0. DOCID:1727 SCORE: 0.00247788624531822
DOCNO: 931204
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: drug therapy
QUALIFIER: therapeutic use
AUTHOR: D T Kiang DT
AUTHOR: B J Kennedy BJ
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Annals of internal medicine.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Tamoxifen (antiestrogen) therapy in advanced breast cancer.
PUBDATE: 19771201
Fifty-nine postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer were treated with tamoxifen (antiestrogen), 20 mg orally twice a day for at least 2 months. They had been previously treated with other types of hormonal therapy or intensive chemotherapies, or both. Nineteen of the 59 patients (32%) had either a complete response (seven patients) or partial response (12 patients). The median duration of response was 9+ months. Tumors containing estrogen receptors and those that responded to previous hormonal manipulation tended to respond to tamoxifen (60% and 69%, respectively). Patients with receptor-negative tumor or with a history of failure of previous hormonal treatments did not respond to tamoxifen therapy. Tamoxifen is effective against advanced breast cancer. Side effects of the treatment were mild.


1. DOCID:2189 SCORE: 0.00230039194745859
DOCNO: 954507
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: surgery
AUTHOR: J Stadler J
AUTHOR: W Müller W
AUTHOR: H R Henche HR
AUTHOR: R Sauer R
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift für alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen.
COUNTRY: GERMANY, WEST
TITLE: [Treatment of pathologic fractures]
PUBDATE: 19760601
Eight pathologic fractures of benign and 52 of malignant origin are reported. Open reduction and rigid internal fixation should be performed to give the patient the use of his affected limb as soon as this can be accomplished. Treatment consists of internal fixation in lesions of the shaft and prosthetic replacement in the case of lesions near joints. Only very rarely a primary amputation must be performed. Malignant fractures are most frequently caused by metastases from breast cancers. The treatment will at least make nursing easier, and three-quarters of these patients can be mobilized. The combination of surgical treatment and radiotherapy is discussed. In spite of this approach the average time of survival of 14 months is short because a pathological fracture due to a malignant tumor is a late symptom of the disease.


2. DOCID:3364 SCORE: 0.00225728825153068
DOCNO: 805571
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Preoperative Care
QUALIFIER: radiotherapy
QUALIFIER: radiotherapy
AUTHOR: G A Higgins GA
AUTHOR: J H Conn JH
AUTHOR: P H Jordan PH
AUTHOR: E W Humphrey EW
AUTHOR: B Roswit B
AUTHOR: R J Keehn RJ
PUBTYPE: Clinical Trial
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
PUBTYPE: Randomized Controlled Trial
JOURNALTITLE: Annals of surgery.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Preoperative radiotherapy for colorectal cancer.
PUBDATE: 19750501
In a prospective randomized trial, 700 patients with a confirmed histological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the rectum or rectosigmoid were randomized to receive radiotherapy prior to operation (2000 to 2500 rads in two weeks) or surgery alone. Five year observed survival in the 453 patients on whom "curative" resection was possible was 48.5% in the X-ray treated group compared with 38.8% in controls, while in the 305 having low lying lesions requiring abdominoperineal resection, survival in the treated group was 46.9% compared with 34.3% in controls. Although suggestive of a treatment benefit, neither is considered statistically significant. Histologically positive lymph nodes were found in 41.2% of the control group and in only 27.8% of the patients receiving radiotherapy. Reveiw of all patients who died during the study shows a consistently lower death rate from cancer in the radiotherapy group. Although this study suggests a treatment benefit from preoperative radiotherapy, further studies now in progress by this group and others are necessary to determine the optimal dose regimen.


3. DOCID:3609 SCORE: 0.00223369999352619
DOCNO: 1015500
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: etiology
AUTHOR: A R Walker AR
AUTHOR: D P Burkitt DP
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The American journal of digestive diseases.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Colonic cancer--hypotheses of causation, dietary prophylaxis, and future research.
PUBDATE: 19761001
Colonic cancer is rare in primitive populations. In western populations it was uncommon in the past, but now accounts for about 3% of all deaths. The cause almost certainly lies with dietary changes. Probably, alterations in bowel milieu interieur, from interaction between metabolites and microbacteria, promote carcinogenesis. Changes in intakes of protein, fat, sugar, refined cereal products, and crude fiber have been advanced as predisposing or causative factors. Evidence suggests that (i) fall in fiber intake, but (ii) rise in fat intake, in their ability to increase fecal concentrations of bile acids and sterols (possible precursors of carcinogens) are most likely to be culpable. As preventive measures, a significant rise in fiber intake is practicable only from regular bran ingestion. A major reduction in fat intake is grossly unlikely. Even were rigorous dietary changes implemented, an early fall in colonic cancer incidence is highly improbable due to the long-term character of the disease. Future research must include characterization of the diet, metabolism, and disease pattern of segments of western populations who have low colonic cancer mortality rates; also, elucidation of the bearing of various intakes of different food components on the biochemistry and microbiology of the feces.


