0. DOCID:3984 SCORE: 0.00354263618891072
DOCNO: 199443
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: radionuclide imaging
QUALIFIER: radionuclide imaging
QUALIFIER: radionuclide imaging
AUTHOR: R Moreau R
AUTHOR: F Soussaline F
AUTHOR: S Chauvaud S
AUTHOR: C Parmentier C
AUTHOR: R Di Paola R
AUTHOR: P Charbord P
AUTHOR: M Tubiana M
PUBTYPE: Case Reports
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: European journal of nuclear medicine.
COUNTRY: GERMANY, WEST
TITLE: Detection of hepatoma in liver cirrhosis.
PUBDATE: 19770901
The analogic liver scintigram using 99mTc sulfur colloid in cirrhotic patients does not permit determination of the nature of the areas of decreased uptake. Scintigrams with 67Ga citrate generally show increased activity in cases of hepatoma. In some cases, however, 67Ga citrate is less concentrated in neoplasic tissue, and it is not possible to detect a tumoral lesion in a cirrhotic liver. This is why we used double isotope scintigraphies with 67Ga citrate and 99mTc sulfur colloid, with digital subtraction, after simultaneous recording of 99mTc and 67Ga data on magnetic tape by means of an interface. In our series of 22 patients, the comparison of the results obtained by this double isotope technique with histology showed no false positive in substraction scintigrams. There was one false negative because of the lack of significance in the subtracted image for one of the six patients with cancer of the liver. For three of the six patients with hepatoma, the gallium scintigram showed an increased uptake in the tumor area. For the three other cases, the gallium uptake was equilibrated throughout the liver scintigraphy. It was therefore in cases where the gallium scintigram showed no increased activity that the subtraction technique was of greatest value, for it permitted the diagnosis of hepatoma in two cases.


1. DOCID:3887 SCORE: 0.0034635335057115
DOCNO: 803873
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: biosynthesis
QUALIFIER: immunology
AUTHOR: C Waterhouse C
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer research.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: GammaG-globulin production and light-chain metabolism in patients with metastatic cancer.
PUBDATE: 19750401
GammaG-Globulin and excess light-chain metabolism were studied in eight subjects with progressive metastatic malignant disease by determining the plasma radioactivity curves following the administration of appropriately labeled substances. In addition to the plasma die-away curves, which required about 3 weeks for full expression for gamma-globulin, but only 3 to 4 days for light-chain, urinary excretion of the label from metabolized protein was determined. The data are compared to similar studies in control individuals. The metabolism of excess light chain was similar to normal in all respects. The total synthesis of gammaG-globulin was increased with a mean value about twice normal. The mean survival time of a circulating immunoglobulin molecule was short, indicating rapid loss from the system. Other aspects of immunoglobulin metabolism were similar to normal with a normal percentage of the labeled protein appearing in the urine, suggesting no abnormality in the utilization pattern but simply an increased rate of turnover. The capability of malnourished patients with cancer to produce large quantities of immunoglobulin is not specific for this disease, since similar patterns may be seen in response to infections in protein-depleted individuals. However, there is the possibility that the cancer itself acts as an inciting agent in these subjects. Furthermore, such sustained protein synthesis may place an additional burden on already compromised host metabolism.


2. DOCID:3732 SCORE: 0.00303859704226155
DOCNO: 128144
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Hypersensitivity, Delayed
QUALIFIER: methods
QUALIFIER: immunology
QUALIFIER: methods
AUTHOR: J F Burdick JF
AUTHOR: S A Wells SA
AUTHOR: R B Herberman RB
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
PUBTYPE: Review
JOURNALTITLE: Surgery, gynecology & obstetrics.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Immunologic evaluation of patients with cancer by delayed hypersensitivity reactions.
PUBDATE: 19751101
Testing of delayed hypersensitivity responses to recall antigens, newly encountered antigens and tumor antigens has contributed to the understanding of several immunologic factors in human neoplasia. Patients with Hodgkin's disease tend to have depressed responses to both newly encountered and recall antigens. Patients with solid tumors are more likely to be deficient only in the response to newly encountered antigens. In patients who have intact response to recall antigens, reactivity to antigen preparations from tumor and control tissue may be studied. Tumor-associated or organ-associated antigens have been demonstrated by delayed hypersensitivity responses in leukemia, Burkitt's lymphoma, malignant melanoma and carcinoma of the lung, breast, cervix uteri and intestine. Approaches to a definition of the specificity of these reactions are described. The results with these tumor antigen tests correlate strongly with the clinical course. This is a promising technique for monitoring immunotherapy. The results from tests with recall and newly encountered antigens also correlate with the clinical status and perhaps with prognosis. Various possible interpretations of these changes are discussed. Further work should be directed toward an exact definition of immunologic defects in patients with cancer and toward the use of this understanding for a rational program of immunotherapy.


