0. DOCID:3943 SCORE: 0.00681080088941946
DOCNO: 1070982
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Smoking
QUALIFIER: analysis
QUALIFIER: epidemiology
AUTHOR: K J Cullen KJ
AUTHOR: D P Stevens DP
AUTHOR: M A Frost MA
AUTHOR: I R Mackay IR
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Australian and New Zealand journal of medicine.
COUNTRY: AUSTRALIA
TITLE: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), smoking, and cancer in a longitudinal population study.
PUBDATE: 19760801
In 1969, the prevalence of raised levels (5 ng/ml of serum) of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was estimated in 2372 persons aged 40 years and over in Busselton, Western Australia. There were raised levels of CEA in 73 subjects (3%). The prevalence increased progressively with age in both non-smokers and smokers with a higher rate of prevalence at all ages in smokers, and a peak of 11% in smokers aged 65--74 years. Among non-smokers, the prevalence was similar in both men and women (1%), in smokers there was a stepwise rise in prevalence with increasing tobacco consumption. Subsequently, levels of CEA of 5 ng/ml or over tended to disappear from the sera in a greater proportion of the non/exsmokers than of smokers. In the following five years, "CEA-associated" cancer occurred in nine of 73 subjects (13%) with raised levels of CEA compared with 25 in 2299 (1%) in those with normal CEA levels. This association was independent of the confounding effects of age, sex, and smoking habit. The five year data on 2372 subjects have confirmed that CEA screening of healthy Busselton subjects has identified a group at future risk of developing "CEA-associated" cancers, in addition to drawing attention to the presence of existing cancers.


1. DOCID:10778 SCORE: 0.00439433607982996
DOCNO: 7201343
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: drug therapy
QUALIFIER: administration & dosage
AUTHOR: M S Blumenreich MS
AUTHOR: B Needles B
AUTHOR: A Yagoda A
AUTHOR: P Sogani P
AUTHOR: H Grabstald H
AUTHOR: W F Whitmore WF
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Intravesical cisplatin for superficial bladder tumors.
PUBDATE: 19820901
Cisplatin, 50-150 mg in a maximum concentration of 1 mg/ml, was administered intravesically each week to 24 patients with multiple, recurrent carcinoma in situ and/or bladder tumors confined to the mucosa and lamina propria. All patients had a history of multiple transurethral resections and four had received prior chemotherapy. Response was evaluated by urinary cytology, cystoscopy, and biopsy. In a total of 237 weekly doses, toxicities included mild dysuria, pruritus, rash and in one patient, acute anaphylaxis. Only three (13%) patients were classified as achieving complete remission. Cisplatin, in the dose and schedule employed, is ineffective in controlling superficial bladder cancer.


2. DOCID:7732 SCORE: 0.00435635730905432
DOCNO: 366189
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
QUALIFIER: instrumentation
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
AUTHOR: J M Miller JM
AUTHOR: J I Hamburger JI
AUTHOR: S Kini S
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Use of fine-needle aspiration and needle biopsy.
PUBDATE: 19790201
The accuracy of diagnosis of 455 thyroid nodules evaluated by cytological and histological specimens obtained by fine- and large-needle biopsy, respectively, was compared with that for 1,094 nodules previously evaluated by clinical methods. The use of cytohistological data halved the number of patients with suspected cancer and doubled the number of patients to be observed. Cancers identified at operation for high and intermediate cancer-risk patients increased 75%, and operation for diagnosis of benign disease decreased 70%. Forty-two of 47 excised cancers were included in the cytohistological probable cancer group. Only 29 of these cancers were so classified clinically. Two cancers not diagnosed cytologically were suspected histologically and vice versa for one cancer. All 51 excised cytohistologically benign nodules were benign. There were more false-positive findings with cytological than with histological specimens.