4. DOCID:3648 SCORE: 0.0022321288632164
DOCNO: 1121232
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Laryngectomy
DESCRIPTOR: Voice
AUTHOR: G P Moore GP
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The Laryngoscope.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Voice problems following limited surgical excision.
PUBDATE: 19750401
The published literature contains relatively few references to vocal rehabilitation for persons with partial laryngectomy. Articles on various types of surgery indicate that many individuals develop satisfactory voice following limited surgery, particularly supraglottic procedures. An informal questionnaire completed by 10 larngologists who had had substantial experience with sub-total laryngectomy revealed that an average of 25 percent of their patients with laryngeal cancer receive partial laryngectomy. Lesions limited to the epiglottis, supraglottic areas or one vocal cord are regularly treated by limited excision. Half of the questionnaires indicated that partial laryngectomy can be used for bilateral vocal cord lesions under certain circumstances. The questionnaire confirmed the published reports that most of the subsequent voices were satisfactory or good and many recover without special vocal retraining. Non reported employment of partial laryngectomy for sub-glottal cancer. Hemilaryngectomy and cordectomy frequently resulted in some impairment of voice. Speech therapy is often recommended when possible. Therapy applicable to voice following partial laryngectomy combines five emphases: 1. strengthening glottic closure and loudness of the voice; 2. improving the efficiency of breath expenditure; 3. increasing the articulatory skill and intelligibility of speech; 4. recognizing and compensating for hearing loss; and 5. aiding the patient to reduce detrimental environmental influences and to adjust to his environmental requirements.


5. DOCID:2872 SCORE: 0.00216178921878589
DOCNO: 318914
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
AUTHOR: J P Horstmann JP
AUTHOR: G G Pietra GG
AUTHOR: J A Harman JA
AUTHOR: N G Cole NG
AUTHOR: S Grinspan S
PUBTYPE: Case Reports
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
PUBTYPE: Review
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Spontaneous regression of pulmonary leiomyomas during pregnancy.
PUBDATE: 19770101
Multiple pulmonary nodular densities simulating metastastic cancer were discovered in a routine chest roentgenogram of a 30-year-old pregnant woman. Lung biopsy revealed nodules composed of smooth muscle and collagenous tissue containing entrapped glandular elements. The lesions were initially interpreted as multiple pulmonary fibroleiomyomatous hamartomas (MPFLH). During pregnancy and the post-partum period, the pulmonary nodules regressed spontaneously. Critical analysis of the published cases as well as our own case indicates that multiple pulmonary fibroleiomyomatous hamartomas (MPFLH) cannot be distinguished from benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) by either clinical, roentgenographic, or pathologic criteria and that all represent pulmonary metastases from a primary uterine neoplasm. The spontaneous regression of the pulmonary nodules in the present case as well as the increased risk for development of progressive pulmonary insufficiency in the pre-menopausal patients indicates an apparent hormonal dependence. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy appears to be the treatment of choice.


6. DOCID:2927 SCORE: 0.00214369313029026
DOCNO: 1212649
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
AUTHOR: B S Danes BS
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: The gardner syndrome. A study in cell culture.
PUBDATE: 19751201
Tetraploidy was increased in skin fibroblast cultures derived from three probands with the Gardner syndrome and nine affected members of one family as compared to that occurring in cultures from five unaffected family members as well as from six relatives by marriage and 15 normals grown in the laboratory at the same time under the same conditions. Tetraploidy was present at the first subculture (2 weeks after the initial biopsy was cultured) and for each line studied the percentage of dividing cells showing tetraploidy remained constant. Increased occurrence of tetraploidy was not observed in skin fibroblast cultures from patients with the genetic disorders familial polyposis coli, familial osteomas, and familial fibromatosis (neurofibromatosis), each of which show one of the four abnormal tissue growths observed in the Gardner syndrome. The relationship of the observed tetraploidy to the increased risk of such patients to develop abnormal growths and cancer has not been established. The increased tetraploidy should be of value in identifying the presence of the gene for the Gardner syndrome in high risk families.