3. DOCID:3236 SCORE: 0.00258214751768665
DOCNO: 872124
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Carcinogens
QUALIFIER: chemically induced
AUTHOR: R M Hicks RM
AUTHOR: J Chowaniec J
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer research.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: The importance of synergy between weak carcinogens in the induction of bladder cancer in experimental animals and humans.
PUBDATE: 19770801
It is now well established that the interaction of multiple environmental factors may increase the incidence of some human cancers more than exposure to a single carcinogen. With an in vivo experimental rat model, we have demonstrated a synergistic effect in bladder carcinogenesis between a subcarcinogenic dose of the strong bladder carcinogen, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, and saccharin- or cyclamate-containing diets. If these artificial sweeteners are capable of interacting with other environmental bladder carcinogens, their potential for increasing the incidence of human bladder cancer is greater than many more potent chemical carcinogens, because of their wide distribution as food additives to all sections of the population. Retrospective epidemiology shows no evidence of such risk from saccharin at current levels of consumption. No comparable studies are available for cyclamate, which was consumed in greater quantities but for relatively few years. It is emphasized that it is possible for interaction between multiple factors to contribute to the incidence of human bladder cancer as it does in other human organs and in other animal species.


4. DOCID:3317 SCORE: 0.00249708600196345
DOCNO: 12276787
OWNER: PIP
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Health Planning
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: IPPF/WHR news service. International Planned Parenthood Federation. Western Hemisphere Region.
COUNTRY: United States
TITLE: Ecuador officially adopts family planning.
PUBDATE: 19740201
The Ecuadorian government has officially announced its plan to extend family planning services to all citizens via its public health service. This September 21 announcement by Raul Maldonado Mejia, Minister of Public Health, indicated that family planning will be integrated into health services on the basis of the following principles: 1) Ecuadorian family planning programs are a medical action aimed at improving the health of mothers and children; 2) family planning must be established as part of a total health service for in this way it can be available to all people; 3) the government, through the Ministry of Health, will control and supervise all family planning services that are provided by private and public organizations; 4) information and education is recognized as an important requisite that allows women to freely and responsibly seek out these services; 5) family planning programs will include in their efforts the early detection of gynecological cancer and the study and treatment of the infertile couple; and 6) the national government can conduct family planning programs with the criterion of responsible parenthood through its own technical facilities or through qualified institutions and organizations.


5. DOCID:3882 SCORE: 0.0024096151670303
DOCNO: 1245005
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: epidemiology
AUTHOR: P F Richard PF
AUTHOR: J Cantin J
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie.
COUNTRY: CANADA
TITLE: Primary carcinoma of the gallbladder: study of 108 cases.
PUBDATE: 19760101
From 1948 through 1970, 108 causes of primary carcinoma of the gallbladder were recorded out of a total of 17 698 cases of cancer exclusive of skin cancer (incidence, 0.6%). This review indicated that the following are the chief features of this condition: Primary gallbladder carcinoma is mainly a disease of women older than 60 years; abdominal pain occurs in most patients and jaundice in more than half, and weight loss is also common; laboratory and radiographic features are nonspecific; the diagnosis is made or strongly suspected in only one-quarter and, moreover, in many patients the disease may not be discovered until pathologic examination is conducted postoperatively. Resection was possible in 41 of the 93 patients who underwent operation but treatment was conservative because it was palliative in 20, and in 20 of the other underwent cholecystectomy the disease was not recognized at operation. Overall, the 5-year survival rate was 6.4%; for those who underwent curative resection it was 33%; and for patients without visible metastases at operation the mean survival was 3 years. Improvement in survival will come from more frequent recognition of the cancer at operation so that an operation so that an operation more adequate than cholecystectomy may be performed; that is, cholecystectomy, wedge resection of liver and resection of regional lymph nodes.


