0. DOCID:3734 SCORE: 0.00279695560822604
DOCNO: 1176552
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: complications
QUALIFIER: complications
QUALIFIER: surgery
QUALIFIER: complications
AUTHOR: M Guivarc'h M
AUTHOR: J Marquand J
AUTHOR: B Chiche B
AUTHOR: A Mouchet A
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Journal de chirurgie.
COUNTRY: FRANCE
TITLE: [Surgical methods in non-traumatic perforations of the colon into the free peritoneum (36 cases)]
PUBDATE: 19750301
When operating as an emergency for a perforation of the colon should one carry out a by-pass operation, colostomy or restore intestinal continuity? 36 colonic perforations are reported here, as a complication of cancer in 50 p. 100 of cases, or sigmoiditis in 38 p. 100 of cases. The perforation was situated on the sigmoid in 77 p. 100 of cases. 13 by-pass operations were carried out with a 23 p. 100 mortality, 12 colectomies without anastomosis with a 50 p. 100 mortality, and 2 colectomies with restoration of continuity, 9 p. 100 mortality. The overall mortality was 27.7 p. 100 much less than reported by other authors but, nevertheless partly due to the severity of peritonitis due to the presence of feces and, partly due to the operation adopted. The present attitude of the authors depends on the merits of each case. A large incision is made and the peritoneum thoroughly cleaned. If the surgeon is experienced, colonic resection is advisable for perforated cnacer and certain cases of sigmoiditis. Restoration of continuity depends, above all, on the anatomical condition of the colon above the lesion. Hartmann's resections or by-pass operations thus still have indications.


1. DOCID:3418 SCORE: 0.00242029040338402
DOCNO: 3117
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: complications
QUALIFIER: complications
QUALIFIER: complications
QUALIFIER: complications
QUALIFIER: complications
AUTHOR: M A Batata MA
AUTHOR: W F Whitmore WF
AUTHOR: B S Hilaris BS
AUTHOR: N Tokita N
AUTHOR: H Grabstald H
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: AJR. American journal of roentgenology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Cancer of the undescended or maldescended testis.
PUBDATE: 19760201
An analysis of 45 cryptorchids (by history or examination) with a testicular cancer treated at Memorial Hospital, between 1934 and 1973, is presented. Twenty-five patients had the cryptorchid state repaired at ages four to 27 years, either spontaneously or by orchiopexy or hormonal therapy. Ipsilateral (24) or contralateral (one) intrascrotal testis tumors developed four to 47 years later. Twenty cryptorchid patients presented with ipsilateral inguinal (eleven), abdominal (seven), or contralateral intrascrotal (two) tumors. There were 18 pure seminomas, 17 embryonal carcinomas, nine teratocarcinomas, and one reticulum cell sarcoma. Five year survival rates as estimated by the product-limit method were 60% for the unrepaired cases and 41% for the repaired cases. The survival seems to follow histologic type and anatomical stage, whether the testis is within the scrotum or not. Five year survival similarly estimated was 78% in the seminomas and 29% in the other tumors. Twelve of thirteen survivors (including nine with seminoma) received postoperative irradiation to the regional lymphatics and eleven were without recurrent tumor for periods ranging from six to 28 years.


2. DOCID:3837 SCORE: 0.00233030131418485
DOCNO: 856959
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: genetics
AUTHOR: G J Draper GJ
AUTHOR: M M Heaf MM
AUTHOR: L M Kinnier Wilson LM
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Journal of medical genetics.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Occurrence of childhood cancers among sibs and estimation of familial risks.
PUBDATE: 19770401
An analysis which includes the majority of the cases of childhood cancer occurring in Britain over a period of about 20 years suggests that there is a small familial element in the aetiology of these diseases; aggregations within sibships were observed more frequently than would be expected by chance. Possible explanations of these findings are considered. Some, perhaps many, of the cases within such sibships may be due to associations between malignant disease and various genetically determined conditions at a suclinical level or in the heterozygous state. Alternatively, the observed familial aggregations may be attributable to the fact that sibs share a common environment. Childhood cancer in twins is discussed and findings compared with those from the United States. Attention is drawn to a number of interesting combinations of tumours in sibs, particularly brain tumours and bone cancers. The implications of the findings for genetic counselling are discussed; it is emphasized that, though there appears to be an increased risk that sibs of children with malignant disease will also be affected by such diseases, this amounts overall only to a doubling of the general population risk. Whether or not the explanation is a genetic one, the actual magnitude of the risk for such sibs is only about 1 in 300.