7. DOCID:1256 SCORE: 0.00205931384450805
DOCNO: 1015544
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: pathology
AUTHOR: J R Chandler JR
AUTHOR: O M Guillamondegui OM
AUTHOR: G A Sisson GA
AUTHOR: E W Strong EW
AUTHOR: H W Baker HW
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: American journal of surgery.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Clinical staging of cancer of the head and neck: a new "new" system.
PUBDATE: 19761001
A revised clinical staging system for cancers arising in head and neck sites has been prepared. It utilizes a uniform N classification for cervical node metastases. The T classifications describing the extent of the primary tumor are generally similar but differ in specific details for each site. Although the present system makes use of past field trials and more recent clinical studies, it cannot be considered final. Clinicians managing cancer in head and neck sites are encouraged to test the system with their own patient data to elicit further areas for improvement.


8. DOCID:2436 SCORE: 0.00202983874289173
DOCNO: 1071239
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Mouth Mucosa
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
AUTHOR: V Smatt V
AUTHOR: W Tabbara W
AUTHOR: G Yafi G
PUBTYPE: Case Reports
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Revue de stomatologie et de chirurgie maxillo-faciale.
COUNTRY: FRANCE
TITLE: [Multiple cancers of the oral cavity. An unusual association of an epidermoid carcinoma of the mucosa with a bone carcinoma of salivary origin]
PUBDATE: 19761201
Multiple cancers cannot be considered as accidentally discovered curiosities. They have their own characteristics and differ from multifocal cancers or those secondary to a primary cancer. The authors describe the rare case of a patient suffering from two different types of cancer of the oral cavity; the first one was an epidermoid carcinoma of the upper alveolar mucosa, the second a salivary carcinoma of both epidermoid and glandular type situated within the bone of the mandible. A comparative study was carried out on the muco-epidermoid tumour and the adenosquamous carcinoma which proved the separate indentity of the second cancer. The galloping development of the adenosquamous carcinoma raises the problem of the effect of the primary cancer on the development of the second.


9. DOCID:1501 SCORE: 0.00199291164649122
DOCNO: 168792
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: surgery
QUALIFIER: surgery
QUALIFIER: surgery
QUALIFIER: surgery
QUALIFIER: surgery
QUALIFIER: surgery
AUTHOR: L Morgenstern L
AUTHOR: P A Kaufman PA
AUTHOR: N B Friedman NB
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: American journal of surgery.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: The case against tylectomy for carcinoma of the breast. The factor of multicentricity.
PUBDATE: 19750801
Five hundred consecutive cases of breast carcinoma were studied to determine the incidence of multicentric lesions in the resected specimens. When residual tumor in juxtaposition to the primary tumor or biopsy cavity is excluded, 41.6 per cent of specimens exhibited multicentric foci of tumor; 31 per cent of such foci were in sectors or quadrants remote from the primary tumor. In more than half of these cases the lymph nodes were uninvolved and cure rate would have been maximal had these multicentric tumor foci been removed. These findings confirm previous similar studies and we consider tylectomy an inappropriate mode of therapy for breast cancer.


10. DOCID:2090 SCORE: 0.0019580811079854
DOCNO: 962996
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Socioeconomic Factors
QUALIFIER: isolation & purification
QUALIFIER: mortality
QUALIFIER: microbiology
QUALIFIER: analysis
AUTHOR: J S Crowther JS
AUTHOR: B S Drasar BS
AUTHOR: M J Hill MJ
AUTHOR: R Maclennan R
AUTHOR: D Magnin D
AUTHOR: S Peach S
AUTHOR: C H Teoh-chan CH
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: British journal of cancer.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: Faecal steroids and bacteria and large bowel cancer in Hong Kong by socio-economic groups.
PUBDATE: 19760801
In a study of three socio-economic groups in Hong Kong, the high income group had a high faecal concentration of bile acids, especially the dihydroxy bile acids, compared to the low income group. The faecal bile acids were also more highly degraded. The faecal flora contained more bacteroides and fewer eubacteria. Very few of the clostridia able to dehydrogenate the steroid nucleus were isolated. An epidemiological study based on street blocks indicated that the high income group also have a higher incidence of cancer of the large bowel and of the breast. The results are discussed in terms of theories on the aetiology of large bowel cancer.


11. DOCID:1033 SCORE: 0.00189658081434399
DOCNO: 849850
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
QUALIFIER: blood supply
AUTHOR: R Kingreen R
AUTHOR: J Kracht J
PUBTYPE: Case Reports
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Fortschritte der Medizin.
COUNTRY: GERMANY, WEST
TITLE: [Mondor's disease]
PUBDATE: 19770201
Mondor's disease is described on the basis of 4 patients of our hospital. The typical finding is a subcuttaneous cord of about 5 min in diameter along the chest wall. The lenght varies from 10 to 40 cm. There is no significant preference of one sex. Often there are no symptoms like pain or tension of the skin. The clinical and histological examinations show in most cases a thrombosed vein at the junction of the subcutaneous tissue. Treatment does not result in a significant change of the natural course. Our study confirms, that Mondor's disease is benign and does not connote systemic disease or cancer.