6. DOCID:3932 SCORE: 0.0023932677022337
DOCNO: 1111934
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: immunology
QUALIFIER: immunology
AUTHOR: R J Ellis RJ
AUTHOR: G Wernick G
AUTHOR: J B Zabriskie JB
AUTHOR: L I Goldman LI
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Immunologic competence of regional lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer.
PUBDATE: 19750301
In 24 patients undergoing radical mastectomy, the degree of sensitization to breast cancer was compared between lymphocytes obtained from regional lymph nodes and circulating lymphocytes. Using the direct lymphocyte migration inhibition assay a greater immunologic response was observed in regional lymph node lymphocytes as compared to circulating lymphocytes when challenged with breast cancer antigen in vitro. In the breast cancer group, migration inhibition (M.I.) was 21% plus or minus 3% in the regional lymph node (R.L.N.) lymphocytes, as compared to 7% plus or minus 3% in the peripheral blood (P.B.) lymphocytes (p smaller than .01). In the control group M.I. was - 10% plus or minus 2% in the R.L.N. lymphocytes, as compared to - 2% plus or minus 3% in the P.B. lymphocytes (p equal to n.s.) indicating no immunologic response to the breast cancer antigen. A significant delayed hypersensitivity response (M.I.greater 20%) was found in 17/24 regional lymph nodes of the radical mastectomy graoup, as compared to 7/24 in the peripheral blood samples tested in the same group, indicating a superior immune response in the regional lymph node lymphocyte population. These data support the concept that regional lymph nodes in breast cancer patients are immunologically competent, and that the lymphocytes in these nodes are more reactive with a tumor antigen than are the circulating lymphocytes.


7. DOCID:3350 SCORE: 0.00230965885518294
DOCNO: 953974
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: prevention & control
AUTHOR: A I Sutnick AI
AUTHOR: D G Miller DG
AUTHOR: B Samson B
AUTHOR: D H Dean DH
AUTHOR: K M Kukowski KM
AUTHOR: L Halpern L
AUTHOR: C Jefferys C
AUTHOR: A K Bahn AK
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Population cancer screening.
PUBDATE: 19760901
Controlled trials to evaluate mass screening programs for cancer detection have been singularly lacking. High cost, lack of medical manpower, and low yield have contributed to this problem. A new program in cancer detection (CANSCREEN) has been developed jointly by The Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia and the Preventive Medicine Institute in New York City. This program attempts to provide a quality cancer-detection examination with increased cost effectiveness. Features include: 1) a self-administered questionnaire on medical history, symptoms, and risk factors; 2) nonphysican examiners; 3) risk-facotr analysis with a predetermined decision logic to determine type and periodicity of examination; and 4) primary intervention (health education). This collaborative program between two institutions in two cities demonstrates the feasibility of introducing similar programs elsewhere. A data base shared by cooperating centers permits information on all patients to be used for evaluation of new techniques, end results, etc. A randomized controlled trial has been designed to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the questionnaire alone and of the questionnaire and examination.


8. DOCID:3000 SCORE: 0.00226293454171307
DOCNO: 1079163
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Antigen-Antibody Reactions
DESCRIPTOR: Immunity, Cellular
QUALIFIER: immunology
QUALIFIER: immunology
QUALIFIER: immunology
AUTHOR: C D Thompson CD
AUTHOR: S Whittingham S
AUTHOR: I R Mackay IR
AUTHOR: S K Khoo SK
AUTHOR: B H Toh BH
AUTHOR: R J Stagg RJ
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Canadian Medical Association journal.
COUNTRY: CANADA
TITLE: Quantitation of cell-mediated immunity: responses to dinitrochlorobenzene and ubiquitous antigens.
PUBDATE: 19750501
T-lymphocyte immune capacity in man was assessed semiquantitatively by two in vivo procedures: the primary type of response to dinitrochlorobenzene and the secondary type of response, representing memory, to a group of five uniquitous antigens. Controlling for degree of illness proved important in assessing immune capacity in specific diseases; thus, the number of responders and mean score of semiquantitated responses was significantly lower in groups of patients with cancer and multisystem autoimmune disease when comparisons were made with healthy persons, but less so when comparisons were made with a group of subjects with other incapacitating diseases. A notable finding was the lack of correlation in the results of tests of cell-mediated immunity between the two procedures described. Depressed cell-mediated immunity shown in multisystem autoimmune disease is relevant to both predisposition to infection and the postulated role of thymic dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity.


