0. DOCID:3649 SCORE: 0.00319464924258222
DOCNO: 163141
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: radiography
AUTHOR: H Grossman H
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: The evaluation of abdominal masses in children with emphasis on noninvasive methods. A roentgenographic approach.
PUBDATE: 19750301
Intravenous urography with total body opacification, and tomography as required, often give the most information toward evaluating abdominal masses in children. Ultrasonography is a noninvasive procedure which defines normal structures and differentiates cystic and solid tumors. The combination of these studies gives sufficient information about renal tumors to plan for possible surgery. Arteriography is not necessary for the diagnosis of Wilms' tumor, nor its surgical or medical management. Pseudotumor of the kidney is due to focal cortical hyperplasia. It can be diagnosed by nephrotomography, renal arteriography or renal scanning. The latter method is most accurate and has the lowest morbidity. Aortography is advisable in the evaluation of a patient with pheochromocytoma in an attempt to locate multiple tumors. Determining the extent of abdominal neuroblastoma by angiography and lymphangiography does not appear to influence the mode of therapy, not the survival rate; therefore, invasive diagnostic procedures do not appear to be indicated in neuroblastoma. Angiography is necessary in the evaluation of liver cancer. If one lobe is determined to be free of disease, lobectomy is a possible cure. Splenic cysts and choledochal cysts can be diagnosed by noninvasive methods such as ultrasonography or radioisotope scanning. Arteriography and percutaneous opacification are not necessary to make these diagnoses.


1. DOCID:1939 SCORE: 0.00269856415583485
DOCNO: 324083
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: methods
AUTHOR: D Zoedler D
AUTHOR: G Limbacher G
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Der Urologe. Ausg. A.
COUNTRY: GERMANY, WEST
TITLE: [Report of 100 total prostatectomies (author's transl)]
PUBDATE: 19770301
A total retropubic prostatectomy is an exact, clearly defined operation, which, in our hands, has been extensively standardized: it lasts an average of 1 1/2 h, results in relatively little blood loss-in only 20% of the cases is one or more units of whole blood utilized-and is accompanied by complications that are kept within tolerable boundaries. Complete enuresis can be avoided by using a particular stitching technique for the outlet of the bladder. A considerable incontinence occurred in only one patient, who during the day was temporarily forced to wear a Cunningham clamp. In the postoperative stationary phase, mortality was 2%. A radical prostatectomy makes complete recovery from cancer of the prostate possible without mutilation and without aggravating functional injuries. It has, therefore, a secure place in the surgical therapy of cancer.


2. DOCID:1530 SCORE: 0.00250684166046271
DOCNO: 1115531
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Carcinogens
QUALIFIER: toxicity
QUALIFIER: chemically induced
AUTHOR: M Kuschner M
AUTHOR: S Laskin S
AUTHOR: R T Drew RT
AUTHOR: V Cappiello V
AUTHOR: N Nelson N
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Archives of environmental health.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Inhalation carcinogenicity of alpha halo ethers. III. Lifetime and limited period inhalation studies with bis(chloromethyl)ether at 0.1 ppm.
PUBDATE: 19750201
Rats and hamsters were exposed to 0.1 ppm bis(chloromethyl)ether (BCME) six hours per day, five days per week throughout their lifetime. Additional groups of rats were given 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 exposures to 0.1 ppm BCME and then held until death. Forty cancers originating in the respiratory tract were found in the 200 rats involved in these studies. These included 14 cancers of the lung and 26 cancers of the nasal cavity. They occurred in dose-related fashion. A single undifferentiated carcinoma of the lung was seen in a hamster.


3. DOCID:3059 SCORE: 0.00233751763323494
DOCNO: 922013
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Daunorubicin
AUTHOR: S Neidle S
AUTHOR: G Taylor G
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Biochimica et biophysica acta.
COUNTRY: NETHERLANDS
TITLE: Nucleic acid binding drugs. Part IV. The crystal structure of the anti-cancer agent daunomycin.
PUBDATE: 19771201
The crystal structure has been determined of the anti-cancer drug daunomycin, as the hydrochloride monohydrate pyridine salt. The overall structure, previously determined by X-ray analysis of an N-bromoacetyl derivative (Anguili, R., Foresti, E., Riva Di Sanserverino, L., Isaacs, N.W., Kennard, O., Motherwell, W.D.S., Wampler, D.L. and Arcamone, F. (1971) Nat. New Biol. 234, 78-80) has been confirmed, although substantial conformational differences are observed. The conformation described here is very similar to that found for the related drug carminomycin I (Wani, M.C., Taylor, H.L., Wall, M.E., McPhaill, A.T. and Onan, K.D. (1975) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97, 5955-5956; Pettit, G.R., Einck, J.J., Herald, C.L., Ode, R.H. Von Dreele, R.B., Brown, P., Brazhnikova, M.G. and Gause, G.F. (1975) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97, 7387-7388); it is suggested that this represents a significantly stable molecular conformation; an intramolecular C(7)...O(9) hydrogen bond is invoked to account for this. This conformation is likely to be at least close to that of daunomycin when bound to DNA.


