0. DOCID:3466 SCORE: 0.00545840022442393
DOCNO: 888102
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Hypersensitivity, Delayed
DESCRIPTOR: Postoperative Complications
QUALIFIER: immunology
AUTHOR: J B Pietsch JB
AUTHOR: J L Meakins JL
AUTHOR: L D MacLean LD
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Surgery.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: The delayed hypersensitivity response: application in clinical surgery.
PUBDATE: 19770901
Delayed hypersensitivity skin testing was performed on 520 surgical patients. Significantly higher incidences of sepsis and mortality (p less than 0.001) were found in the abnormal patients as compared to normal responders in the preoperative (322 patients), postoperative and post-trauma (115 patients), and nonoperative (83 patients) groups. Sequential testing in individual patients was of even greater prognostic value. Of the 177 patients who either remained normal or whose responses became normal, the sepsis rate was 10.1%, and the mortality rate was 8.4%. However, a sepsis rate of 57.6% and a 78% mortality rate were found in those patients who developed abnormal responses or whose responses did not improve. Cancer and increased age (older than 80 years) did not account for the incidence of anergy and relative anergy. The mortality rate was higher in the cancer group. Anergy and relative anergy were found to be associated with malnutrition, sepsis, shock, and trauma. In the clinical setting, effective treatment of these associated conditions, especially the maintenance of body cell mass by the use of total parenteral nutrition, was associated with reversal of the anergic state and an improved prognosis.


1. DOCID:2988 SCORE: 0.00508319224344904
DOCNO: 402201
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: radiotherapy
QUALIFIER: radiotherapy
AUTHOR: J G Pearson JG
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: The present status and future potential of radiotherapy in the management of esophageal cancer.
PUBDATE: 19770201
The management of 2032 patients with squamous esophageal cancer seen in Edinburgh from 1931 to 1969 was studied. Since 1949 more radical surgical treatment has been offered and since 1956 more radical radiotherapy. From 1949 to 1969 there has been a swing over from mainly surgical to mainly radiation treatment associated with a rise in the overall one and five-year survival rates to 32% and 9% respectively. The main reason for failure is the prevalence of disseminated disease. The significant mortality of surgical treatment limits its usefulness. Too often, radiotherapy fails because of recurrence of tumor within the irradiated volume. In the upper 2/3 of the esophagus irradiation is preferable to surgery because of better sirvoval. In the lower 1/3 the two methods achieve similar long term survival but following irradiation the short term survival is better and the patient retains a normal stomach. Improvement could be achieved by prevention, earlier diagnosis, improved tumor delineation and a wide range of measures to improve the local effectiveness of irradiation.


2. DOCID:2781 SCORE: 0.00385026935349113
DOCNO: 1174852
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: complications
QUALIFIER: complications
QUALIFIER: complications
AUTHOR: M Caplin M
AUTHOR: F Festenstein F
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: British medical journal.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: Relation between lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and airways obstruction.
PUBDATE: 19750901
Since cigarette smoking is an important cause of lung cancer and chronic bronchitis both conditions should occur together more often in cigarette smokers than would result from chance. If they do commonly occur together then severe airways obstruction, which is often associated with chronic bronchitis, should also be often associated with lung cancer. To discover whether this were so three groups of patients were studied at the London Chest Hospital. Two hundred men and 43 women who presented with lung cancer provided information on the prevalence of defined chronic bronchitis and airways obstruction in those suffering from lung cancer. The third group consisted of 233 men presenting with defined chronic bronchitis who were kept under observation to discover how many would die from lung cancer. The results suggested that simple bronchitis and lung cancer often occur together but that obstructive bronchitis and lung cancer do not often occur together. The lack of association between lung cancer and severe airways obstruction requires an explanation.