9. DOCID:3436 SCORE: 0.00224258770894535
DOCNO: 808268
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: enzymology
AUTHOR: C W Lin CW
AUTHOR: M L Orcutt ML
AUTHOR: L L Stolbach LL
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer research.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Elevation of histaminase and its concurrence with Regan isoenzyme in ovarian cancer.
PUBDATE: 19751001
Histaminase has been shown to be associated with several types of human cancer. In the present study, we examined the activity of histaminase and its relationship with Regan isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase in ascitic fluids obtained from patients with ovarian and several other types of cancer. We have found that about 44% of the ovarian cancer patients had elevated levels of histaminase in the ascitic fluid, whereas a less frequent incidence was observed in fluids obtained from other types of cancer. There was concurrence in the elevation of histaminase activity with the appearance of Regan isoenzyme in most of the samples examined. Of the 10 patients who showed elevated histaminase, 9 had high Regan isoenzyme activity; whereas in 9 patients with normal levels of histaminase, all except 1 had low or moderate levels of Regan isoenzyme activity. These results, therefore, confirm the observation of an association of histaminase with human cancer and suggest the possibility for the utilization of histaminase, in conjunction with Regan isoenzyme and cancer-associated proteins, for cancer diagnosis and clinical evaluation of tumor progression and regression during therapy.


10. DOCID:2886 SCORE: 0.00204095272285864
DOCNO: 920184
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Diagnostic Errors
QUALIFIER: epidemiology
QUALIFIER: epidemiology
AUTHOR: E Malec E
AUTHOR: G Eklund G
AUTHOR: B Lagerlöf B
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Acta pathologica et microbiologica Scandinavica. Section A, Pathology.
COUNTRY: DENMARK
TITLE: Re-appraisal of malignant melanoma diagnosis in the Swedish cancer registry.
PUBDATE: 19770901
In many countries the registration of malignant melanoma of the skin shows an increased incidence; this may partially be due to an over-diagnosis. From the group of 3,268 adults and 21 children classified as suffering from malignant melanoma of the skin in the Swedish Cancer Registry between 1959-1968, a one-in-ten systematic sample survey was the object of a retrospective examination. 349 adults and 2 children had a uniform histopathological evaluation performed by one of the authors (B.L.). Slides were not available in 8 cases (2 per cent) and in the remaining 343, the diagnosis was regarded as incorrect in 13 (3.7 per cent). All these 13 cases, (2 children and 11 adults), showed no special predilection as to age, sex, location, or year of registration. In view of such a slight degree of error, the Swedish Cancer registry's melanoma group from 1959-1968 would seem suitable for further epidemiological studies.


11. DOCID:3474 SCORE: 0.00203648243658151
DOCNO: 165465
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: etiology
QUALIFIER: etiology
QUALIFIER: etiology
QUALIFIER: deficiency
AUTHOR: P Mauvais-Jarvis P
AUTHOR: F Kuttenn F
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: La Nouvelle presse médicale.
COUNTRY: FRANCE
TITLE: [Is progesterone insufficiency carcihogenic?]
PUBDATE: 19750201
Estradiol is a natural estrogen which favors cellular hyperplasia at the level of its target organs. As for progesterone, its activity may be synergic or antagonist of estradiol. In the first case, progesterone has generally a secretory activity upon the target cells "prepared" by estrogens, in particular the cells of the female genital tract (uterus, breast). In the second case, progesterone may be an antiestrogen not only at the level of genital cells but also at the level of other receptors such as vascular system, etc. If an unbalance occurs in the quantitative and chronological ratio between estradiol and progesterone production (which determines the number of target cells and their secretory activity), a cellular dysplasia may be observed. This unbalance is generally characterized by an insufficiency in progesterone secretion which may be physiological (puberty, menopause) or pathological. Such a progesterone insufficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of genital cancers (endometrial and possibly mammary). Experimental data which give some support to such an hypothesis are reported. They emphasize the importance of treatment of the progesterone insufficiency of the premenopausal period in women with the aim of preventing cellular dysplasia of the female genital tract.