3. DOCID:3283 SCORE: 0.00232524980339228
DOCNO: 195975
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Complement Fixation Tests
DESCRIPTOR: Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic
QUALIFIER: analysis
QUALIFIER: immunology
QUALIFIER: immunology
AUTHOR: T Subramanian T
AUTHOR: W E Rawls WE
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Journal of clinical microbiology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Comparison of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent antibody lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected cells as methods of detecting antiviral antibodies in human sera.
PUBDATE: 19770601
An antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay was used to detect antibodies to the herpes simplex viruses in humans sera. The assay utilized the release of 51Cr from BHK-21 cells infected with the viruses, hamster peritoneal exudate cells as effector cells, and antiviral antibodies in human sera. The technique was found to be far more sensitive than complement-dependent antibody lysis of infected cells and virus neutralization. The ADCC assay was useful in detecting antibodies in sera that had low titers or no antibodies detectable by other methods. In a sample of 100 sera from university students, 40 were positive by complement-dependent lysis whereas 73 were positive by ADCC. Of 400 sera from women with cervical cancer, 17 did not have detectable antibodies by microneutralization or complement-dependent lysis; however, all sera were positive by ADCC, suggesting that all of the women had been infected in the past with one or both types of herpes simplex virus.


4. DOCID:3449 SCORE: 0.00230746522269689
DOCNO: 1160463
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Glottis
QUALIFIER: surgery
QUALIFIER: methods
AUTHOR: E Bocca E
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The Laryngoscope.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Supraglottic cancer.
PUBDATE: 19750801
Supraglottic cancer, because of the embryological development of the larynx, and of the arrangement of its lymphatic network, tends to remain limited within the vestibule of the larynx and the pre-epiglottic space also in its advanced stages of evolution. The cancer spread may superiorly involve the epilarynx, the vallecula, the base of the tongue, and the pyriform fossa; however, inferiorly, the invasion of the glottis is quite exceptional (1 percent of cases); therefore, supraglottic laryngectomy is the operation of choice. The lower the location of cancer in the vestibule, the safer the indication. The higher location generally requires an extension of surgical excision toward the tongue, arytenoids and hypopharnx. In view of the high percentage of lymph node metastases, supraglottic laryngectomy should be associated with neck dissection, mainly bilateral, also in cases with no evidence of enlarged lymph nodes. Supraglottic laryngectomy has been performed in 240 cases in the course of the last 14 years and the five-year cure rate has been 79 percent. Five postoperative deaths have been recorded. Rehabilitation time for the breathing and swallowing function has been three weeks as an average. Complications, such as fistula or infection have been exceedingly rare: uneventful recovery followed in all cases.


5. DOCID:7455 SCORE: 0.00222856265482677
DOCNO: 7431681
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Gastrectomy
DESCRIPTOR: Splenectomy
QUALIFIER: immunology
AUTHOR: M Takahashi M
AUTHOR: S Fujimoto S
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The Japanese journal of surgery.
COUNTRY: JAPAN
TITLE: Clinical studies on the correlation between immunologic status and total gastrectomy combined with splenectomy.
PUBDATE: 19800601
The influence of splenectomy on the immunologic status of stomach cancer patients was studied. Eight gastric cancer patients having undergone total gastrectomy combined with splenectomy were evaluated immunologically. Peripheral lymphocyte counts were depressed and continued to be so in splenectomized patients. PHA-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis decreased rapidly after total gastrectomy with splenectomy and thereafter increased gradually. PHA skin test seemed to take almost the same time course. These recoveries to the normal range were observed 4 weeks after operation. In 10 other patients who had undergone total gastrectomy with splenectomy for gastric cancer and had been recurrence-free for more than 6 months, peripheral lymphocyte and T lymphocyte counts significantly increased compared with 7 cases having undergone total gastrectomy only, though no difference was seen in both PHA skin test and PHA-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis between the 2 groups.


