Schedule for Spring 2006

This schedule is only approximate at this point. We'll adapt it based on the interests of the members of the class.


Week of Tuesday Thursday
January 17
Week 1
Introduction, Discussion of Projects Overview of Evaluation Techniques

Hodgins, J. K., O'Brien, J. F., Tumblin, J., Perception of Human Motion with Different Geometric Models. IEEE: Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, December 1998, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 307-316.
Jason Harrison, Ron Rensink, and Michiel van de Panne, Obscuring Length Changes During Animated Motion. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 23(3), Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2004.
Attention Movie
January 24
Week 2
Comparing Humanoid Robot Motion to Human Motion: Stuart Anderson

Biped gait transitions Hodgins, J. K. Robotics and Automation, 1991. Proceedings., 1991 IEEE International Conference on 9-11 April 1991 Page(s):2092 - 2097 vol.3

Measurement and comparison of human and humanoid walking Kagami, S. Mochimaru, M. Ehara, Y. Miyata, N. Nishiwaki, K. Kanade, T. Inoue, H. Proceedings, 2003 IEEE International Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation, 2003. Volume: 2, pp918- 922.
We suggest that you read the intro and then skip to section 3 if you don't have the background for the earlier sections.

Focus on the air jet example:
Spacetime constraints. Andrew Witkin, Michael Kass June 1988 ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics , Proceedings of the 15th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques SIGGRAPH '88, Volume 22 Issue 4

Synthesizing physically realistic human motion in low-dimensional, behavior-specific spaces. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), 2004. 23(3), 514 - 521.
January 31
Week 3
Finish discussing potential project topics


Automated extraction and parameterization of motions in large data sets Kovar, L. and Gleicher, M. 2004. ACM Trans. Graph. 23, 3 (Aug. 2004), 559-568.
Verbs and adverbs: multidimensional motion interpolation Rose, C., Cohen, M.F., Bodenheimer, B., IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 1998 18(5), 32 - 40.
Resequencing motion clips

Motion graphs Kovar, L., Gleicher, M., and Pighin, F. 2002. ACM Trans. Graph. 21, 3.
Interactive motion generation from examples Arikan, O. and Forsyth, D. A. 2002. ACM Trans. Graph. 21, 3.
February 7
Week 4
Project proposals due (1 page or 2 pages at most)
  • why is this a problem worth solving?
  • how are you going to approach the problem?
  • what previous work on you building on (most closely related only)
  • how are you going to evaluate your results?

Animating human athletics Jessica K. Hodgins, Wayne L. Wooten, David C. Brogan, and James F. O'Brien. SIGGRAPH 1995.
Dynamic response for motion capture animation Victor Brian Zordan, Anna Majkowska, Bill Chiu, and Matthew Fast. SIGGRAPH 2005.
Gaze: Bilge Mutlu

Some functions of gaze direction in social interaction. Kendon, A. Acta Psychologica, 26: 22-63, 1967.
note: requires webiso authentication
Where to look: A study of human-robot engagement. Candy L. Sidner, Cory Kidd, Christopher Lee, and Neal Lesh. In Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI), pages 78–84, Funchal, Island of Madeira, Portugal, January 2004.
February 14
Week 5
Project Pitches
  • Bilge Mutlu
  • James McCann
Project Pitches
  • Mike Lentine
  • Stuart Anderson
  • Ting Ting Wu
February 21
Week 6
Project Pitches
  • Ronit Slyper
  • Charles Pratt III
  • Octavio Juarez-Espinosa
  • Katya Mirochnik
no class -- jkh out of town
February 28
Week 7
Style 1: Ronit Slyper
Emotion from Motion Kenji Amaya, Armin Bruderlin, and Tom Calvert. Graphics Interface 1996.

Style Translation for Human Motion Eugene Hsu, Kari Pulli, Jovan Popovic. SIGGRAPH 2005.

Recognizing friends by their walk: Gait perception without familiarity cues. Cutting and Kozlowski, Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society. 1977 9(5), 353-356.
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Style 1: Katya Mirochnik
Style-Based Motion Synthesis Raquel Urtasun, Pascal Glardon, Ronan Boulic, Daniel Thalmann, Pascal Fua. Computer Graphics Forum. 23(4), pp. 799-812, 2004.

Style-based Inverse Kinematics Keith Grochow, Steven L. Martin, Aaron Hertzmann, Zoran Popovic. ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2004), 2004.