4. DOCID:1962 SCORE: 0.00205074329258213
DOCNO: 576889
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: etiology
QUALIFIER: adverse effects
QUALIFIER: etiology
AUTHOR: F S Greenspan FS
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Radiation exposure and thyroid cancer.
PUBDATE: 19770501
There are abundant experimental and clinical data to associate radiation exposure and thyroid cancer. The incidence of thyroid cancer increases with increasing doses of thyroidal radiation from 6.5 rads to 1,500 rads, but higher doses tend to destroy the gland and are associated with hypothyroidism rather than cancer. The peak occurrence of thyroid tumors is between five and 30 years after exposure, but a person may develop thyroid tumors as long as 50 years after irradiation. Multiple thyroidal lesions or disorders, including adenomas, thyroditis, and hypothyroidism as well as malignant neoplasms, can occur after radiation exposure. It is imperative, therefore, to study carefully all patients with a history of radiation exposure to the gland and to observe them carefully for life. Suggestions are made for the management of thyroid disease in these patients.


5. DOCID:3349 SCORE: 0.00187604468728857
DOCNO: 991105
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: therapeutic use
QUALIFIER: therapeutic use
QUALIFIER: drug therapy
AUTHOR: C A Presant CA
AUTHOR: C Klahr C
AUTHOR: J Olander J
AUTHOR: D Gatewood D
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Amphotericin B plus 1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU-NSC no. 409962) in advanced cancer. Phase I and preliminary phase II results.
PUBDATE: 19761101
Twenty-one patients with advanced metastatic cancer received amphotericin B (AmB) plus BNUC in a Phase I chemotherapy trial. Of 11 patients with measurable metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma, five had partial antitumor responses lasting 1.5 to 12+ months, and one had objective improvement. Only two of six patients with other types of tumors had objective improvement of short duration. No consistent evidence of immunologic stimulation was observed in eight patients studied. These results suggest that amphotericin B may increase the therapeutic ratio of BCNU, and further trials of this new concept in chemotherapy of advanced tumors are in progress. The dose-limiting toxicity was myelosuppression, usually thrombocytopenia. No enhancement of BCNU toxicity by the addition of AmB was observed. The recommended dose for future studies is: AmB, 7.5 mg/m2 on day 1, 15 mg/m2 on day 1, 30 mg/m2 on days 3 and 4; plus BCNU, 250 mg/m3 on day 4. The regimen is repeated every 6 to 8 weeks.


6. DOCID:2849 SCORE: 0.0018626611533466
DOCNO: 950862
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Laryngeal Neoplasms
DESCRIPTOR: Lymphoma
AUTHOR: H A Anderson HA
AUTHOR: R H Maisel RH
AUTHOR: R W Cantrell RW
PUBTYPE: Case Reports
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The Laryngoscope.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Isolated laryngeal lymphoma.
PUBDATE: 19760801
Isolated laryngeal lymphoma is a rare occurrence. We found a total of 14 previously reported cases. These plus ouradditional case are reviewed in order to make recommendations for diagnosis, therapy,a nd follow-up. Histologic classification and clinical staging of lymphomas have limited usefulness, because the tumor can change cell type during the clinical course of the disease. Once histologic proof of the tumor exists, adequate evaluation consists of physical examination to detect adenopathy elsewhere, bone marrow biopsy, urinalysis, blood uric acid levels, liver biopsy, and liver and kidney function tests. The search must continue in the chest by X-ray, the retroperitoneal nodes by lymphangiography and the abdomonal visera by contrast radiography. Radiation therapy is the best initial treatment for isolated laryngeal lymphoma. If the tumor does not respond to irradiation, then operation to remove the lesion is required. This tumor has a tendency to recur at distant sites many years later. As with all cancer patients life-long follow-up is required.