6. DOCID:3945 SCORE: 0.00220355303357132
DOCNO: 185398
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: analysis
QUALIFIER: analysis
QUALIFIER: immunology
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
AUTHOR: M F Notter MF
AUTHOR: J J Docherty JJ
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Comparative diagnostic aspects of herpes simplex virus tumor-associated antigens.
PUBDATE: 19760901
Sera from cancer patients and healthy individuals, obtained from two independent sources, were examined for their abilities to react with herpes simplex virus-associated tumor antigens, AG-4 and NVA-TAA (nonvirion antigen-tumor-associated antigen). Both antigens were prepared by infection of HEp-2 cells with herpes simplex virus type 2, and all antigen-antibody interactions were measured by the micro-complement fixation test. Of sera from 16 patients with cancer of the uterine cervix, 81% (P less than 0.01) reacted with NVA-TAA, whereas 78% (P less than 0.001) of 18 sera examined reacted with AG-4. These values differed significantly from those for normal sera, of which 14% reacted with NVA-TAA and 13% with AG-4. Of sera for 8 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck or vulva, 75% (P less than 0.02) reacted with NVA-TAA, whereas 63% (P less than 0.05) reacted with AG-4. As a group, other cancers (including adenocarcinoma of lung, breast, ovary, and cervix; liposarcoma; sarcoma; melanoma; and carcinoma of the endometrium) did not differ significantly from controls in reactive patterns with AG-4 or NVA-TAA. These studies partly supported the reported preferential reactivity of AG-4 and NVA-TAA with sera of patients with squamous cell carcinoma, especially of the uterine cervix.


7. DOCID:3434 SCORE: 0.0022014429571082
DOCNO: 1220760
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Antigen-Antibody Complex
QUALIFIER: immunology
QUALIFIER: immunology
QUALIFIER: immunology
AUTHOR: E Langvad E
AUTHOR: H Hydén H
AUTHOR: H Wolf H
AUTHOR: N Kroeigaard N
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: British journal of cancer.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: Extracorporeal immunoadsorption of circulating specific serum factors in cancer patients.
PUBDATE: 19751201
Circulating serum factors have been said to abrogate the effects of immune response in cancer, i.e. "blocking" and "antigenic inhibition". The aim of this investigation was to isolate such specific factors in a purified and native state. F(ab)2 fragments isolated from hypernephroma were insolubilized on the surfaces of an extracorporeal perfusion chamber which was inserted into the circulation by means of an arterio-venous shunt. As a result, 3 proteins not present in normal serum were isolated and eluted for further study. In immunoelectrophoresis the 3 proteins were specifically precipitated by heterolgous (rabbit) antihypernephroma serum but not by anti-serum directed against normal serum components. Moreover C9 components, C3 activator and C3 were isolated in the chamber, the latter complement factor in large concentrations. This further sustained that specific antigen-antibody reactions had occurred in the chamber. One of the 2 patients studied were perfused for 60 h and 40 min. During this period 450 litres of blood were brought into intimate contact with the immunoadsorbent. Proteins in amounts sufficient for immunochemical analysis were isolated within 3 h.


8. DOCID:7896 SCORE: 0.00217593176605327
DOCNO: 7449091
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: blood
QUALIFIER: methods
QUALIFIER: blood
QUALIFIER: enzymology
AUTHOR: L Kahan L
AUTHOR: V L Go VL
AUTHOR: F C Larson FC
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Clinical chemistry.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Increased activity in serum of an alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme in cancer: analytical method and preliminary clinical studies.
PUBDATE: 19810101
Serum of cancer patients often contains high activities of a homoarginine-sensitive isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase with high electrophoretic mobility, which is present in relatively low activities in sera from most normal persons and persons with benign disease. In earlier studies of this isoenzyme, in a semi-quantitative assay, electrophoresis was used in the separation step. This report describes a column separation procedure, which provides quantitative data. We tested the revised procedure by assaying a mixed panel of 192 sera (cancer, benign disease, and normal). The organ sites of cancer and benign disease in this study were: lung, pancreas, uterus, and ovaries. The isoenzyme showed moderate sensitivity for lung (0.6) and pancreas (0.8) cancer and high specificity for all cancers tested. Thus the assay may be useful for discriminating between cancer sera and non-cancer sera for these cancer types.