3. DOCID:7197 SCORE: 0.00338970262926924
DOCNO: 7304598
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Maternal Age
QUALIFIER: etiology
AUTHOR: C Bain C
AUTHOR: W Willett W
AUTHOR: B Rosner B
AUTHOR: F E Speizer FE
AUTHOR: C Belanger C
AUTHOR: C H Hennekens CH
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: American journal of epidemiology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Early age at first birth and decreased risk of breast cancer.
PUBDATE: 19811101
The relationship between age at birth of a first child and breast cancer was evaluated for 1159 affected women and 11,590 women without cancer in data collected in 1976 among married female registered nurses residing in 11 states in the United States. A positive trend of increasing risk of breast cancer with later ages at first birth was found (chi 2(1) for trend in proportions = 30.9, p less than 0.01). Adjustment for potential confounding variables by multiple logistic regression did not affect this trend. The presence of this relationship using non-hospitalized controls of similar social status to cases supports the reality of this association, which has recently been challenged as an artifact due to inappropriate choice of hospitalized controls.


4. DOCID:2724 SCORE: 0.00333378674769768
DOCNO: 1186792
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: adverse effects
QUALIFIER: chemically induced
AUTHOR: K J Ryan KJ
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The New England journal of medicine.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Editorial: Cancer risk and estrogen use in the menopause.
PUBDATE: 19751201
A cancer-inducing role for endogenous estrogens has been confounded by increased evidence of human female breast and endometrial cancer after the menopause when estrogen production is decreasing. The endocrine change occurring after the menopause is a shift from estradiol-17-Beta of ovarian origin to estrone synthesized in the periphery. Reports have indicated that a risk of endometrial cancer is considerably higher in menopausal women and up to 5 times higher in women taking estrogen. Thromboembolism, coronary disease and stroke are estrogen-related risks which appear age and dose-dependent. When the putative cancer risk is added to these risks, estrogens become agents which should be used with care. Risks such as prior thromboembolic events, migraine headaches, a family history of cancer or excessive smoking should be considered as contraindications to estrogen use. All these factors contribute to the need for more research and knowledge in the area of the altered hormonal state of the untreated menopause.


5. DOCID:6523 SCORE: 0.00312280185110921
DOCNO: 6172161
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: etiology
QUALIFIER: adverse effects
AUTHOR: D Franco D
AUTHOR: J Morin J
AUTHOR: A M Szekely AM
AUTHOR: H Bismuth H
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Biomedicine / [publiée pour l'A.A.I.C.I.G.].
COUNTRY: FRANCE
TITLE: Enhancement of Aflatoxin B1 induced liver carcinogenesis by portal diversion in the rat.
PUBDATE: 19811001
Conflicting results have been reported on the influence of portacaval anastomosis on liver carcinogenesis. The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of portal diversion on liver carcinogenesis induced in the rat by a potent chemical liver carcinogen, Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Liver tumors appeared earlier and were significantly bigger in rats with shunts than in sham-operated controls. Portal diversion also induced in rats fed AFB1 a splenic atrophy with nearly complete disappearance of Malpighian corpuscles suggesting a profound immunodepression. This might be responsible for the enhancement of liver cancer by portacaval anastomosis in the rats fed AFB1. Thus, the influence of portal diversion on liver cancers appears to be multifactorial.


6. DOCID:5078 SCORE: 0.0031228005605278
DOCNO: 11643610
OWNER: KIE
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Death
DESCRIPTOR: Mass Media
DESCRIPTOR: Terminal Care
DESCRIPTOR: Terminally Ill
AUTHOR: Bernard Towers B
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Journal of medical ethics.
COUNTRY: United States
TITLE: A television triumph about death and dying.
PUBDATE: 19800601
Towers reviews Joan Robinson: One Woman's Story, an American documentary film about a terminal cancer patient that was first broadcast by the Public Broadcasting Service on 21 January 1980. The film was made at the instigation of Robinson, a writer and editor, and covers the last twenty-two months of her life from the diagnosis of incurable ovarian cancer to her graveside funeral service. Towers praises the film-makers for their empathetic and sensitive handling of a difficult subject, and recommends that the film be made available for teaching purposes.