7. DOCID:3532 SCORE: 0.00182584330505176
DOCNO: 60156
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: therapeutic use
QUALIFIER: drug therapy
AUTHOR: W R Vogler WR
AUTHOR: D S Miller DS
AUTHOR: J W Keller JW
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Blood.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: 5-Azacytidine (NSC 102816): a new drug for the treatment of myeloblastic leukemia.
PUBDATE: 19760901
The pyrimidine analog, 5-azacytidine (NSC 102816), was administered by continuous intravenous infusion in Ringer's lactate in increasing doses to sets of patients with metastatic cancer to establish a dose sufficient to produce mild toxicity. Twenty-one patients (23 trials) were treated with doses of 50-200 mg/sq/m/day for 5 days every 2-4 wk. Nausea and vomiting were moderate and easily preventable. Doses of 100-200 mg/sq/m for 5 days every 14 days produced granulocytopenia, usually after two courses. Less toxicity was observed when courses were given every 21-28 days. Forty-five patients with previously treated and refractory acute myeloblastic leukemia were treated. The majority received doses of 150 mg/sq m for 5 days every 2 wk. Eleven (24%) complete remissions and four partial remissions were observed. The number of courses to achieve remission averaged three and required an average of 59 days. Nine patients with blastic crisis of chronic myeloblastic leukemia and four with refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia failed to respond. 5-Azacytidine administered by continuous infusion is well tolerated and is an active compound in acute myeloblastic leukemia.


8. DOCID:2489 SCORE: 0.00174449598844791
DOCNO: 835932
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: therapy
QUALIFIER: therapy
AUTHOR: C M Haskell CM
AUTHOR: F C Sparks FC
AUTHOR: P R Graze PR
AUTHOR: S G Korenman SG
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Annals of internal medicine.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Systemic therapy for metastatic breast cancer.
PUBDATE: 19770101
The data reviewed in this conference suggest that initial therapeutic decisions for patients with metastic breast cancer be based on the presence or absence of an estrogen receptor in the tumor. Patients with estrogen receptor in their original primary breast cancer or in a subsequent metastitic lesion are candidates for hormonal manipulation, whereas patients lacking estrogen receptor in their tumor are treated for their metastic disease with nonhormonal chemotherapy. Nonhormonal therapy usually consists of a combination of cytotoxic drugs including cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil (CMF). Other programs of combination chemotherapy are under active study, especially programs that include nonspecific immune stimulation with Corynebacterium parvum or bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Inasmuch as patients with Stage II primary breast cancer frequently have "micrometastatic" disease, combination chemotherapy is also under study as an adjuvant to surgery. Preliminary results strongly support the use of such therapy.


9. DOCID:314 SCORE: 0.00172656352182447
DOCNO: 321989
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: therapeutic use
QUALIFIER: therapeutic use
QUALIFIER: drug therapy
AUTHOR: R Germiniani R
AUTHOR: G Pipino G
AUTHOR: F Lavorato F
AUTHOR: S Bressani Doldi S
PUBTYPE: Clinical Trial
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Minerva medica.
COUNTRY: ITALY
TITLE: [Combination of antimetabolites and alkylating agents in the treatment of advanced breast cancer]
PUBDATE: 19770301
An association of 5-fluoruracyl (or methotrexate) and cyclophosphamide was used in the treatment of 20 cases of hormone-resistant breast cancer. Five objective regressions were obtained. Mean survival here was 28.25 (S.D. 2.87) months, as opposed to 12.75 (S.D. 6.93) months in the remainder. Side-effects of various kinds were noted in 9 patients.


10. DOCID:2832 SCORE: 0.00169084645743015
DOCNO: 1053806
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: analysis
QUALIFIER: blood
QUALIFIER: blood
AUTHOR: R Carmel R
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The New England journal of medicine.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Extreme elevation of serum transcobalamin I in patients with metastatic cancer.
PUBDATE: 19750201
Elevation of transcobalamin I and serum vitamin B12 levels has usually been associated with increased granulocytic proliferation, such as occurs in chronic myelogenous leukemia. Two patients with metastatic cancer had extremely high serum vitamin B12 and transcobalamin I levels--greater than those seen in even the most intense granulocytic proliferation--that were not explainable by leukocytosis. The subjects' serum vitamin B12 levels were 18,750 and 21,221 pg per milliliter (normal, 471 plus or minus 174 pg per milliliter, mean plus or minus S.D.) and unsaturated vitamin B12 binding capacity 158,750 and 5,400 pg per milliliter (normal, 1153 plus or minus 313 pg per milliliter) respectively. The abnormally elevated serum binder was shown to be identical with transcobalamin balamin I in every respect. Levels of transcobalamin II and serum third binder were normal. The cause of the binder abnormality is unknown, but factors other than granulocyte proliferation may control or contribute to the production or accumulation of transcobalamin I.


