0. DOCID:7732 SCORE: 0.00435635730905432
DOCNO: 366189
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
QUALIFIER: instrumentation
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
AUTHOR: J M Miller JM
AUTHOR: J I Hamburger JI
AUTHOR: S Kini S
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Use of fine-needle aspiration and needle biopsy.
PUBDATE: 19790201
The accuracy of diagnosis of 455 thyroid nodules evaluated by cytological and histological specimens obtained by fine- and large-needle biopsy, respectively, was compared with that for 1,094 nodules previously evaluated by clinical methods. The use of cytohistological data halved the number of patients with suspected cancer and doubled the number of patients to be observed. Cancers identified at operation for high and intermediate cancer-risk patients increased 75%, and operation for diagnosis of benign disease decreased 70%. Forty-two of 47 excised cancers were included in the cytohistological probable cancer group. Only 29 of these cancers were so classified clinically. Two cancers not diagnosed cytologically were suspected histologically and vice versa for one cancer. All 51 excised cytohistologically benign nodules were benign. There were more false-positive findings with cytological than with histological specimens.


1. DOCID:7997 SCORE: 0.00396615813637199
DOCNO: 78006
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: complications
QUALIFIER: epidemiology
QUALIFIER: complications
AUTHOR: A J McMichael AJ
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Lancet.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: Increases in laryngeal cancer in Britain and Australia in relation to alcohol and tobacco consumption trends.
PUBDATE: 19780601
The incidence of laryngeal and oesophageal cancers has recently risen in Britain and Australia, particularly in younger people, after many decades of steady decline. In view of accruing evidence that head-and-neck cancers are causally related to alcohol and tobacco consumption, particularly in combination, it seems that the upsurge in consumption of alcohol and cigarettes after the 1939-45 war is now reflected in the increases in these two cancers, particularly in young women. The time-trends in sex-specific mortality from cancers of the larynx and oesophagus throughout this century, in both Britain and Australia, show strong correlations with alcohol consumption. By reference to inter-country differences in consumption trends, to differences in consumption of alcohol and cigarettes, to sex differences in cigarette consumption, to trends in types of alcoholic drink consumed, and to the mortality experienced of successive generations, the evidence that alcohol is causally related to laryngeal cancer is strengthened.


2. DOCID:6930 SCORE: 0.00382323987813694
DOCNO: 7218445
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Immune Adherence Reaction
QUALIFIER: radiotherapy
QUALIFIER: radiotherapy
QUALIFIER: radiation effects
AUTHOR: J P Richie JP
AUTHOR: W T Yap WT
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The Journal of urology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Further observations on the specific red cell adherence test: effects of radiation therapy.
PUBDATE: 19810401
To assess the effects of radiation therapy on the specific red cell adherence test we have evaluated 33 patients who underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer and in whom radiotherapy had been used. With this test negative tumors were found in 32 of the 33 cases. In a second series of 10 patients histologic examinations were done by biopsy before radiotherapy and by subsequent microscopic examination of the cystectomy specimen. The specific red cell adherence test results remained constant in all of these cases. These findings strongly suggest that 1) the specific red cell adherence test does remain negative after radiotherapy and 2) this test is a valuable prognosticator of the future likelihood of invasion in all patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.


3. DOCID:7922 SCORE: 0.00369345529431459
DOCNO: 762865
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Attitude of Health Personnel
DESCRIPTOR: Neoplasms
DESCRIPTOR: Physicians
DESCRIPTOR: Truth Disclosure
AUTHOR: D H Novack DH
AUTHOR: R Plumer R
AUTHOR: R L Smith RL
AUTHOR: H Ochitill H
AUTHOR: G R Morrow GR
AUTHOR: J M Bennett JM
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Changes in physicians' attitudes toward telling the cancer patient.
PUBDATE: 19790301
In answer to a questionnaire administered in 1961, 90% of responding physicians indicated a preference for not telling a cancer patient his diagnosis. To assess attitudinal changes, the same questionnaire was submitted to 699 university-hospital medical staff. Of 264 respondents, 97% indicated a preference for telling a cancer patient his diagnosis--a complete reversal of attitude. As in 1961, clinical experience was the major policy determinant, but the 1977 population emphasized the influence of medical school and hospital training. Our respondents indicated less likelihood that they would change their present policy or be swayed by research. Clinical experience was the determining factor in shaping two opposite policies. Physicians are still basing their policies on emotion-laden personal conviction rather than the outcome of properly designed scientific studies.