9. DOCID:3880 SCORE: 0.00214487315255739
DOCNO: 177201
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: enzymology
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
AUTHOR: K Sato K
AUTHOR: K Satoh K
AUTHOR: T Sato T
AUTHOR: F Imai F
AUTHOR: H P Morris HP
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer research.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Isozyme patterns of glycogen phosphorylase in rat tissues and transplantable hepatomas.
PUBDATE: 19760201
Isozyme patterns of glycogen phosphorylase in the Morris and Yoshida hepatomas were compared electrophoretically and immunochemically with those in rat tissues during development. A 3rd phosphorylase isozyme, observed previously in hepatomas and fetal tissues by isoelectric focusing and by immunochemical titration, was also separated by polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis. It was observed commonly in various rat hepatomas, together with variable activities of the liver type, depending on the degree of differentiation. This isozyme is nearly the sole type in placenta and early embryo, and in liver and skeletal muscle it is replaced during fetal development with the organ-specific liver and muscle type. In adult rat brain the fetal type is retained at low levels, together with the muscle type. In kidney, spleen, testis, uterus, lung, and stomach, the fetal type is present together with the liver type. This isozyme in hepatomas and adult brain is identical with the fetal-type, as determined by Ouchterlony double diffusion and activity inhibition tests. Thus, it is considered to be a prototype whose appearance in hepatomas is one of many known examples of fetal protein expression in cancer. In some poorly differentiated hepatomas, the liver-type isozyme migrated slightly more slowly in polyacrylamide gel but could not be distinguished from the liver isozyme immunochemically.


10. DOCID:3829 SCORE: 0.00213304650188605
DOCNO: 1092461
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Blood Group Antigens
AUTHOR: G F Springer GF
AUTHOR: P R Desai PR
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Carbohydrate research.
COUNTRY: NETHERLANDS
TITLE: Human blood-group MN and precursor specificities: structural and biological aspects.
PUBDATE: 19750301
The human blood-group MM and NN antigens carry 2 to 4 immunodominant groupings per repeating subunit and differ only by one sialic acid residue per immunodominant group. This residue covers in the MM antigen the beta-D-galactopyranosyl group that is terminal in the N immunodominant structure and that, together with a terminal alpha-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid residue, is responsible for N specificity. M specificity was readily converted into N specificity by mild acid treatment. N structure is the immediate biochemical precursor of M structure, and M and N antigenic specificities are not determined by two allelic genes as believed hitherto. The NN antigen was inactivated by beta-D-galactosidase as well as by removal of N-acetylneuraminic acid. Some of the reactivities of the NN antigen, lost upon beta-D-galactosidase treatment, reappeared on subsequent partial N-acetylneuraminic acid removal. The structure uncovered by complete sialic acid depletion of MN antigens is the Thomsen-Friedenreich T antigen, the specificity of which is determined by beta-D-galactopyranosyl groups. Beta-D-Galactosidase treatment transformed the T antigen into one possessing Tnactivity. The significance of blood-group MN active substances extends to human breast cancer, where MN antigens were found in benign and malignant glands, but some of their precursors in cancerous tissue only.


11. DOCID:2987 SCORE: 0.00212876675412061
DOCNO: 840462
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: surgery
QUALIFIER: surgery
AUTHOR: J T Wharton JT
AUTHOR: H W Jones HW
AUTHOR: T G Day TG
AUTHOR: F N Rutledge FN
AUTHOR: G H Fletcher GH
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Obstetrics and gynecology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Preirradiation celiotomy and extended field irradiation for invasive carcinoma of the cervix.
PUBDATE: 19770301
Epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix was treated in 120 patients by means of exploratory celiotomy (with semitherapeutic excision of involved lymph nodes) followed by irradiation. The size of the field used for irradiation was determined by the presence and site of lymph involvement. Of 64 patients, metastatic cancer in pelvic nodes was found in 40, and in common iliac or aortic nodes in 24. Of the 2 groups, 8 and 3 patients, respectively, survived for 2 years or more. Irradiation to extended fields (using 5500 rads at 850 rads per week) controlled the cancer satisfactorily within the treated area, but the incidence of bowel complications was high. Recurrent carcinoma usually appeared as distant metastases outside the treatment area which suggests that patients with bulky primary lesions and positive nodes actually already have systemic disease as treatment is started. A safe yet effective dosage level for radiation therapy to extended fields has not yet been established.