Learning Physics-based Motion Style with Nonlinear Inverse Optimization Liu, C. K., Hertzmann, A. and Popovic, Z. ACM SIGGRAPH 2005.
March 7
Week 8
Introduction to the IRB
Carnegie Mellon's instructions
NIH test

The EMOTE Model for Effort and Shape Diane M. Chi, Monica Costa, Liwei Zhao, Norman I. Badler. Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2000. pp. 173-182, 2000. Paper available here

Speaking with Hands: Creating Animated Conversational Characters from Recordings of Human Performance, 2004. Matthew Stone, Doug DeCarlo, Insuk Oh, Christian Rodriguez, Adrian Stere, Alyssa Lees, Chris Bregler. SIGGRAPH 2004.

Design of Experiments -- Guest Speaker: Sara Kiesler

The Utility of Affect Expression in Natural Language Interactions in Joint Human-Robot Tasks 2005. Matthias Scheutz, Paul Schermerhorn, and James Kramer. HRI Conference.
March 14
spring break -- no class spring break -- no class
March 21
Week 9
Anatomical Models: Mike Lentine

SCAPE: Shape Completion and Animation of People D. Anguelov, P. Srinivasan, D. Koller, S. Thrun, J. Rodgers, J. Davis, SIGGRAPH 2005

Continuous Capture of Skin Deformation Peter Sand, Leonard McMillan, Jovan Popovic ACM Transactions on Graphics 22(3), 2003, pages 578-586

IRB tests and proposals due
Biomechanical Models: James McCann

Josh Hale's PhD Thesis (for background)
Read pages 38-42 and 47-55

Arm Movements

Signal Dependent Noise
March 28
Week 10
Facial Animation

Making Faces Henrique Malvar; Brain Guenter; Cindy Grimm; Daniel Wood; Fredrick Pighin SIGGRAPH 1998.

Spacetime Faces: High-Resolution Capture for Modeling and Animation. Zhang, Li, Snavely, Noah, Curless, Brian, Seitz, Steven M.. ACM Transactions on Graphics 23(3), July 2004.

Psychophysical evaluation of animated facial expressions. Wallraven, C., M. Breidt, D. Cunningham and H. Bulthoff. Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization, 17 - 24, ACM Press, New York, NY, USA (08 2005)

Automatic Determination of Facial Muscle Activations from Sparse Motion Capture Marker Data Sifakis, E., Neverov, I. and Fedkiw, R., SIGGRAPH 2005, ACM TOG 24, 417-425 (2005).

Dance: Octavio Juarez-Espinosa

Rhythmic-Motion Synthesis Based on Motion-Beat Analysis Tae-hoon Kim, Sang Il Park, Sung Yong Shin. ACM Transactions on Graphics. 22(3), pp. 392-401, 2003.

Learning Silhouette Features for Control of Human Motion 2005. Liu Ren, Gregory Shakhnarovich, Jessica Hodgins, Hanspeter Pfister and Paul Viola. ACM Transactions on Graphics, Vol.24(4), October, 2005.

Group Motion Graphs. 2005 Yu-Chi Lai, Stephen Chenney, ShaoHua Fan. 2005 ACM SIGGRAPH / Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation. pp. 281-290, 2005.
April 4
Week 11
Synthesis and evaluation of linear motion transitions
Guest speaker: Bobby Bodenheimer

Wang/Bodenheimer paper sent via email

Motion Synthesis by Example Alexis Lamouret and Michiel van de Panne, Eurgraphics Workshop on Computer Animation and Simulation, 1996

Statistical Models

Motion Texture: A Two-Level Statistical Model for Character Motion Synthesis Yan Li, Tianshu Wang, Heung-Yeung Shum. ACM Transactions on Graphics. 21(3), pp. 465-472, 2002.

A Data-Driven Approach to Quantifying Natural Human Motion Liu Ren, Alton Patrick, Alexei A. Efros, Jessica K. Hodgins, James M. Rehg, ACM Transactions on Graphics (SIGGRAPH 2005), Vol. 24(3), 1090-1097, August, 2005.

April 11
Week 12
Introduction to fMRI
Guest Speaker: Svetlana V Shinkareva

fMRI background reading

Project Updates
fMRI for understanding the perception of animation

Brain areas involved in perception of biological motion. Grossman, E., Donnelly, M., Price, R., Pickens, D., Morgan, V., Neighbor, G., et al. (2000). J Cogn Neurosci, 12(5), 711-720.

