J.F. Pane and B.A. Myers, "Tabular and Textual Methods for Selecting Objects from a Group," Proceedings of VL 2000: IEEE International Symposium on Visual Languages, Seattle, WA: IEEE Computer Society, September 10-13 2000, pp. 157-164.
The accurate formulation of boolean expressions is a notorious problem in programming languages and database query tools. This paper studies the ways that untrained users naturally express and interpret queries, revealing some of the underlying reasons why this task is so difficult. Among the study's findings are: people interpret the word AND to mean either conjunction or disjunction depending on context, the scope to which they attribute the word NOT depends on whether the subsequent operator is AND or OR, and they often ignore parenthesis. Therefore, relying on these words and symbols for query formulation will result in poor usability. A tabular query form is proposed that avoids the need to name the operators, provides a clear distinction between conjunction and disjunction, and makes grouping more explicit. Comparing the tabular language with textual boolean expressions, the study finds that untrained users perform better when they express their queries in the tabular language, and about equally well when interpreting queries written in either language. We conclude that systems may benefit by adopting a tabular notation for query formulation.
Full text of this paper:
PaneMyersTabularTextual.pdf (2.15 MB).
Related short paper on this topic:
J.F. Pane and B.A. Myers, Improving User Performance on Boolean Queries, CHI 2000 Extended Abstracts: Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, G. Szwillus and T. Turner, Eds. The Hague, Netherlands: ACM Press, April 1-6, 2000, pp. 269-270.
John Pane's Home Page
Natural Programming Project Page
firstname.lastname@example.org (last modified on 20010205)