[HARLEQUIN][Common Lisp HyperSpec (TM)] [Previous][Up][Next]

Function EQ


eq x y => generalized-boolean

Arguments and Values:

x---an object.

y---an object.

generalized-boolean---a generalized boolean.


Returns true if its arguments are the same, identical object; otherwise, returns false.


 (eq 'a 'b) =>  false
 (eq 'a 'a) =>  true
 (eq 3 3)
=>  true
OR=>  false
 (eq 3 3.0) =>  false
 (eq 3.0 3.0)
=>  true
OR=>  false
 (eq #c(3 -4) #c(3 -4))
=>  true
OR=>  false
 (eq #c(3 -4.0) #c(3 -4)) =>  false
 (eq (cons 'a 'b) (cons 'a 'c)) =>  false
 (eq (cons 'a 'b) (cons 'a 'b)) =>  false
 (eq '(a . b) '(a . b))
=>  true
OR=>  false
 (progn (setq x (cons 'a 'b)) (eq x x)) =>  true
 (progn (setq x '(a . b)) (eq x x)) =>  true
 (eq #\A #\A)
=>  true
OR=>  false
 (let ((x "Foo")) (eq x x)) =>  true
 (eq "Foo" "Foo")
=>  true
OR=>  false
 (eq "Foo" (copy-seq "Foo")) =>  false
 (eq "FOO" "foo") =>  false
 (eq "string-seq" (copy-seq "string-seq")) =>  false
 (let ((x 5)) (eq x x))
=>  true
OR=>  false

Side Effects: None.

Affected By: None.

Exceptional Situations: None.

See Also:

eql, equal, equalp, =, Section 3.2 (Compilation)


Objects that appear the same when printed are not necessarily eq to each other. Symbols that print the same usually are eq to each other because of the use of the intern function. However, numbers with the same value need not be eq, and two similar lists are usually not identical.

An implementation is permitted to make ``copies'' of characters and numbers at any time. The effect is that Common Lisp makes no guarantee that eq is true even when both its arguments are ``the same thing'' if that thing is a character or number.

Most Common Lisp operators use eql rather than eq to compare objects, or else they default to eql and only use eq if specifically requested to do so. However, the following operators are defined to use eq rather than eql in a way that cannot be overridden by the code which employs them:

catch           getf     throw  
get             remf            
get-properties  remprop  

Figure 5-11. Operators that always prefer EQ over EQL

[Starting Points][Contents][Index][Symbols][Glossary][Issues]
Copyright 1996, The Harlequin Group Limited. All Rights Reserved.