Brain Activity Evoked by the Perception of Human Walking: Controlling for Meaningful Coherent Motion. Kevin A. Pelphrey, Teresa V. Mitchell, Martin J. McKeown, Jeremy Goldstein, Truett Allison, and Gregory McCarthy. The Journal of Neuroscience, July 30, 2003 23(17):68196825

April 18
Week 13
Transitions and Motion Graphs: Charles Pratt

Realistic Synthesis of Novel Human Movements from a Database of Motion Capture Examples Tanco and Hilton. Proceeding of the IEEE Workshop on Human Motion. 2000.

Interactive Control of Avatars Animated With Human Motion Data Jehee Lee, Jinxiang Chai, Paul S. A. Reitsma, Jessica K. Hodgins, Nancy S. Pollard. ACM Transactions on Graphics. 21(3), pp. 491-500, 2002.

Efficient Generation of Motion Transitions using Space-time Constraints Rose, Guenter, Bodenheimer, and Cohen, SIGGRAPH '96.

no class -- carnival
April 25
Week 14
The Uncanny Valley

Mori's original paper (translated from Japanese). 1970.

Mori's recent comments on the Humaniods Uncanny Valley workshop 2005

Android Science: Toward a new cross-interdisciplinary framework Hiroshi Ishiguro.

Androids as an Experimental Apparatus: Why is there an Uncanny Valley and can we exploit it? Karl MacDorman. Draft submitted to The Cognitive Science Socity, 2006.
Retargeting: Ting Ting Wu

Using an intermediate skeleton and inverse Kinematics for Motion Retargeting. Eurographics 2000. Monzani, Baerlocher, Boulic, and Thalmann.

Retargeting Motion to New Characters Michael Gleicher. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 98. pp. 33-42, 1998.

Online Motion Retargeting Choi and Ko. The Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation. 2000

Computer Puppetry: An Importance-Based Approach Hyun Joon Shin, Jehee Lee, Michael Gleicher, Sung Yong Shin. ACM Transactions on Graphics. 20(2), pp. 67-94, 2001.

May 2
Week 15
Luis Sentis at 10am in NSH 3305 Video Games with Human Characters and the Interfaces used to Control them (Jim McCann)
Final Exam Slot May 15th 8:30-11:30am May 15th 8:30-11:30 Final Presentations

Possible papers (list to be refined)


Perceptual Studies
Measures of Immersion
fMRI studies
psych studies
Oesker, Hecht, and Jung. 2000. Psychological evidence for unconscious processing of detail in real-time animation of multiple character. Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation 11, 105-112.

Statistical Models

Eye Gaze



The Uncanny Valley

Papers from workshop at Humanoids

Biomechanical Principles

Minimum Jerk
Scaling Laws

Crowd Behaviors

Motion Capture

Symmetry in Dance and Attractivenss


The Process of Motion Capture: Dealing with the Data Bodenheimer, Rose, Rosenthal, and Pella. EGCAS 1997.

Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation and Video Games. A. Menache. 2000.

Automatic Joint Parameter Estimation from Magnetic Motion Capture Data O'Brien, Bodenheimer, Brostow, Hodgins

Local and Global Skeleton Fitting Techniques for Optical Motion Capture. Silaghi, PLankers, Boulic, Fua, and Thalmann.

Modelling and Motion Capture Techniques for Virtual Environments. International Workshop, CAPTECH'98, Geneva, Switzerland, November 26-27, 1998, Proceedings (Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 1537) Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann, Daniel Thalmann

Mapping Optical Motion Capture Data to Skeletal Motion using a Physical Model Zordan and van der Horst

Processing Motion Capture Data to Achieve Positional Accuracy Kwang-Jin Choi, Sanghyun Park and Hyeongseok Ko. The Journal of Graphical Models and Image Processing, 260--273, 1999

Footskate Cleanup for Motion Capture Editing Kovan, Schreiner, and Gleicher. SCA 2002.

Motion Warping Witkin and Popovic

Synthesizing Animatable Body Models with Parameterized Shape Modification Seo, Cordier, Magnenat-Thalmann

Evaluating Video-based Motion Capture Gleicher and Ferrier


Motion Editing with Spacetime Constraints Gleicher

Comparing Constraint-based Motion Editing Methods Gleicher

A Hierarchical Approach to Interactive Motion Editing for Humanlike Figures Lee and Shin. SIGGRAPH 99.

