0. DOCID:3611 SCORE: 0.00352011262177456
DOCNO: 956938
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Alloys
DESCRIPTOR: Mortality
DESCRIPTOR: Occupational Medicine
DESCRIPTOR: Steel
AUTHOR: H E Rockette, HE
AUTHOR: C K Redmond CK
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Journal of occupational medicine. : official publication of the Industrial Medical Association.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Long-term mortality study of steelworkers.
PUBDATE: 19760801
This study examines the cause-specific mortality of men employed as masons in the steel industry. Their mortality experience is compared with the mortality predicted by the age--and race--specific death rates for a control group consisting of those steelworkers whose first job in 1953 was not in the mason department. The relative risks of dying from selected causes were highly dependent on race. The most important observations are: (1) The nonwhites have an overall excess risk when compared to the nonmason group. This excess is not confined to any particular category and appears to be due to the cumulative effect of an excess in many different categories. (2) The white masons have an excess risk for nonmalignant respiratory disease. Furthermore, this risk increases with length of exposure. (3) The whites have an excess risk for respiratory cancer when compared to the nonmason group. This excess is not present in the later years of the follow-up period. (4) The interpretation of the findings for cardiovascular disease remain unclear. Results for cerebral vascular disease and hypertensive disease in nonwhites are suggestive, but need further investigation before any strong statements can be made.


1. DOCID:3988 SCORE: 0.00344773681583241
DOCNO: 184556
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Receptors, Cell Surface
QUALIFIER: analysis
QUALIFIER: analysis
AUTHOR: A J Walt AJ
AUTHOR: A Singhakowinta A
AUTHOR: S C Brooks SC
AUTHOR: A Cortez A
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Surgery.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: The surgical implications of estrophile protein estimations in carcinoma of the breast.
PUBDATE: 19761001
Assays of estrophile protein (ER) in 161 patients with no previous additive or ablative hormonal therapy have been analyzed; 47.2 percent were ER positive; 52.8 percent ER negative. A total of 37.5 percent of premenopausal and 50.8 percent of postmenopausal patients had ER-positive tumors. The effects of additive and ablaive hormonal therapy were observed in 75 patients; 63.5 percent of the ER-positive group and 8.6 percent of the ER-negative group responded, but the incidence in the ER-negative group is thought to be spuriously high. The level of the ER content in the ER-positive group did not influence the degree of response. The ER-negative group had a shorter life span after discovery of the tumor and was more likely to develop dominant visceral metastases. Of 15 patients followed with sequential ER assays after hormonal therapy (additive and/or ablative), 14 demonstrated substantial falls in ER levels but these did not correlate with the clinical response. Tumor assayed in nine patients after irradiation of the lesion contained no demonstrable ER. ER assays of breast cancer tissue proved to be a useful but imperfect tool in predicting clinical progress following hormonal maneuvers but some readings may be spuriously low due to imperfect techniques of measurement, prior exogenous hormonal administration or hormonal ablation, and previous irradiation of the tumor.


2. DOCID:3697 SCORE: 0.00314506368600656
DOCNO: 132269
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Continental Population Groups
QUALIFIER: blood
AUTHOR: P Hill P
AUTHOR: E L Wynder EL
AUTHOR: P Helman P
AUTHOR: R Hickman R
AUTHOR: G Rona G
AUTHOR: K Kuno K
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer research.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Plasma hormone levels in different ethnic populations of women.
PUBDATE: 19760701
It has been suggested that the urinary hormone profile is subject to environmental changes, such as urbanization and Westernization, and that the composition of the hormones can be used as a discriminate in determining the patient at risk for breast cancer. In this study, a comparison of the plasma hormone levels in Bantu and Japanese women, low-risk populations, and Caucasian women, a high-risk population, showed a higher level of 17 beta-estradiol in prepubertal girls and young Bantu and Japanese women. The higher estrogen level in the Bantu was evident in the early luteal and late follicular phases of the menstrual cycle. The difference in the dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone levels in Bantu young women and prepubertal Bantu girls, suggests differences in adrenal activity between Bantu and Caucasian women. A fall in the plasma androstenedione was evident in postmenopausal Bantu and Japanese but not Caucasian women. Data suggest that the hormone profile is different among the 3 ethnic groups in both the pre- and postmenopausal women. Since the daily life-style of the women is comparable, it is suggested that the composition of the hormone profile is partially dependent on dietary on dietary factors.