7. DOCID:1142 SCORE: 0.00305118482505069
DOCNO: 1216392
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Gallbladder Neoplasms
AUTHOR: A E Dmitriev AE
AUTHOR: A S Tatevosian AS
AUTHOR: V A Oranskiń≠ VA
AUTHOR: N G Sal'kova NG
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova.
COUNTRY: USSR
TITLE: [Clinical course and diagnosis of cancer of the gallbladder]
PUBDATE: 19751201
Basing on clinical observations over 51 patients with cancer of the gallbladder the authors support the opinion of many medical researchers that, in most cases, the disease develop with cholelithiasis in the background. To establish the diagnosis of cancer of the bladder prior to surgery is possible only taking into account the complex of manifestations in patients with a persistant anamnesis of cholelithiasis. The mortality rate is high. One of the effective prophylactic measures against development of the bladder cancer is felt to be an early operative treatment for cholelithiasis and its complications.


8. DOCID:1160 SCORE: 0.00305118237055336
DOCNO: 817700
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: blood supply
QUALIFIER: blood supply
QUALIFIER: blood supply
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: complications
AUTHOR: E Olszewski E
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Archives of otolaryngology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Vascularization of ossified cartilage and the spread of cancer in the larynx.
PUBDATE: 19760401
Twenty specimens for laryngectomy in extensive cancer of the larynx were examined after injecting the blood vessels with silicone rubber. The behavior of the vessels during the process of destruction of the laryngeal cartilages by the neoplasm were evaluated, as was the part played by the vascular system in spreading cancer in the larynx and its passage beyond the anatomical borders of this organ. Cartilages are damaged by cancer mainly in ossified and vascularized sites. The nonossified and avascular cartilages, on the contrary, are maintained in an almost unchanged condition amid the extensive tumorous masses surrounding them.


9. DOCID:2677 SCORE: 0.00289305936586858
DOCNO: 48728
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: complications
QUALIFIER: mortality
AUTHOR: A R Dyer AR
AUTHOR: J Stamler J
AUTHOR: D M Berkson DM
AUTHOR: H A Lindberg HA
AUTHOR: E Stevens E
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Lancet.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: High blood-pressure: a risk factor for cancer mortality?
PUBDATE: 19750501
Univariate and multivariate analyses have been made of the relationship of systolic and diastolic blood-pressure measured at study entry to subsequent 14-year mortality among 1233 White males originally age 40-59 in 1958 from the Chicago Peoples Gas Company prospective study. With age, serum-cholesterol, and cigarettes per day controlled, both elevated systolic and electaed diastolic blood-pressure in 1958 were found to be strongly related to subsequent mortality from cancer in the men of this study. The possibility that this finding was due either to an association between antihypertensive medication in general, and cancer, or to an association was found that could explain the excess cancer mortality among those with elevated blood-pressure in 1958, either with medication in general, or with reserpine and rauwolfia in particular. These findings thus pose the question, is high blood-pressure associated with an increased risk of death due to cancer?


10. DOCID:7757 SCORE: 0.00288592737792189
DOCNO: 6939415
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: therapy
AUTHOR: A O Langlands AO
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The Australian and New Zealand journal of surgery.
COUNTRY: AUSTRALIA
TITLE: The evaluation of the results of cancer therapy treatment utility.
PUBDATE: 19810201
The results of cancer management are frequently presented in a way such that the only comparison that can be made between treatments is that of fixed term survival. Very few reports attempt to include an analysis of the effect of second line therapy or a comparison of the different morbidities of different treatments. Techniques now exist (one of these is the concept of treatment utility) which take into account not only the probability of the outcome of a treatment but also the quality of that outcome. To expand this concept requires research in cancer management to be directed to the production of numerical values for treatment toxicity, pain, disability and mutilation, in addition to the conventional survival rates. This paper examines the concept of treatment utility when a comparison is made between two treatments which produce differences in survival but only one of which is associated with significant permanent disability.