4. DOCID:7009 SCORE: 0.00363470612547668
DOCNO: 446976
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: chemically induced
QUALIFIER: chemically induced
QUALIFIER: chemically induced
QUALIFIER: immunology
AUTHOR: M Namba M
AUTHOR: T Yoshimoto T
AUTHOR: T Ogura T
AUTHOR: F Hirao F
AUTHOR: I Azuma I
AUTHOR: Y Yamamura Y
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Gann = Gan.
COUNTRY: JAPAN
TITLE: Effect of Nocardia rubra cell-wall skeleton on the induction of lung cancer in ACI/N rats.
PUBDATE: 19790201
Administration of oil-attached Nocardia rubra cell-wall skeleton (N. rubra-CWS) was evaluated for the effect of the induction of lung cancers in ACI/N rats. Lung cancers were induced by 15 weekly intratracheal instillations of 3 mg benzo[a]-pyrene with 3 mg ferric oxide. After the 10th instillation of the carcinogen, rats received seven subcutaneous injections of 100 microgram of N. rubra-CWS at 2-week intervals. In the observation period of 56 weeks, the cumulative incidence of lung cancer was 71.4% in the control group and 48.0% in the N. rubra-CWS treated group. The latent period of tumor induction was prolonged in the group treated with N. rubra-CWS.


5. DOCID:7744 SCORE: 0.00354553190242874
DOCNO: 640800
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Bladder Neoplasms
DESCRIPTOR: Neoplasms, Experimental
AUTHOR: J A Heaney JA
AUTHOR: E P Ornellas EP
AUTHOR: J J Daly JJ
AUTHOR: J C Lin JC
AUTHOR: G R Prout GR
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Investigative urology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: In vivo growth of human bladder cancer cell lines.
PUBDATE: 19780301
Two human bladder cancer cell lines grew predictably in rats immunosuppressed with antilymphocyte serum. Intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor cell suspensions resulted in diffuse intraabdominal carcinomatosis with consequent host death after 10 to 20 days. Subcutaneous inoculation of tumor cell suspensions resulted in local tumors which grew exponentially for 20 to 30 days before eventual regression after 40 to 50 days; lung metastases developed in at least 13 per cent of the animals with subcutaneous tumors. The histologic appearance of the xenografted tumors closely resembled that of the original tumors. Subsequent in vitro culture of the xenografted tumors provided cell lines that were morphologically identical to the primary lines and that retained a human karyotype. It is proposed to employ this model of human bladder cancer to evaluate chemotherapeutic agents for possible use in the clinical disease.


6. DOCID:5525 SCORE: 0.00342990597584135
DOCNO: 553095
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: pharmacology
QUALIFIER: drug effects
QUALIFIER: drug effects
QUALIFIER: physiopathology
AUTHOR: F P Smith FP
AUTHOR: D L Kisner DL
AUTHOR: L Widerlite L
AUTHOR: P S Schein PS
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Journal of clinical gastroenterology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Chemotherapeutic alteration of small intestinal morphology and function: a progress report.
PUBDATE: 19790901
Nine patients with malignancy requiring chemotherapy were evaluated before, during, and in the recovery phase of their antineoplastic regimen with selected absorptive studies and jejunal biopsies. Depression of the crypt mitoses occurred without change in the indices of absorption. The mitotic indices returned to pretreatment counts on the recovery phase biopsies. Even after prolonged therapy, restudy in three of the patients failed to demonstrate clinical malabsorption. We conclude that chemotherapy-related malabsorption does not contribute to overall malnutrition of cancer patients during the first months of treatment.


7. DOCID:6681 SCORE: 0.00338007506719821
DOCNO: 520791
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
AUTHOR: K W Schweppe KW
AUTHOR: K H Möhlen KH
AUTHOR: F K Beller FK
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde.
COUNTRY: GERMANY, WEST
TITLE: [Carcinoma of the breast and pregnancy (author's transl)]
PUBDATE: 19791201
The prognosis of carcinoma of the breast which was detected during pregnancy or during the breast feeding is discussed. Personal cases are described and the literature is reviewed. The prognosis of carcinoma of the breast following complete treatment is investigated when the prognosis may be influenced by a pregnancy. In contra-distinction to the older view the prognosis is only worsened when the axillary lymph nodes show cancer. Without spread to the axillary lymph nodes there is no difference in the survival rates. In cases with complete treatment for carcinoma of the breast the pregnancy appeared to have a favorable influence on the prognosis. In our own few cases axillary lymph nodes in pregnant women worsened the prognosis more than in non-pregnant women.