3. DOCID:3579 SCORE: 0.00305825304304884
DOCNO: 962393
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Mass Screening
QUALIFIER: methods
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
AUTHOR: J D Lewis JD
AUTHOR: J R Milbrath JR
AUTHOR: K A Shaffer KA
AUTHOR: J C Darin JC
AUTHOR: J J DeCosse JJ
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Annals of surgery.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Which breast to biopsy: an expanding dilemma.
PUBDATE: 19760901
To provide insight into the significance of findings reported from screening asymptomatic women for breast cancer, we reviewed 19,928 mammographic studies with the accompanying physical examination and correlated these findings with 554 breast biopsies. Of 83 breast biopsies with suspicious findings on both physical examination and mammography, 72 demonstrated breast cancer (87%). Of 155 biopsies for suspicious changes on mammography alone, 50 (32%) demonstrated breast cancer. The accuracy of suspicious mammography was independent of findings limited to physical examination, 34 (17%) had breast cancer; 31 were in 152 biopsies of patients with mammography interpreted as normal (20%) and three were in biopsies of 52 patients (6%) in whom a visualized mass was interpreted as benign. One hundred and twelve breast biopsies were performed for changes interpreted as normal or benign. Six malignancies were discovered (5%). No cancer was found in 31 biopsies for nonpalpable benign mammographic abnormalities. Our results emphasize the importance of discriminating between nonvisualization of a mass and mammographic recognition of either a benign or malignant tumor. The reliability of interpretation is considerably greater for a visualized lesion than a nonvisualized one.


4. DOCID:3808 SCORE: 0.00301773430086202
DOCNO: 809048
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
AUTHOR: C J Grubbs CJ
AUTHOR: R C Moon RC
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: British journal of cancer.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: Effect of age and parity upon the uptake of 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene-9-14C by mammary parenchymal cells of the rat.
PUBDATE: 19750201
The radioactivity of the parenchymal cell intracellular lipid obtained from 200-day old multiparous animals was significantly less than that of both 50- and 200-day old virgin rats at all time intervals. Furthermore, the parenchymal cell dry, fat-free tissue of the multiparous animals ocntained significantly less DMBA-9-14C than this fraction obtained from young or old virgin rats. Since there was a decrease in both the uptake and binding of DMBA-9-14C by the mammary parenchymal cells of multiparous animals, it would appear that factors associated with pregnancy and/or lactation result in an altered susceptibility of the parenchymal cell to this carcinogen. Binding of DMBA-9-14C by parenchymal cells of old virgin rats was significantly less than that of younger animals at 3 and 6 h post feeding but did not differ statistically at the later time intervals. The possibility exists that neoplastic transformation may require the interaction between high levels of DMBA and the constitutents of the mammary parenchymal cells for extended periods of time. Therefore, the decreased exposure of the cellular constituents to DMBA could account for the decrease in mammary cancer incidence observed in older rats.


5. DOCID:3876 SCORE: 0.00299697414837928
DOCNO: 320049
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Appetite Regulation
QUALIFIER: physiopathology
QUALIFIER: physiopathology
AUTHOR: S D Morrison SD
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
PUBTYPE: Review
JOURNALTITLE: Federation proceedings.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: The hypothalamic syndrome in rats.
PUBDATE: 19770201
The original conception of the hypothalamus controlling feeding by the activity of two specific and reciprocally inhibitory centers has now been largely abandoned. Detailed neural research using a wide variety of methods has demonstrated the complex morphological and functional organization of this part of the brain and has modified the earlier simplistic approach. However, examination of the feeding responses to a variety of stimuli that represent components of control of feeding indicates that much or even most feeding control is extrahypothalamic. As demonstrated by the obesity or aphagia resulting from hypothalamic damage or from reversible hypothalamic interference, the hypothalamus influences or modulates feeding control, possibly by an enabling action, but it does not itself substantially control food intake either in the short or the long term. In the cachaxia of cancer, which can tentatively be regarded as a negative obesity, and which is closely reproducible in a rat model, the decline of food intake can be attributed to failure of control components that are all extrahypothalamic, and the deterioration of control of feeding appears to be quite independent of the hypothalamus. The very detailed reconstruction of intrahypothalamic circuitry that has been developed in recent years has not yet had any real impact on the problem of where or how the active control of food intake is generated or the way in which the hypothalamus influences this control.