3. DOCID:3938 SCORE: 0.00402318302512753
DOCNO: 171104
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Receptors, Cell Surface
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
AUTHOR: R A Hawkins RA
AUTHOR: A Hill A
AUTHOR: B Freedman B
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry.
COUNTRY: NETHERLANDS
TITLE: A simple method for the determination of oestrogen receptor concentrations in breast tumours and other tissues.
PUBDATE: 19751001
A simple method for the determination of oestrogen receptor activity in breast tumours and other tissues is described. By competition between radioactive and non-radioactive oestradiol-17beta for binding to a tissue extract prepared with centrifugation at low speed, the presence or absence of receptors is decided from the unmanipulated data. The concentration of receptors (P0) and dissociation constant of binding (Kd) are calculated by Scatchard analysis. In two relatively homogeneous tissues, assay precision was of the order of 16% for receptor concentration and 21-33% for the dissociation constant of binding: in heterogeneous breast tumors, much poorer precision can be expected. Sensitivity determined empirically is approximately 0.1 fmol/mg tissue. The method has been applied to the determination of receptor concentrations in human breast cancers, benign breast tumours, non-malignant breast, gynaecomastic breast, and in various tissues of the rat. Receptor activity was detected in 70% of the human breast cancers examined, and in lower amounts, in 21% of the benign human breast tissues. Activity was also detected in rat uterus and mammary gland, and in low amounts in 82% of the rat mammary tumours analysed. Dissociation constant of binding was generally of the order of 0.5 x 10(-10) M. The advantages of the method are discussed.


4. DOCID:7997 SCORE: 0.00396615813637199
DOCNO: 78006
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: complications
QUALIFIER: epidemiology
QUALIFIER: complications
AUTHOR: A J McMichael AJ
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Lancet.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: Increases in laryngeal cancer in Britain and Australia in relation to alcohol and tobacco consumption trends.
PUBDATE: 19780601
The incidence of laryngeal and oesophageal cancers has recently risen in Britain and Australia, particularly in younger people, after many decades of steady decline. In view of accruing evidence that head-and-neck cancers are causally related to alcohol and tobacco consumption, particularly in combination, it seems that the upsurge in consumption of alcohol and cigarettes after the 1939-45 war is now reflected in the increases in these two cancers, particularly in young women. The time-trends in sex-specific mortality from cancers of the larynx and oesophagus throughout this century, in both Britain and Australia, show strong correlations with alcohol consumption. By reference to inter-country differences in consumption trends, to differences in consumption of alcohol and cigarettes, to sex differences in cigarette consumption, to trends in types of alcoholic drink consumed, and to the mortality experienced of successive generations, the evidence that alcohol is causally related to laryngeal cancer is strengthened.


5. DOCID:10065 SCORE: 0.00391395032104526
DOCNO: 6833019
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Brachytherapy
QUALIFIER: radiotherapy
AUTHOR: B van der Werf-Messing B
AUTHOR: R S Menon RS
AUTHOR: W C Hop WC
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Carcinoma of the urinary bladder category T3NxMo treated by the combination of radium implant and external irradiation: second report.
PUBDATE: 19830201
Forty-one patients with bladder cancer, T3NxMo, with a diameter not exceeding 5 cm, were treated by 3 times 350 rad external irradiation, radium implant at reduced dose, and an additional 3000 rad external irradiation ("Radium 55%"). Survival is excellent where there is a high or medium degree of differentiation without vascular invasion in the biopsy specimen; prognosis is poor if a low degree of differentiation is combined with vascular invasion. The future therapeutic approach will be adapted to this finding.


6. DOCID:14645 SCORE: 0.00389758277713238
DOCNO: 3622436
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Teratogens
QUALIFIER: methods
QUALIFIER: drug effects
AUTHOR: K E Whitby KE
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Environmental health perspectives.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Teratological research using in vitro systems. III. Embryonic organs in culture.
PUBDATE: 19870601
A search of literature published through the spring of 1986 yielded approximately 95 citations for the following embryonic organs in culture: kidney, pancreas, skin, palate, craniofacial tissue, tooth, lens, bones, digits, and liver. However, only the in vitro organ culture of the palate and tooth are reviewed in this paper. The other organ culture systems were not reported as teratogenic screens. Although some organs may have the potential for such use, many are currently used for evaluation of the pathogenesis associated with congenital abnormalities, cancer, or transplacental carcinogenesis, or in studies of the structure and function of differentiating organs, and will not be included in this review.