12. DOCID:6481 SCORE: 0.0020414847292413
DOCNO: 7272951
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: analysis
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
AUTHOR: J L Tullis JL
AUTHOR: H Honegger H
AUTHOR: O Fleischaker O
AUTHOR: L Hewitt L
AUTHOR: D Kenney D
AUTHOR: F C Chao FC
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Thrombin inhibition by malignant and normal cells: a cell-bound antithrombin effect.
PUBDATE: 19810901
Analysis of fresh surgical specimens of normal tissue and tumor tissue show a cellular antithrombin activity to be present in certain organs. In normal tissues it was noted chiefly in normal colon, testes, breast, and uterus. In malignant tissues it was prominent in adenocarcinomas of the colon, breast, and lung. No epidermoid tumors showed evidence of thrombin binding. The thrombin- binding activity required the presence of intact cells and was distinct from the soluble antithrombins normally present in plasma and serum. There is growing evidence to suggest an interrelationship between clotting and the growth and dissemination of cancer. The implications of cellular antithrombins are reviewed in this context.


13. DOCID:3852 SCORE: 0.00202273617524286
DOCNO: 962995
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Statistics
QUALIFIER: mortality
AUTHOR: R F Mould RF
AUTHOR: T Hearnden T
AUTHOR: M Palmer M
AUTHOR: G C White GC
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: British journal of cancer.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: Distribution of survival times of 12,000 head and neck cancer patients who died with their disease.
PUBDATE: 19760801
The lognormal parametric statistical model can provide, for groups of carcinoma cervix patients, good estimates of long-term survival fractions several years earlier than would otherwise be possible. The present paper extends this model work to head and neck cancer by using a minimum chi-squared test for goodness of fit (P greater than 0-05), to study the distribution of survival times of patients who died with their cancer present. Some 12,000 case histories were available from 7 hospital registries, 4 regional cancer registries and one national registry (the OPCS). All histories were followed up for at least 10 years subsequent to treatment and could be grouped into one of 8 cancer sites: antrum, floor of mouth, larynx, nasopharynx, pyriform fossa, post cricoid, tonsil and tongue. The theoretical distributions investigated were the lognormal, negative exponential and skew exponential. The results showed that the lognormal provided the best overall fit to the data, although the range of optimum values for the lognormal parameter, S, differed with cancer site. The optimum range did, however, usually include the value S=0-45. These results will now permit the second stage of validation of the lognormal model to proceed for head and neck cancers.


14. DOCID:3846 SCORE: 0.00201609434551569
DOCNO: 926132
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Attitude to Health
DESCRIPTOR: Comprehension
DESCRIPTOR: Moral Obligations
DESCRIPTOR: Patient Compliance
AUTHOR: R Faden R
AUTHOR: A Faden A
PUBTYPE: Case Reports
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Journal of medical ethics.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: False belief and the refusal of medical treatment.
PUBDATE: 19770901
May a doctor treat a patient, despite that patient's refusal, when in his professional opinion treatment is necessary? This is the dilemma which must from time to time confront most physicians. An examination of the validity of such a refusal is provided by the present authors who use the case history of a patient refusing treatment, for cancer as well as for a fractured hip, to evaluate the grounds for intervention in such circumstances. In such a situation the patient is said to have a 'false belief' and it is the doctor's duty to try to change that belief in the patient's interest. The false belief is considered here in terms of the liberty principle, the patient's mental competence and on what is called the 'harm principle' (harm to other individuals or to society). Finally the concept of paternalism is examined. The authors conclude that the doctor must attempt to change a false belief, and if this fails he must examine the patient's mental competence to make the decision to refuse treatment. But in the last analysis the doctor may be under an obligation to respect the patient's refusal. Readers might like to look at (or read again) the papers on 'Liberty' and 'Conscience' published in this Journal under the heading Analysis.