Force-based Motion Editing for Locomotion Tasks Pollard and Behmaram-Mosavat. ICRA 2000.

Physically based Motion Transformation Popovic and Witkin. SIGGRAPH 99.


Retargeting Motion to New Characters Gleicher SIGGRAPH 98

Online Motion Retargeting Choi and Ko. The Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation. 2000

Blending Motions

Interpolation Synthesis of Articulated Figure Motion Wiley and Hahn. IEEE CG&A 1997.

Verbs and Adverbs: Multidimensional Motion Interpolation Rose, Cohen, and Bodenheimer. IEEE CG&A 1998.

Flexible Automatic Motion Blending with Registration Curves Kovar and Gleicher

Efficient Generation of Motion Transitions using Space-time Constraints Rose, Guenter, Bodenheimer, and Cohen, SIGGRAPH '96.

Generation of Human Walking Motion with Emotion for Computer Animation Unuma and Takeuchi. Proceedings of Computer Animation '91.

Fourier Principles for Emotion-based Human Figure Animation Unuma, Anjyo, and Takeuchi. SIGGRAPH 1995.

Motion Signal Processing Bruderlin and Williams. SIGGRAPH 1995.

On-line Locomotion Generation based on Motion Blending Park, Shin, and Shin. SCA 2002.

Dynamics Filter - Concept and Implementation of On-Line Motion Generator for Human Figures K. Yamane and Y. Nakamura, Proc. of IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp.688-695, April 2000.

Motion Graphs

Realistic Synthesis of Novel Human Movements from a Database of Motion Capture Examples Tanco and Hilton. Proceeding of the IEEE Workshop on Human Motion. 2000.

Snap-Together Motion: Assembling Run-Time Animations Gleicher, Shin, Kovar, Jepsen

Rhythmic-Motion Synthesis Based on Motion-Beat Analysis Kim, Park, and Shin

Motion Graphs Kovar, Gleicher, and Pighin SIGGRAPH 2002.

Interactive Motion Generation from Examples Arikan and Forsyth SIGGRAPH 2002.

Interactive Control of Avatars Animated with Human Motion Data Lee, Chai, Reitsman, Hodgins and Pollard. SIGGRAPH 2002.

Motion synthesis from Annotations Arikan, Forsyth, and O'Brien, SIGRAPH 2003.

Creating Animations

Straight Line Walking Animation Based on Kinematic Generalization that Preserves the Original Characteristics. Ko and Badler. Graphics Interface 1993.

Automating Gait Generation Sun and Metaxas

Synthesis of Complex Dynamic Character Motion from Simple Animations Liu and Popovic

Motion Capture Assisted Animation: Texturing and Synthesis Pullen and Bregler

Strength Guided Motion Lee, Wei, Zhao, and Badler. SIGGRAPH '90.

Animating by Multi-level Sampling Pullen and Bregler. IEEE Computer Animation Conference 2000.

Animating Human Locomotion in Real-time using Inverse Dynamics IEEE CG&A. Ko and Badler. 1996.

VLOCO: Real-time Human Locomotion from Positional Input Streams. Ko and Cremer. Presence 5(4) 1996.

Statistical Models for Generation

Style Machines Brand and Hertzmann

Motion Texture: A Two-Level Statistical Model for Character Motion Synthesis Li, Wang, and Shum

Learning Variable-Length Markov Models of Behavior Galata, Johnson, and Hoog. Computer Vision and Image Processing. 2001.

Learning Statistical Models of Human Model Bowden. IEEE Workshop on Human Modeling, Analysis, and Synthesis. CVPR 2000.

Combining Data with Simulation

Motion capure-driven Simulation that Hit and React Zordan and Hodgins, Symposium on Computer Animation 2002

A Dynamic Motion Control Technique for Human-like Articulated Figures Oshita and Makinouchi. CGF 2001.

Physics-based Simulation of Running using Motion Capture. Playter. Course notes SIGGRAPH 2000.

Tracking and Modifying Upper-body Human Motion Data with Dynamic Simulation. Zordan and Hodgins EGCAS 1999.

Deforming Bodies

The Space of Human Body Shapes: Reconstruction and Parameterization from Range Scans Allen, Curless, and Popovic. SIGGRAPH 2003.