6. DOCID:3738 SCORE: 0.00297061274376008
DOCNO: 922708
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: pathology
AUTHOR: S Lesher S
AUTHOR: L M Schiffer LM
AUTHOR: M Phanse M
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Human colonic tumor cell kinetics: potential for therapy.
PUBDATE: 19771101
Using new in vitro techniques developed at the Cancer Research Unit, cell kinetic measurements were obtained in primary and metastatic human colonic tumors, polyps and normal bowel that did not require in vivo 3HTdR and required only single samples of tissue. These techniques included the measurement of the number of cells in DNA synthesis (LI), an estimate of the DNA synthesis time (Ts) and the growth fraction of tissues by means of the primer-available DNA-dependent DNA polymerase assay (PDP). From these data, the potential doubling time and the cell cycle time (Tc) of the tumors were calculated. Early preliminary data on human colonic specimens presented in Tables 1 and 2 indicate that there is an increase in LI from the low polyps to higher adenocarcinomas. There is little difference between primary and metastatic tumor cell kinetics. Growth fraction estimates (PDP) of the various colonic tissue types are also not significantly different and except for villous adenomas, DNA synthesis times are constant. The median 3HTdR labeling indices of 7% primary adenocarcinomas include a number of samples (approximately 20% of all samples) with high labeling indices (in the 10--20% range). These high labeling tumors may be those that show objective response to S-phase active drugs, e.g., 5-FU.


7. DOCID:3914 SCORE: 0.00294234162188244
DOCNO: 323505
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Antigen-Antibody Complex
DESCRIPTOR: Complement C1
DESCRIPTOR: Complement System Proteins
QUALIFIER: immunology
AUTHOR: R D Rossen RD
AUTHOR: M A Reisberg MA
AUTHOR: E M Hersh EM
AUTHOR: J U Gutterman JU
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: The C1q binding test for soluble immune complexes: clinical correlations obtained in patients with cancer.
PUBDATE: 19770501
Sera from 134 selected patients with various types of cancer were tested for soluble antigen-antibody complexes by the C1q binding method. Sera from 85 healthy blood bank donors served as normal controls. C1q binding activity (C1q BA) values above the 95th percentile for healthy subjects were found in 83% of sera from patients with neoplastic diseases. The incidence of abnormal C1q BA values among patients with malignant melanoma was 83%, with breast cancer 74%, with colon cancer 75%, with lung cancer 88%, with leukemia and lymphoma 85%, and with miscellaneous tumors 94%. High C1q BA values were found most frequently in sera of patients who had been diagnosed relatively recently (within 5 mo) and who had evident residual disease after surgical treatment. Recurrence or progression of tumor growth occurred significantly more frequently in lung cancer patients with high C1q BA. DNA was not detected in cancer patients' sera and treatment with DNase did not decrease in C1q BA. C1q BA in sera could not be explained by the presence of antiglobulin antibodies. Sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation studies of the serum C1q BA in 4 cancer patients showed that the major binding activity was found between 19S and 7S.


8. DOCID:3397 SCORE: 0.00285785605885163
DOCNO: 825178
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: analysis
QUALIFIER: immunology
AUTHOR: R J Ablin RJ
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: British journal of urology.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: Serum antibody in patients with prostatic cancer.
PUBDATE: 19761001
130 serum specimens were evaluated. None of 24 serum specimens from patients with prostatic cancer yielded precipitation of haemagglutination reactions with extracts of normal human prostatic tissue or with preparations of prostatic fluid. In 1 of 5 patients from whom autologous prostatic tissue was available, precipitation was observed. By indirect immunofluroescence 13 (54%) patients with prostatic cancer possessed antibodies reactive with the cytoplasmic membrane (intercellular area?) of primate prostatic secretory epithelium. Membranous autoantibodies were observed in 2 patients from whom autologous tissue was available as substrate. Antibodies to nuclei were observed but these have been considered in view of their ubiquitous nature, as perhaps being representative of non-specific indicators of other immunologic aberrations. In contrast, only 11 (10%) of 106 patients with other than prostatic cancer possessed membranous antibodies; of these, 11 (73%) possessed a genito-urinary disorder (5 benign prostatic hypertrophy, considered by some as predisposing to prostatic cancer and 3 carcinoma of the bladder). While not possessing sufficient specificity for diagnosis, the high incidence of this antibody, 92% positive in patients with advanced disease (Stage III), suggests it may be useful as a prognostic index of patients with metastatic disease.


