This is not the moon, but Venus... it is not night either, but noon... In fact Venus was very close (8.5 degrees, about a fist's width at arm length) to the mid-day sun when this photo was taken, and it showed mostly dark side toward Earth. This condition is known as inferior conjunction. The phase of Venus is similar to a very new/old moon.
Rainbow colored Venus
These colors originate from atmospheric refraction: Venus was very close to horizon when the photo is taken. The gradient of air density changes rapidly at such low altitude, making the atmosphere a prism which splits the white light from Venus into rainbow colors. Similar effects contribute to the 'green flash' during sunset.
To see more Venus images, go to the