7. DOCID:6930 SCORE: 0.00382323987813694
DOCNO: 7218445
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Immune Adherence Reaction
QUALIFIER: radiotherapy
QUALIFIER: radiotherapy
QUALIFIER: radiation effects
AUTHOR: J P Richie JP
AUTHOR: W T Yap WT
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The Journal of urology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Further observations on the specific red cell adherence test: effects of radiation therapy.
PUBDATE: 19810401
To assess the effects of radiation therapy on the specific red cell adherence test we have evaluated 33 patients who underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer and in whom radiotherapy had been used. With this test negative tumors were found in 32 of the 33 cases. In a second series of 10 patients histologic examinations were done by biopsy before radiotherapy and by subsequent microscopic examination of the cystectomy specimen. The specific red cell adherence test results remained constant in all of these cases. These findings strongly suggest that 1) the specific red cell adherence test does remain negative after radiotherapy and 2) this test is a valuable prognosticator of the future likelihood of invasion in all patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.


8. DOCID:3483 SCORE: 0.00381906091342636
DOCNO: 1008478
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: epidemiology
QUALIFIER: methods
AUTHOR: I Soini I
AUTHOR: K Lauslahti K
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Annals of clinical research.
COUNTRY: FINLAND
TITLE: Screening for breast cancer in women aged 41--60.
PUBDATE: 19761201
All women aged 41--60 (20 644) living in the city of Tampere were invited to attend screening for breast cancer during the period April 1974--March 1975. The breasts and the axillary lymph nodes were examined and palpated by specially trained nurses. The women were instructed in self-examination and given a leaflet for study at home. If anything abnormal was revealed at this stage the subject was referred to a physician for further examination. The women who attended totalled 17 261 (84%), 627 (3.6%) of whom were referred for further examination and 615 attended. Surgical biopsy was recommended for 117 (19%) of these 615. Breast cancer was histologically verified in 27 subjects. Ten further cases of breast cancer were detected outside this screening during the same one year screening period, which made the overall detection rate 1.79 per thousand in this age group. As the expected incidence was 1.20 per thousand, the primary detection excess was 0.59 per thousand or 12 cases. A further advantage of screening of this kind is the instruction given to the subjects, which is expected to result in more cases of cancer being revealed at an earlier stage.


9. DOCID:15120 SCORE: 0.0038147290456901
DOCNO: 3586341
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: rehabilitation
QUALIFIER: rehabilitation
AUTHOR: T Hirai T
AUTHOR: S Aratani S
AUTHOR: K Yoshinaka K
AUTHOR: T Toge T
AUTHOR: M Niimoto M
AUTHOR: T Hattori T
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Gan no rinsho. Japan journal of cancer clinics.
COUNTRY: JAPAN
TITLE: [Clinical studies on the complaints of survivors living more than 3 months after total gastrectomy]
PUBDATE: 19870301
From 1973 to 1983, 802 patients with gastric cancer were operated on. Out of them, 292 (36.4%) received total gastrectomy. Reconstruction was performed mainly by the Billroth II procedure associated with the closure of the afferent loop according to Plenk's method. 90 patients living more than 3 months complained of the following: heartburn, 18 (20%); reflux, 12 (13.3%); retrosternal pain, 3 (3.3%); stenotic sensation, 23 (25.6%); diarrhea, 10 (11.1%); abdominal pain, 14 (15.6%); and dumping syndrome, 6 (6.7%). It seems to indicate that the quality of life after total gastrectomy is satisfactory.


10. DOCID:11344 SCORE: 0.00381013428084233
DOCNO: 3971331
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Diploidy
QUALIFIER: genetics
AUTHOR: S R Wolman SR
AUTHOR: H S Smith HS
AUTHOR: M Stampfer M
AUTHOR: A J Hackett AJ
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer genetics and cytogenetics.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Growth of diploid cells from breast cancers.
PUBDATE: 19850301
Cell cultures were derived from normal and cancerous breast tissues and from metastases by methods that selected for relatively adherent epithelial aggregates. Karyotypic analyses of first or second passage cultures yielded predominantly normal diploid cells. Nonclonal aberrations were more common in tumor-derived than in normal cultures. Three of the cultures that originated from metastases were characterized by abnormal clones. These results support observations based on DNA content, which indicate that a considerable fraction of breast cancers are composed predominantly of diploid cells. They differ greatly from chromosomal findings in long-term cultures of tumor effusions and thus emphasize the karyotypic diversity that can be found in tumors from a single tissue of origin--the breast.