12. DOCID:3933 SCORE: 0.0019988535111037
DOCNO: 203161
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Inuits
QUALIFIER: epidemiology
AUTHOR: N H Nielsen NH
AUTHOR: F Mikkelsen F
AUTHOR: J P Hansen JP
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Acta pathologica et microbiologica Scandinavica. Section A, Pathology.
COUNTRY: DENMARK
TITLE: Nasopharyngeal cancer in Greenland. The incidence in an Arctic Eskimo population.
PUBDATE: 19771101
Nasopharyngeal cancer is very common among the Chinese in various parts of the world, particularly Southern China, and frequent in certain other Mongoloid groups in Southeast Asia. Also, the incidence among the Eskimos of the western Canadian Arctic and Alaska is considerably higher than would be expected. Ths paper reports for the first time the incidence of nasopharyngeal cancer among native Greenlanders, an Eskimo population with some admixture of Caucasian blood. During 1955-1976, thirty-five cases of nasopharyngeal cancer were diagnosed. Ninety-four per cent (33 cases) were squamous cell carcinomas, including lymphoepitheliomas. Incidence rates 1965-1976, age adjusted to the "world" population distribution, were 12.3 and 8.5 per 100,000 per annum for males and females respectively. These rates are among the highest recorded in the world and significantly higher than among the Caucasian population in Denmark. Compared with other high risk populations nasopharyngeal cancer among Greenlanders had an older age distribution and a lower male-to-female sex ratio. An additional 11 cases with malignant involvement, seeminly confined only to cervical lymph nodes, may have included some undiagnosed nasopharyngeal cancers. Thus the calculated incidence rates of this study could represent only minimum rates. Further research is needed especially with regard to the HL-A profile and to possible traces of Epstein-Barr virus infection.


13. DOCID:3725 SCORE: 0.00191863944704726
DOCNO: 832029
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Adolescent
DESCRIPTOR: Genital Diseases, Female
AUTHOR: J A Jordan JA
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: British medical journal.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: Aspects of student health. Adolescent gynaecology.
PUBDATE: 19770101
Most adolescent gynecological problems are related to sexual activity or the development or failure of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian-uterine activity. The 1st years of menstruation are usually anovulatory resulting in variable periods of amenorrhea which corrects itself in time. In profuse menstrual loss, endocrine, metabolic, and hemorrhagic disorders must be exlcuded before treatment with progesterone for endometrial hyperplasia. Primary amenorrhea requires detailed examination before diagnosis. Secondary amenorrhea is commonly caused by a disturbance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis due to an emotional disturbance. If pregnancy is eliminated, examination and reassurance are sufficient treatment. Most dysmenorrhea may be treated with mild analgesics and reassurance; in severe cases ovulation may be inhibited by estrogen treatment. Dilation of the cervix should never be attempted. In complaints of vaginal discharge, examination should be made for trichomonas, monilia, gonorrhea, or a forgotten tampon. Requests for contraception should be taken seriously regardless of age. The combined contraceptive pill or Gravigard or copper 7 IUD is the method of choice. Lower abdominal pain caused by pelvic inflammatory disease should be treated early to prevent tubal occlusion after salpingitis. Evidence of higher cervical cancer incidence among women who were sexually active in adolescence suggests routine cervical cytology should be performed. Treatment of adolescents should dispel ignorance and embarrassment with patience and skill.


14. DOCID:2371 SCORE: 0.00188858384806573
DOCNO: 1215719
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Contraceptive Agents, Female
QUALIFIER: administration & dosage
QUALIFIER: administration & dosage
AUTHOR: C Revaz C
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Revue médicale de la Suisse romande.
COUNTRY: SWITZERLAND
TITLE: [20 questions aporopos of trimestrial injection of depot contraceptives]
PUBDATE: 19750901
The treatment studied is the injection of 150 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) every 3 months, effective for a minimum of 13 and a maximum of 41 weeks. It is regarded as a safe, effective, and practical contraceptive method, without permanent effects and with limited side effects, but its use remains limited to certain categories of women because of some side effects and contraindications. The absence of estrogen tends to reduce contraindications. The most important side effect consists of irregular hemorrhages and spotting during the first 9-12 months, followed by amenorrhea, which is reversible. The ovarian function is generally reestablished within 6-12 months following the last injection, and fertility is also reestablished. Studies showing a higher incidence of cancer of the uterus among women using MPA, which prompted the Food and Drug Administration to rstrict its use, are refuted by the author.