Articulated Body Deformation from Range Scan Data Allen, Curless, and Popovic. SIGGRAPH 2002

Continuous Capture of Skin Deformation Sand, McMillan, and Popovic

Turning to the masters: Motion capturing cartoons. Bregler, Loeb, Chuang, and Deshpande. SIGGRAPH 2002.

Physically based anatomic Modeling for Construction of Muscleskeletal Systems. Ng-Thow-Hing. SIGGRAPH 1999. *

Anatomy-based Modeling of the Human Musculature Scheepers, Parent, Carlson, and May. SIGGRAPH 1997.

Interactive Control

Computer Puppetry: An Importance-based Approach Shin, Lee, and Shin

Presenting Movement in a Computer-Based Dance Tutor Sukel, Catrambone, Essa , Brostow, In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 15(3), 2003.

A Desktop Input Device and Interface for Interactive 3D Character Animation. S.Oore, D. Terzopoulos, G. Hinton, Graphics Interface 2002.

Layered Acting for Character Animation Dontcheva, Yngve, Popovic

A Real-time Anatomical Converter for Human Motion Capture. Molet, Boulic, and Thalmann. EGCAS 1996.

Computer Puppetry. Sturman. IEEE CGA 1998.

The use of Real-time Performance Animation in the Production Process. Benquey and Juppe. ACM SIGGRAPH 1997: Course Notes.

On-line Motion Retargeting. Choi and Ko. J. Visual Computer Animation 11 2000.

Real-time Control of a Virtual Human using Minimal Sensors. Badler, Hollick, and Granieri. 1993. Presence 2. *

Animation from Video

Incremental tracking of human actions from multiple views Yamamoto, M et al, Proceedings of CVPR 1998, Page(s): 2-7.

Articulated Body Motion Capture by Annealed Particle Filtering. Deutscher, Blake, Reid. CVPR 2000. more movies
Efficient Generation of Motion Transitions using Space-time Constraints Rose, Guenter, Bodenheimer, and Cohen, SIGGRAPH '96.

Shape-From_Silhouette of Articulated Objects and its Use for Human Body Kinematics Estimation and Motion Capture, German K.M. Cheung, S. Baker and T. Kanade Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition 2003 (CVPR'03), Madison WI, June 2003.

Real-time Tracking of Highly Articulated Structures in the Presence of Noisy Measurements. Drummond and Cipolla. ICV 2001

Articulated soft Objects for Video-based Body Modeling. Plankers and Fua. ICCV 2001.

Implicit probabilistic models of human motion for synthesis and tracking,, Sidenbladh, H., Black, M. J., and Sigal, L., ECCV2002.

Facial Animation

Vision-Based Control of 3D Facial Animation Chai, Xiao, and Hodgins, SCA 2003

Reanimating the Dead: Reconstruction of Expressive Faces from Skull Data Kahler, Haber, Seidel

Eyes Alive Lee, Badler, Badler

Head shop: Generating Animated Head Models with Anatomical Structure. Kahler, Haber, Yamauhi, Seidel SCA 2002.

Shadow Puppetry. Brand. ICCV '99.

A Data-driven Model for Monocular Face Tracking. Gokturk, Bouguet, and Grzeszczuk. IEEE ICCV 2001.

Resynthesizing Facial Animation through 3D Model-based Tracking. Pighin, Szeliski, and Salesin. ICCV 1999.

Performance Driven Facial Animation. Williams. SIGGRAPH 1990.

Geometry-based Muscle Modeling for Facial Animation. Kahler, Haber, and Seidel. Graphics Interfaces 2001.

Where to look? Automating Visual Attending Behavior of Virtual Human Characters. Chopra-Khullar and Badler. 1999.

Making Faces. Guenter, Grimm, Wood, Malvar, and Pighin. SIGGRAPH 1998.

Hand Animation

Construction and Animation of Anatomically Based Human Hands Models Albrecht, Haber, and Seidel

EigenSkin: Real Time Large Deformation Character Skinning in Hardware. Kry, James, and Pai. SCA 2002.

Computer Animation of Knowledge-based Human Grasping. Rijpkema and Girard. SIGGRAPH 1991.

Hand Gesture Animation from Static Postures using an Anatomy-based Model. Ip, Chan, Lam. Proceedings Computer Graphics International 2000.

Crowd Animation and Navigation Planning

An Event-driven Approach to Crowd Simulation with Example Motions. Kim, Kim, Shin. TR CS-TR-2002-186, KAIST.