11. DOCID:2141 SCORE: 0.00163100790913509
DOCNO: 853525
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Continental Population Groups
QUALIFIER: epidemiology
QUALIFIER: epidemiology
QUALIFIER: epidemiology
AUTHOR: M H Greene MH
AUTHOR: J F Fraumeni JF
AUTHOR: R Hoover R
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Nasopharyngeal cancer among young people in the United States: racial variations by cell type.
PUBDATE: 19770501
U. S. mortality and incidence statistics for nasopharyngeal cancer showed a fourfold excess risk of sarcomas in white children under age 10, and a fourfold to sevenfold excess of carcinomas in teen-age blacks. Mortality from nasopharyngeal carcinomas in young people was greater in the South than in the North, with the excess mortality in blacks linked to rural residence and low socioeconomic status. These and other characteristics of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in young persons suggested that environmental (perhaps infectious) agents are involved in this age group. These patterns contrasted with nasopharyngeal carcinomas developing after age 25, when the rates predominated in Chinese Americans. Nasopharyngeal cancer in the United States had three age peaks, with racial and epidemiologic distinctions that seemed to reflect different etiologies.


12. DOCID:2159 SCORE: 0.0015966218987051
DOCNO: 1253129
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Radiation Injuries
QUALIFIER: radiation effects
QUALIFIER: radiation effects
QUALIFIER: adverse effects
AUTHOR: R G Parker RG
AUTHOR: H C Berry HC
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Late effects of therapeutic irradiation on the skeleton and bone marrow.
PUBDATE: 19760201
Sequelae in the skeleton and bone marrow can be important late consequences for survivors following radiation therapy of cancer. Skeletal sequelae of radiation therapy often are predictable, although they may not be avoidable. The growth suppressive effects of therapeutic irradiation may occur in any bone, but most often are noted in the spine after doses in excess of 2000 rads. Mature bone and cartilage may be devitalized by irradiation without clinical consequence until stressed. Although malignant tumors may arise in irradiated bone and cartilage, the risk is minimal and is readily accepted in modern-day radiation oncology. Radiation-induced suppression of bone marrow function usually is of immediate rather than late consequence; however, functional recovery after therapeutic irradiation, while prolonged, is more complete than formerly thought. Leukemia rarely develops secondary to therapeutic irradiation.


13. DOCID:735 SCORE: 0.00159131178098199
DOCNO: 993873
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: epidemiology
QUALIFIER: epidemiology
AUTHOR: H R Menck HR
AUTHOR: B E Henderson BE
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Journal of occupational medicine. : official publication of the Industrial Medical Association.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Occupational differences in rates of lung cancer.
PUBDATE: 19761201
Lung cancer rates in Los Angeles County were reviewed for different occupations and industries. Employment groups found to be at excess risk who have not been previously implicated included roofers, dental lab technicians, decorators, nonautomotive mechanics, photoengravers, clothing ironers, electricians, bar and restaurant managers, janitors: and workers in the radio-TV brooad-casting, dairy, leather, food and drink, bakery, and auto repair industries. Mo lung cancer in Los Angeles County had exposure to asbestos, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAH), or both.


14. DOCID:2557 SCORE: 0.00157539422417049
DOCNO: 598646
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: immunology
QUALIFIER: analysis
QUALIFIER: immunology
AUTHOR: S Machida S
AUTHOR: T Ishioka T
AUTHOR: K Takashima K
AUTHOR: M Fukushima M
AUTHOR: Y Ishikawa Y
AUTHOR: H Kudo H
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Gann = Gan.
COUNTRY: JAPAN
TITLE: Establishment of a human rectal cancer cell line producing carcinoembryonic antigen.
PUBDATE: 19771201
A permanent cell line (S-7512) was established by cell culture from the subcutaneous metastatic tumor of a human rectal cancer and has been maintained for 18 months. Cultured cells grew as isolated and piled-up colonies of epithelial cells, each with a scanty cytoplasm and a large nucleus containing several nucleoli. The average doubling time of this cell line was 57 hr and plating efficiency was 30.1 approximately 45.2% in a liquid medium. The modal chromosome number was 115 but a marker chromosome was not evident. Electron microscopic examination revealed many microvilli, free ribosomes, and abundant glycogen granules. Heterotransplantation of the cultured cells produced a large tumor and its microscopic examination showed the same histological appearance as the original tumor (carcinoma simplex). Carcinoembryonic antigen level of the spent medium of the confluent culture was 235.50 ng/3.2 X 10(6) cells.