11. DOCID:3341 SCORE: 0.00276643525032194
DOCNO: 1088947
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Aging
DESCRIPTOR: Models, Biological
AUTHOR: L Hayflick L
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
PUBTYPE: Review
JOURNALTITLE: Federation proceedings.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Current theories of biological aging.
PUBDATE: 19750101
Several lines of evidence have led to the notion that biological aging occurs as a result of changes in the information-containing molecules either at the genetic or epigenetic level. The error theory, the redundant message theory, the codon restriction theory, and the transcriptional event theory represent the major current conceptualizations of biological aging as held by most gerontologists. The finding that cultured normal human and animal cells undergo a finite number of population doublings in vitro has provided new insights into age changes at the cellular level. The number of mitotic events that cultured normal animal cells can undergo appears to be inversely related to the age of the donor. A direct proportionality exists, however, between the mean maximum life-span of a species and the number of population doublings that their cultured embryonic cells will undergo. The several biochemical decrements known to occur prior to the cessation of mitotic activity in vitro are thought to herald those manifestations of senescence seen in the whole animal. Yet to be explained is how those cell classes such as the germ plasm and continuously propagable cancer cells escape from the inevitability of biological aging.


12. DOCID:3334 SCORE: 0.00276643524975691
DOCNO: 1160970
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Breast Neoplasms
QUALIFIER: blood
QUALIFIER: blood
AUTHOR: B R Henderson BR
AUTHOR: V Gerkins V
AUTHOR: I Rosario I
AUTHOR: J Casagrande J
AUTHOR: M C Pike MC
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The New England journal of medicine.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Elevated serum levels of estrogen and prolactin in daughters of patients with breast cancer.
PUBDATE: 19751001
Demographic risk factors in sisters and daughters of 150 patients with breast cancer were compared to those of controls. Plasma hormone levels in 36 teen-age daughters of patients and 31 controls were also studied to ascertain whether an "abnormal" hormone pattern underlies these risk factors. The patients' sisters had, on the average, menarche four months earlier and first full-term pregnancy 12 months later than the controls. The patients' daughters did not show these differences -- apparently owing to low fertility in the patients with early menarche. The patients' daughters had higher 22d-day estradiol-plus-estrone levels than controls (24.4 vs. 19.1 ng per 100 ml, P less than 0.05). Sixth-day prolactin was also elevated (19.0 vs. 14.2 ng per 100 ml, P less than 0.05). About half the patients' daughters could clearly be distinguished from the controls' daughters by means of the sixth-day information on both estrogens and prolactin. Hypersecretion of these hormones may be important factors in breast cancer.


13. DOCID:5876 SCORE: 0.00263023813494662
DOCNO: 7468583
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: complications
QUALIFIER: complications
QUALIFIER: epidemiology
AUTHOR: A Linos A
AUTHOR: R A Kyle RA
AUTHOR: W M O'Fallon WM
AUTHOR: L T Kurland LT
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: American journal of epidemiology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Leukemia and prior malignant and hematologic diseases: a case-control study.
PUBDATE: 19810301
Records of 138 patients with leukemia diagnosed between 1955-1974 in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and 276 controls were examined for the occurrence of prior malignancies and hematologic diseases. No significant excess of malignancy was observed when all types of malignancy and all types of leukemia combined were considered. When they were analyzed separately, however, a fivefold increase in the risk of prior skin cancer was found in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Because of the relatively small numbers, this difference is of borderline statistical significance. The presence of prior hematologic disorders was also examined, and the findings are discussed.


14. DOCID:6010 SCORE: 0.00254447310773559
DOCNO: 6931248
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
AUTHOR: E C Krishnan EC
AUTHOR: C D Menon CD
AUTHOR: L Krishnan L
AUTHOR: W R Jewell WR
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Deficiency in maturation process of macrophages in human cancer.
PUBDATE: 19800801
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured from normal individuals and patients with cancer. The analysis of these results indicated a lower number of macrophage precursors (monocytes) in patients with cancer as compared to the number in normal individuals. The macrophage yield was 1.9 +/- 1.1 X 10(4)/ml of blood in patients with cancer versus 7.2 +/- 2.0 X 10(4)/ml of blood in normal individuals. This low yield of macrophages in patients with cancer was not associated with serum factors. Furthermore, a study of the adherent cell population suggests in intrinsic defect in the maturation process in vitro in patients with cancer.