Planning biped locomotion using motion capture data and probabilistic roadmaps Min Gyu Choi, Jehee Lee, Sung Yong Shin April 2003 ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), Volume 22 Issue 2


A Dynamic Optimization Solution for One Complete Cycle of Human Gait. Anderson and Pandy. Proc. International Society of Biomechanics XVII Congress. 1999.

Optimum timing of muscle Activation for Simple Models of Throwing. Pandy and Zajac. J. Biomechanics 23, 1990.

An Optimal Control Model of Maximum-height Human Jumping. Pandy and Zajac. J. Biomechanics

A Parameter Optimization Approach for the Optimal Control of Large-scalemusculoskeletal Systems. Pandy, Anderson, and Hull. J of Biomech Eng. 1992.


From 3D Shape Capture to Animated Models. Hilton and Starck. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization and Transmission (3DPVT 2002).

Using Skeleton-based tracking to Increase the Reliability of Optical Motion Capture. Herda, Fua, Plankers, Boulic, and Thalmann. Human Movement Science Journal 2001.

Human Skin Deformation from Cross-sections. Jianhua, Magenate-Thalmann, Thalmann. Computer Graphics International.

Human Body Model Acquisition and Tracking using Voxel Data. Mikic, Trivedi, Hunter, and Cosman. International Journal of Computer Vision.

The Emote Model for Effort and Shape Chi, Costa, and Zhao. SIGGRAPH 2000.

Separating Style and Content. Tenenbaum and Freeman. NIPS 1997.

Artist-directed Inverse Kinematics using Radial Basis Function Interpolation. Rose, Sloan, and Cohen. Eurographics 2001.

Example Guided Inverse Kinematics. Seyoon Tak and Hyeongseok Ko. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Graphics and Imaging (CGIM) 2000.

Knowledge-driven, interactive animation of Human Running. Bruderlin and Calvert. GI 1996. *

Human Motion Capture Driven by Orientation Molet, Boulic, and Thalmann Presence, 187-203, 1999.

Using an intermediate skeleton and inverse Kinematics for Motion Retargeting. Eurographics 2000. Monzani, Baerlocher, Boulic, and Thalmann. *

Processing motion capture data to achieve positional accuracy. GMIP. 1999. *

Automated Learning of Muscle-Actuated Locomotion through Control Abstraction. Grzeszczuk and Terzopoulos. SIGGRAPH 1995. *

Goal-directed, dynamic animation of Human Walking. Bruderlin and Calvert. SIGGRAPH 1989. *

A morphable model for the synthesis of 3D faces. Blanz and Vetter. SIGGRAPH 1999. *

Pose Space Deformations: A Unified Approach to Shape Interpolation and Skeleton-Driven Deformation. Lewis, Cordner, Fong. SIGGRAPH 2000. *

A High-level Control Mechanism for Human Locomotion based on Parametric Frame Space Interpolation. Guo and Roberge. EGCAS 1996.

Data-driven Motion Transitions for Interactive Games. Mizuguchi, Buchanan, and Calvert. Eurographics 2001 Short Presentation.

Motion Synthesis by Example. Lamouret and van de Panne. 1996. EGCAS.

Human Walking Animation based on Foot Reaction Force in the Three-Dimensional Virtual World. Tsutsuguchi, Shimada, Suenaga, Sonehara, and Ohtsuka. J. Visualization and Computer Animation. 2000.

Other Background

Inverse kinematics positioning using nonlinear programming for highly articulated figures, Zhao and Badler ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) Volume 13, Issue 4 (October 1994) Pages: 313 - 336

General Construction of Time-domain Filters for Orientation Data. Lee and Shin. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 2002.

Multi-weight Enveloping: Least-Squares Approximation Techniques for Skin Animation. Wang and Phillips SCA 2002.

Practial Optimization. Gill, Murray, and Wright. 1989 Academic Press.

Markov Chain Monte Carlo in Practice. Gilks and Richardson, Spiegelhalter. 1996.

Dynamic Programming and Optimal Control. Athena Scientific. Bertsekas. 2000.

A Tutorial on Hidden Markov Models and Selected Applications in Speech Recognition. Rabiner. Proc. IEEE 1989.

Animating Rotation with Quaterenion Curves. Shoemake. SIGGRAPH 1985.

Parametric Hidden Markov Models for Gesture Recognition. Wilson and Bobick. IEEE PAMI 1999.

System Indentification--Theory for the User. Ljung. Prentice Hall 1999.