Probably the most important debugging tool is the backtrace. There are
two kinds of backtrace: one for SAL, and one for Lisp.
SAL mode is actually just an XLISP function (
sal) that reads
input and evaluates it. When SAL encounters an error, it normally
prints a trace of the SAL stack (all the active functions written in SAL),
exists the current command, and reads the next command.
If you call XLISP functions from SAL, including most Nyquist sound processing functions, and an error occurs within these XLISP functions, you will only see the SAL function that called the XLISP functions listed in the stack trace. Sometimes you need more details.
When Nyquist encounters an error when it is not running SAL, it
normally suspends execution and prints an
error message. To find out where in the program the error occurred
and how you got there, start by typing
(bt). This will print
out the last several function calls and their arguments, which is
usually sufficient to see what is going on.
In order for
(bt) to work, you must have a couple of global
*tracenable* is ordinarily set to
If it is true, then a backtrace is automatically printed when an
*breakenable* must be set to
it enables the execution to be suspended when an error is
then execution stops when an error occurs but the stack is
not saved and you cannot get a backtrace. Finally,
is just a macro to save typing. The actual backtrace function
baktrace, which takes an integer argument telling how
many levels to print. All of these things are set up by default
when you start Nyquist.
To get this XLISP backtrace behavior when SAL encounters an error,
you need to have
*breakenable* set while SAL is running. The
best way to do this is to run within the NyquistIDE program,
open the Preferences dialog, and choose the desired settings, e.g.
"Enable XLISP break on SAL error."
Since Nyquist sounds are executed with a lazy evaluation scheme, some
errors are encountered when samples are being generated. In this
case, it may not be clear which expression is in error. Sometimes, it
is best to explore a function or set of functions by examining
intermediate results. Any expression that yields a sound can be
assigned to a variable and examined using one or more of:
snd-print-tree, and of course
snd-print-tree function prints a lot of detail about the inner
representaion of the sound. Keep in mind that if you assign a sound
to a global variable and then look at the samples (e.g. with
s-plot), the samples will be retained in
memory. At 4 bytes per sample, a big sound may use all of your
memory and cause a crash.
Another technique is to use low sample rates so that it is easier to plot results or look at samples directly. The calls:
set-sound-srate(100) set-control-srate(100)set the default sample rates to 100, which is too slow for audio, but useful for examining programs and results. The function
snd-samples(sound, limit)will convert up to limit samples from sound into a Lisp array. This is another way to look at results in detail.
trace function is sometimes useful. It prints the name of
a function and its arguments everytimg the function is called, and the
result is printed when the function exits. To trace the osc function,
trace(osc)and to stop tracing, type
If a variable needs a value or a function is undefined, and if
*breakenable* was set, you will get a prompt where you can fix
the error (by setting the variable or loading the function definition)
and keep going. At the debug (or break) prompt, your input must
be in XLISP, not SAL syntax. Use
(co), short for
reevaluate the variable or function and continue execution.
When you finish debugging a particular call, you can "pop"
up to the top level by typing
(top), a short name for
There is a button named "Top" in the NyquistIDE that takes you back to the
top level (ready to accept XLISP expressions),
and another button named "SAL" that puts you back in SAL mode.
grindef, this function prints the arguments to a function. This may be faster than looking up a function in the documentation if you just need a reminder. For example,
(args 'lp)prints "(LP S C)," which may help you to remember that the arguments are a sound (S) followed by the cutoff (C) frequency.
The following functions are useful short-cuts that might have been included in XLISP. They are so useful that they are defined as part of Nyquist.
setf. Typically, symbol is a variable: "
(incf i)," but symbol can also be an array element: "
(incf (aref myarray i))."
(push val lis)[LISP]
(setf lis (cons val lis)).
(setf lis (cdr lis)). Note that the remaining list is returned, not the head of the list that has been popped. Retrieve the head of the list (i.e. the top of the stack) using
The following macros are useful control constructs.
while(test, expr1, expr2, ...)[SAL]
(while test expr1 expr2 ...)[LISP]
(return expr)is evaluated, in which case the value of expr is returned. In SAL, the loop statement is preferred.
(when test action)[LISP]
condto implement "if-then-else" and more complex conditional forms.
It is often necessary to load a file only if it has not already been
loaded. For example, the
pianosyn library loads somewhat slowly, so if
some other file already loaded it, it would be good to avoid loading it
again. How can you load a file once? Nyquist does not keep track of files
that are loaded, but you must be loading a file to define some function,
so the idea is to tell Nyquist "I require function from file"; if
the function does not yet exist, Nyquist satisfies the requirement by loading
require-from(fnsymbol, filename [, path])[SAL]
(require-from fnsymbol filename [path])[LISP]
STRING, is loaded. Normally fnsymbol is a function that will be called from within the current file, and filename is the file that defines fnsymbol. The path, if a
STRING, is prepended to filename. If path is
t(true), then the directory of the current file is used as the path.
Sometimes it is important to load files relative to the current file. For example,
lib/piano.lsp library loads data files from the
but how can we find out the full path of
lib? The solution is:
load). Returns NIL if no file is being loaded.
Finally, there are some helpful math functions:
(real-random from to)[LISP]
FLONUMbetween from and to. (See also
rrandom, which is equivalent to
(real-random 0 1)).
(power x y)[LISP]