8. DOCID:7034 SCORE: 0.00323253151657618
DOCNO: 6171336
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Nitrosamines
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
AUTHOR: P M Pour PM
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer letters.
COUNTRY: NETHERLANDS
TITLE: A new prostatic cancer model: systemic induction of prostatic cancer in rats by a nitrosamine.
PUBDATE: 19810901
Weekly intragastric application of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl) amine (BOP) at a dose of 10 mg/kg body wt induced prostatic cancer in 5 out of 15 MRC rats. Hyperplasia and metaplasia of the prostatic gland were found in 13 rats with or without cancer. All tumors had developed in the dorsal lobe, had reached a size of up to 20 mm and were invasive. Distant metastases were not observed. Although hyperplastic lesion were of a glandular type, all carcinomas had squamous cell character. All cases of prostatic cancer were associated with papillomas or carcinomas of the urethral epithelium, which had initially developed in the colliculus seminalis. The induction of prostatic cancer for the first time by a systemic application by a nitrosamine provides a promising model for understanding basic principals of prostatic cancer.


9. DOCID:6618 SCORE: 0.00322325987142729
DOCNO: 638962
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: etiology
QUALIFIER: complications
AUTHOR: Y K Liu YK
AUTHOR: M Grimaldi M
AUTHOR: C L Dannaher CL
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Myelopoietic abnormalities in patients with metastatic carcinoma.
PUBDATE: 19780301
Myelopoiesis was assessed in 41 untreated patients with widespread cancer without evidence of infection. None of these patients had neutropenia, although leukopenia due to decreased concentrations of blood lymphocytes was observed in two. Sixteen patients (39%) had neutrophilia and 12 patients (29%), 5 of them with neutrophilia, had decreased marrow granulocyte reserve. Neither the blood neutrophil counts nor the marrow granulocyte reserve correlated significantly with the marrow myeloid mitotic indices, myeloid to erythroid ratio or the number of marrow colony-forming cells. There was no difference in the duration of the disease, the extent of systemic metastasis and the degree of malnutrition between patients with or without myelopoietic abnormalities. Our findings suggest that decreased marrow granulocyte reserve and neutrophilia are common in untreated patients with disseminated carcinoma.


10. DOCID:7866 SCORE: 0.00321035010104191
DOCNO: 702699
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Radiography, Thoracic
QUALIFIER: radiography
QUALIFIER: radiography
QUALIFIER: radiography
AUTHOR: W F Sindelar WF
AUTHOR: D H Bagley DH
AUTHOR: E L Felix EL
AUTHOR: J L Doppman JL
AUTHOR: A S Ketcham AS
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Lung tomography in cancer patients. Full-lung tomograms in screening for pulmonary metastases.
PUBDATE: 19781101
In a retrospective study of the cases of 415 patients with various malignant neoplasms, full-lung tomography and conventional chest roentgenography were compared for accuracy in the detection of pulmonary metastases. Sufficient information was available on 410 patients to permit confirmation as to whether pulmonary metastases were present at the time of screening chest roentgenographic and tomographic examinations. On screening by routine chest roentgenography, metastases were detected in 36 patients, 66.7% of the total with confirmed metastatic disease. Screening by full-lung tomography identified metastases in 51 (94.4%). Fifteen patients with normal chest roentgenograms had metastatic lesions on tomograms. Metastases were detected in 8.8% by chest roentgenograms and in 12.4% by tomograms in a population of cancer patients with a 13.2% incidence of pathologically confirmed metastatic lesions.