11. DOCID:15985 SCORE: 0.00380962397832128
DOCNO: 3811915
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: secondary
QUALIFIER: secondary
QUALIFIER: pathology
AUTHOR: I Matsumoto I
AUTHOR: M Furusato M
AUTHOR: I Inomata I
AUTHOR: T Wada T
AUTHOR: S Aizawa S
PUBTYPE: Case Reports
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Acta pathologica japonica.
COUNTRY: JAPAN
TITLE: Prostatic cancer presenting as metastatic adenocarcinoma of sphenoid sinus.
PUBDATE: 19861101
Prostatic cancer is commonly manifested by obstructive uropathy, regional lymphatic metastases, and hematogenous metastases to the axial skeleton. It is relatively rare that initial signs begin with the involvement of other sites. Intracranial metastases especially are seldom found and may be unfamiliar to not only pathologists but also to physicians. In this article, we present a case where the metastasis was first manifest as a sphenoid sinus tumor prior to the demonstration of the primary site and the prostate was confirmed to be primary by biopsy specimen with immunoperoxidase method. In addition to discussing the route of the tumor spread, we deal with a prostatic specific antigen efficient for identifying the primary site.


12. DOCID:11183 SCORE: 0.0037303329361322
DOCNO: 7105515
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Mammography
QUALIFIER: radiography
AUTHOR: M J Homer MJ
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Clinical obstetrics and gynecology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Mammographic detection of breast cancer.
PUBDATE: 19820601
Mammography, whether film or xerography, is a complementary examination to breast palpation in the detection of breast cancer. According to the guidelines of the American Cancer Society, mammography should be performed on every asymptomatic woman, at least once, over the age of 35. Annual mammography after 50 is also advised. The radiation dose to the breast from current equipment is so low as to not be considered a factor in denying a woman this screening examination. Mammography has a role in evaluating the woman with solitary and multiple breast masses. It is the only proved reliable modality able to detect nonpalpable breast cancers and small tumors less than 2 cm in size. All nonpalpable lesions should be excised by directed biopsy, using a preoperative localization technique.


13. DOCID:15574 SCORE: 0.00371765808412823
DOCNO: 2815391
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: surgery
QUALIFIER: methods
AUTHOR: P C G√łtzsche PC
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Ugeskrift for laeger.
COUNTRY: DENMARK
TITLE: [Attitudes of medical students to randomization or free choice in breast cancer surgery and a suggestion for a new study design]
PUBDATE: 19891001
Six research models for breast cancer surgery were presented and debated in a two hour lecture to second year medical students. Half of the students (38/68) preferred a model which offered the woman the opportunity of choosing between tumorectomy and mastectomy after preceding randomization; one fourth preferred free choice without randomization. Descriptive ethical studies in the population after previous detailed information seem necessary to elucidate which research models the population are willing to accept as potential patients. In trials of therapies where the patients may be assumed to have individual preferences, a design is proposed with free choice between alternatives and secondary randomization among those who are unable to decide.


14. DOCID:15512 SCORE: 0.00371763494528783
DOCNO: 2900800
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Genes, ras
QUALIFIER: genetics
QUALIFIER: genetics
QUALIFIER: genetics
AUTHOR: K Honda K
AUTHOR: K Ishizaki K
AUTHOR: M Ikenaga M
AUTHOR: J Toguchida J
AUTHOR: T Inamoto T
AUTHOR: K Tanaka K
AUTHOR: K Ozawa K
AFFILIATION: Second Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Japan.
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Human genetics.
COUNTRY: GERMANY, WEST
TITLE: Increased frequency of specific alleles of the c-Ha-ras gene in Japanese cancer patients.
PUBDATE: 19880801
We have examined the c-Ha-ras locus in 145 cancer patients of a mixed group and 164 normal individuals in Japan for restriction fragment length polymorphisms and compared the allele distributions in normal and cancer populations. The c-Ha-ras gene is highly polymorphic in Japanese as previously reported in Caucasians. Two rare alleles were found to be present with increased frequencies in Japanese cancer patients. These results suggest that genotype analysis of the c-Ha-ras gene could be used to detect cancer-prone individuals.