: An Importance-based Approach
Shin, Lee, and Shin
Presenting Movement in a Computer-Based Dance Tutor Sukel, Catrambone, Essa , Brostow, In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 15(3), 2003.
A Desktop Input Device and Interface for Interactive 3D Character Animation. S.Oore, D. Terzopoulos, G. Hinton, Graphics Interface 2002.
Layered Acting for Character Animation
Dontcheva, Yngve, Popovic
A Real-time Anatomical Converter for Human Motion Capture. Molet, Boulic, and Thalmann.
Computer Puppetry. Sturman. IEEE CGA 1998.
The use of Real-time Performance Animation in the Production Process. Benquey and Juppe.
ACM SIGGRAPH 1997: Course Notes.
On-line Motion Retargeting. Choi and Ko. J. Visual Computer Animation 11 2000.
Real-time Control of a Virtual Human using Minimal Sensors. Badler, Hollick, and
Granieri. 1993. Presence 2. *
Incremental tracking of human actions from multiple views Yamamoto, M et al, Proceedings of CVPR 1998, Page(s): 2-7.
Articulated Body Motion Capture by Annealed Particle Filtering.
Deutscher, Blake, Reid. CVPR 2000.
Efficient Generation of Motion Transitions using Space-time Constraints Rose, Guenter, Bodenheimer, and Cohen, SIGGRAPH '96.
Shape-From_Silhouette of Articulated Objects and its Use for Human Body Kinematics Estimation and Motion Capture,
German K.M. Cheung, S. Baker and T. Kanade
Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition 2003 (CVPR'03), Madison WI, June 2003.
Real-time Tracking of Highly Articulated Structures in the Presence of
Noisy Measurements. Drummond and Cipolla. ICV 2001
Articulated soft Objects for Video-based Body Modeling.
Plankers and Fua. ICCV 2001.
Implicit probabilistic models of human motion for synthesis and tracking,, Sidenbladh, H., Black, M. J., and Sigal, L., ECCV2002.
Vision-Based Control of 3D Facial Animation
Chai, Xiao, and Hodgins, SCA 2003
Reanimating the Dead: Reconstruction of Expressive Faces from Skull Data
Kahler, Haber, Seidel
Lee, Badler, Badler
Head shop: Generating Animated Head Models with Anatomical Structure.
Kahler, Haber, Yamauhi, Seidel
Shadow Puppetry. Brand. ICCV '99.
A Data-driven Model for Monocular Face Tracking. Gokturk, Bouguet, and Grzeszczuk.
IEEE ICCV 2001.
Resynthesizing Facial Animation through 3D Model-based Tracking. Pighin, Szeliski, and
Salesin. ICCV 1999.
Performance Driven Facial Animation. Williams. SIGGRAPH 1990.
Geometry-based Muscle Modeling for Facial Animation. Kahler, Haber, and Seidel.
Graphics Interfaces 2001.
Where to look? Automating Visual Attending Behavior of Virtual Human Characters.
Chopra-Khullar and Badler. 1999.
Making Faces. Guenter, Grimm, Wood, Malvar, and Pighin.
Construction and Animation of Anatomically Based Human Hands Models
Albrecht, Haber, and Seidel
EigenSkin: Real Time Large Deformation Character Skinning in Hardware.
Kry, James, and Pai. SCA 2002.
Computer Animation of Knowledge-based Human Grasping. Rijpkema and Girard.
Hand Gesture Animation from Static Postures using an Anatomy-based Model. Ip, Chan, Lam.
Proceedings Computer Graphics International 2000.
An Event-driven Approach to Crowd Simulation with Example Motions. Kim, Kim, Shin.
TR CS-TR-2002-186, KAIST.
Planning biped locomotion using motion capture data and probabilistic roadmaps Min Gyu Choi, Jehee Lee, Sung Yong Shin April 2003 ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), Volume 22 Issue 2
A Dynamic Optimization Solution for One Complete Cycle of Human Gait. Anderson
and Pandy. Proc. International Society of Biomechanics XVII Congress. 1999.
Optimum timing of muscle Activation for Simple Models of Throwing. Pandy and Zajac.