11. DOCID:7327 SCORE: 0.00317538160528827
DOCNO: 476583
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: administration & dosage
QUALIFIER: drug therapy
AUTHOR: W R Berry WR
AUTHOR: J Laszlo J
AUTHOR: E Cox E
AUTHOR: A Walker A
AUTHOR: D Paulson D
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Prognostic factors in metastatic and hormonally unresponsive carcinoma of the prostate.
PUBDATE: 19790801
Eighty-eight patients with hormone-resistant Stage IV prostate cancer were treated with a five-drug chemotherapy program. Patient demographic data, prior therapy, symptoms, extent of disease, and laboratory studies were analyzed statistically to evaluate the association of these parameters with survival from the onset of chemotherapy. Factors associated with short survival included age greater than 65, severe bone pain, poor performance status, presence of soft tissue metastases, anemia, elevation of serum LDH, SGOT, alkaline and acid phosphatases, and prolactin, and hypoalbuminemia. Race, stage at initial diagnosis, prior radiation therapy, prior orchiectomy, and elevation of CEA had no prognostic association. We suggest that clinical trials of new therapies of hormone-resistant prostate cancer take into account the presence of these prognostic factors in the analysis of the results of therapeutic programs.


12. DOCID:7070 SCORE: 0.00304296917700525
DOCNO: 84065
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: pathology
AUTHOR: K Jellinger K
AUTHOR: P Kothbauer P
AUTHOR: E Sunder-Plassmann E
AUTHOR: R Weiss R
PUBTYPE: Case Reports
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Journal of neurology.
COUNTRY: GERMANY, WEST
TITLE: Intramedullary spinal cord metastases.
PUBDATE: 19790101
Seven autopsy cases of intramedullary metastases, four in the cervical spinal cord, are reported and the literature reviewed. Whereas lung and breast cancer, malignant melanomas and lymphomas are reported as the most common primary tumors, the present series included three cases of breast carcinoma and two cases each of colon and oat cell carcinoma of the lung. Neither the clinical symptoms nor the neurological signs distinguished intramedullary metastases from the more common extradural deposits, but radiological evidence of vertebral metastases and myelographic stop were present in only one case each, and CSF cytology was negative. Intramedullary deposits in this series were neither associated with extradural tumor nor with spread into the subarachnoid space, while cerebral metastases were present in four cases. This favors hematogenous dissemination rather than direct transdural or perineural spread of these lesions.


13. DOCID:7444 SCORE: 0.00304175034751409
DOCNO: 7026020
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: administration & dosage
QUALIFIER: drug therapy
AUTHOR: J Carmo-Pereira J
AUTHOR: F O Costa FO
AUTHOR: E Henriques E
PUBTYPE: Clinical Trial
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
PUBTYPE: Randomized Controlled Trial
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Chemotherapy of advanced breast cancer: a randomized trial of vincristine, Adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) versus cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, and prednisone (CMFP).
PUBDATE: 19811001
Fifty-one patients with metastatic breast cancer were randomly allocated to receive either a four drug combination consisting of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, and prednisone (CMFP), or a combination of vincristine, Adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) with cross-over on relapse. Objective responses were seen in 17 of 26 patients (65%) in the CMFP group and in 14 of 25 patients (56%) in the VAC group, but this difference was not statistically significant. The median duration of response for each group was one year. The estimated median survival was greater for the CMFP group, but this was not significant. Toxicity was more severe with the VAC regimen. It is concluded that there is no therapeutic advantage of the VAC over the CMFP regimen.


14. DOCID:7591 SCORE: 0.0030324413979564
DOCNO: 435056
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
AUTHOR: C O Knutson CO
AUTHOR: M H Max MH
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy. A critical review of 662 examinations.
PUBDATE: 19790401
The results of 662 therapeutic and diagnostic colonoscopic examinations were reviewed to assess the morbidity, clinical benefit, diagnostic accuracy, and indications for the procedure, with special emphasis on detection and endoscopic excision of small, occult, invasive cancers. Overall, the frequency of detecting occult lesions (19%), the (89%) ability to clarify questionable radiographic findings, and a substantial reduction in laparotomy-colotomy procedures required for removal of colonic polyps (88%), coupled with a low morbidity (3%) and low false-negative examination rate (1%) established colonoscopy as one of the most important advances in the management of colon disease in recent years. Although early experience suggests that small, occult, invasive carcinomas, when properly selected, could be adequately treated by endoscopic excision, larger series and longer follow-up periods are necessary to validate any conclusions regarding the decision to manage these lesions conservatively.