12. DOCID:3426 SCORE: 0.00186240110137386
DOCNO: 194676
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: veterinary
QUALIFIER: pathology
AUTHOR: R D Cardiff RD
AUTHOR: S R Wellings SR
AUTHOR: L J Faulkin LJ
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
PUBTYPE: Review
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Biology of breast preneoplasia.
PUBDATE: 19770601
The literature dealing with mammary cancer and the presence of the identifiable preneoplastic lesions in the mammary gland of several species has been reviewed. A discrete morphologically identifiable lesion with a high malignant potential is considered preneoplastic. Lobuloalveolar lesions have been identified in the human mammary gland which fit most of the criteria for preneoplasia. The lesions, hyperplastic atypical lobules, are multicentric, have a high statistical association with breast cancer and demonstrate a morphological progression through dysplasia to frank carcinoma. Other breast lesions have a high statistical association but no morphological progression can be seen and their neoplastic potential remains unknown. The significance of these correlations is enhanced by the occurrence of homologous breast lesions in outbred and inbred animal models. Statistical correlation with breast cancer and aberrant morphology has been accepted as presumptive evidence of preneoplasia in some animals. Definitive proof of the neoplastic potential has been obtained in rodent models by transplantation of the suspected lesions and their subsequent development into cancers. Although a strong morphological and statistical analogy exists between the human and animal models, the causes and biological potential of the human lesions await experimental proof.


13. DOCID:3046 SCORE: 0.00183880380801156
DOCNO: 67817
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: adverse effects
QUALIFIER: adverse effects
QUALIFIER: adverse effects
QUALIFIER: drug therapy
AUTHOR: P S Schein PS
AUTHOR: S H Winokur SH
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
PUBTYPE: Review
JOURNALTITLE: Annals of internal medicine.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Immunosuppressive and cytotoxic chemotherapy: long-term complications.
PUBDATE: 19750101
Cytotoxic drugs, which are widely used as immunosuppressive and antiinflammatory agents in patients with neoplastic conditions, and cancer chemotherapy preparations, are of long-range concern due to the problem of cumulative organ toxicity which is not manifested until damage is extensive. These considerations have arisen because of their widespread use in recent years. Those involved in hepatic toxicity are the antimetabolites methotrexate and 6-mercaptopurine. Bisulfin, bleomycin, and methotrexate have been linked to pulmonary toxicity. Daunomycin and adriamycin, used as anticarcinogens, are examined for their cardiac toxicity. Cyclophosphamide and streptozotocin affect the urinary tract. These drugs have specific toxic effects on fertility in both males, through its disruption of the testicular function, and in females, for ovarian disruptions. Antifolics, 6-mercaptopurine, azathioprine, and alkylating agents, used for therapy in pregnant women, particularly in the first 4 months, are linked to the appearance of fetal abnormalities. The process of carcinogenesis is examined for clues to possible chemotherapy-related 2nd tumors, which appear during the course of treatment.


14. DOCID:3404 SCORE: 0.00176943026056124
DOCNO: 73412
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Gallium Radioisotopes
DESCRIPTOR: Iodine Radioisotopes
DESCRIPTOR: Radioisotopes
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
AUTHOR: G L DeNardo GL
AUTHOR: K A Krohn KA
AUTHOR: S J DeNardo SJ
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Comparison of oncophilic radiopharmaceuticals, *I-fibrinogen, 67Ga-citrate, 111In-bleomycin, and *I-bleomycin in tumor-bearing mice.
PUBDATE: 19771201
The pharmacokinetics of 67Ga-citrate, 111In-bleomycin, *I-bleomycin, and *I-fibrinogen were compared in a murine KHJJ tumor model in order to assess their relative potential as agents for in vivo detection of cancer. Although all four agents have been reported to be clinically efficacious, in this tumor model, *I-fibrinogen and 67Ga-citrate had the greatest tumor accumulation with maximum concentrations of 11.7% and 10.5% respectively. However, both these radiopharmaceuticals cleared slowly from the blood and animal. The maximum tumor concentrations of 111In-bleomycin and *I-bleomycin were 2.9% and 2.6% respectively, but *I-bleomycin had the advantage of rapid clearance from the blood and animal. 67Ga-citrate did not achieve its maximum tumor concentration until 24 hours after administration, whereas the other radiopharmaceuticals achieved maximum tumor concentration within several hours of administration. From these observations 123I-bleomycin seems to deserve clinical trials in patients. 123I-fibrinogen appears to have significant oncophilic potential if its clearance from the animal can be accelerated without altering its accumulation in the tumor.