J. Biomechanics 23, 1990.
An Optimal Control Model of Maximum-height Human Jumping. Pandy and Zajac.
A Parameter Optimization Approach for the Optimal Control of Large-scalemusculoskeletal
Systems. Pandy, Anderson, and Hull. J of Biomech Eng. 1992.
From 3D Shape Capture to Animated Models. Hilton and Starck. Proceedings of
the First International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization and
Transmission (3DPVT 2002).
Using Skeleton-based tracking to Increase the Reliability of Optical Motion
Capture. Herda, Fua, Plankers, Boulic, and Thalmann. Human Movement Science Journal
Human Skin Deformation from Cross-sections. Jianhua, Magenate-Thalmann, Thalmann.
Computer Graphics International.
Human Body Model Acquisition and Tracking using Voxel Data. Mikic, Trivedi, Hunter, and Cosman. International Journal of Computer Vision.
The Emote Model for Effort and Shape Chi, Costa, and Zhao. SIGGRAPH 2000.
Separating Style and Content. Tenenbaum and Freeman. NIPS 1997.
Artist-directed Inverse Kinematics using Radial Basis Function Interpolation.
Rose, Sloan, and Cohen. Eurographics 2001.
Example Guided Inverse Kinematics.
Seyoon Tak and Hyeongseok Ko.
Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Graphics and Imaging (CGIM) 2000.
Knowledge-driven, interactive animation of Human Running. Bruderlin and Calvert.
GI 1996. *
Human Motion Capture Driven by Orientation
Molet, Boulic, and Thalmann
Presence, 187-203, 1999.
Using an intermediate skeleton and inverse Kinematics for Motion Retargeting.
Eurographics 2000. Monzani, Baerlocher, Boulic, and Thalmann. *
Processing motion capture data to achieve positional accuracy.
GMIP. 1999. *
Automated Learning of Muscle-Actuated Locomotion through Control Abstraction.
Grzeszczuk and Terzopoulos. SIGGRAPH 1995. *
Goal-directed, dynamic animation of Human Walking. Bruderlin and Calvert.
SIGGRAPH 1989. *
A morphable model for the synthesis of 3D faces. Blanz and Vetter. SIGGRAPH 1999. *
Pose Space Deformations: A Unified Approach to Shape Interpolation and Skeleton-Driven
Deformation. Lewis, Cordner, Fong. SIGGRAPH 2000. *
A High-level Control Mechanism for Human Locomotion based on Parametric Frame
Space Interpolation. Guo and Roberge. EGCAS 1996.
Data-driven Motion Transitions for Interactive Games. Mizuguchi, Buchanan, and Calvert.
Eurographics 2001 Short Presentation.
Motion Synthesis by Example. Lamouret and van de Panne. 1996. EGCAS.
Human Walking Animation based on Foot Reaction Force in the Three-Dimensional Virtual
World. Tsutsuguchi, Shimada, Suenaga, Sonehara, and Ohtsuka.
J. Visualization and Computer Animation. 2000.
Inverse kinematics positioning using nonlinear programming for highly articulated figures,
Zhao and Badler
ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG)
Volume 13, Issue 4 (October 1994)
Pages: 313 - 336
General Construction of Time-domain Filters for Orientation Data. Lee and Shin.
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 2002.
Multi-weight Enveloping: Least-Squares Approximation Techniques for Skin Animation.
Wang and Phillips SCA 2002.
Practial Optimization. Gill, Murray, and Wright. 1989 Academic Press.
Markov Chain Monte Carlo in Practice. Gilks and Richardson, Spiegelhalter. 1996.
Dynamic Programming and Optimal Control. Athena Scientific. Bertsekas. 2000.
A Tutorial on Hidden Markov Models and Selected Applications in Speech Recognition.
Rabiner. Proc. IEEE 1989.
Animating Rotation with Quaterenion Curves. Shoemake. SIGGRAPH 1985.
Parametric Hidden Markov Models for Gesture Recognition. Wilson and Bobick.
IEEE PAMI 1999.
System Indentification--Theory for the User. Ljung. Prentice Hall 1999.