9. DOCID:2609 SCORE: 0.0028444169660164
DOCNO: 1246980
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Diet Surveys
DESCRIPTOR: Nutrition Surveys
DESCRIPTOR: Polysaccharides
AUTHOR: S H Dorfman SH
AUTHOR: M Ali M
AUTHOR: M H Floch MH
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The American journal of clinical nutrition.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Low fiber content of Connecticut diets.
PUBDATE: 19760101
Recent theories have postulated that low fiber diets are related to colon cancer and diverticulosis, and to atherosclerosis. These theories are based on British and African diet history information. There has been no recent assessment of fiber intake in an area of high incidence of colonic disease in the United States. Using recall diet histories in subjects with no disease and with colon disease, and correcting our data to account for any loss in recall history, we find a low daily fiber intake in all 21 subjects evaluated, mean 3.5 g, range 1.6 to 11 g. There was no statistical difference in intake among patients with or without colon disease. The data agree with the British findings. Since the incidence of the diseases in question is not uniform in the United States it is suggested that diet surveys are needed in areas where colon carcinoma is of low incidence.


10. DOCID:3703 SCORE: 0.00268681731948618
DOCNO: 1156514
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Radiation Effects
QUALIFIER: radiation effects
QUALIFIER: mortality
AUTHOR: J F Bithell JF
AUTHOR: A M Stewart AM
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: British journal of cancer.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: Pre-natal irradiation and childhood malignancy: a review of British data from the Oxford Survey.
PUBDATE: 19750301
This paper reviews data relating to obstetric radiography from the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers, i.e. for deaths in Britain from 1953 to 1967. Some 8513 cases were traced and used in the analyses, together with an equal number of matched controls. The relative risk estimate (1-47 overall) does not vary significantly between different tumour groups, for different ages at death, nor between sexes. Other epidemiological factors-sibship position, maternal age, social class, region of residence and maternal morbidity-are analysed and show varying degrees of association, but not sufficient to "explain" the observed risk in terms of a selection effect. The dependence of the risk on the number of films exposed is highly significant and adequately described by a linear relationship. The timing of and reason for the exposure are also examined. Analysis of the risk by year of birth shows a pattern of steadily declining risk for both solid and haematopoietic tumours; this may be partly attributable to lower radiation doses per film exposed but is also due to the smaller numbers of films used. A consequence may well be that the risk-always of small clinical significance-would become virtually undetectable in future investigations.


11. DOCID:3315 SCORE: 0.0026356441376099
DOCNO: 1145149
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
AUTHOR: P Laurberg P
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Scandinavian journal of respiratory diseases.
COUNTRY: DENMARK
TITLE: Sarcoid reactions in pulmonary neoplasms.
PUBDATE: 19750501
In a consectuive series of 734 patients with malignant tumorous of the lung, sarcoid reactions were observed in the mediastinal lymph nodes in 20 cases, i.e. in 3.2% of the 630 patients in whom these nodes were studied. Among these 20 patients, sarcoidosis was suspected in three. In two of these, granulomata were revealed in the tumour. Another two had metastases in the affected lymph nodes. All the common histological types of lung tumour were represented in the patients, but squamous-cell carcinomata showed a statistically significant preponderance as compared with anaplastic carcinomata. Three causes of such sarcoid reactions have been suggested: 1. an immunological reaction to substances released by the tumour and transported along the lymphatics; 2. an unrecognized sarcoidosis predisposing to lung cancer; 3. the co-existence of sarcoidosis and malignant tumour, possibly due to a common aetiological factor. The significant preponderance of squamous-cell carcinomata observed in this study is in favour of the first theory, because the slower growth and higher tendency to necrosis of this tumour type may be assumed to give rise to a more vigorous and longer-lasting stimulation of the regional lymph nodes.


12. DOCID:3127 SCORE: 0.00244189470904035
DOCNO: 406035
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: chemically induced
QUALIFIER: chemically induced
QUALIFIER: adverse effects
QUALIFIER: adverse effects
AUTHOR: R E Fechner RE
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
PUBTYPE: Review
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Influence of oral contraceptives on breast diseases.
PUBDATE: 19770601
Three sources of information are available pertaining to the effect of oral contraceptive hormones on the breast: 1) toxicity experiments in animals; 2) histologic examinations of breast tissue from women taking hormones; and 3) epidemiologic studies of women using hormones. Animals treated with hormones at doses equivalent to the human contraceptive level have not developed cancer of the breast at a greater than expected frequency. Monkeys, the one experimental animal with a reproductive cycle similar to humans, have not developed cancer during long-term hormone administration except for a single animal which likely represents a chance occurrence. In humans, histologic studies of breast tissue have failed to identify abnormalities which could be attributed to hormones with rare exceptions of secretory change indistinguishable from normal lactating breast. Epidemiologic studies have usually shown a decreased frequency of benign breast disease and neither an increase nor a decrease in carcinoma of the breast. The one exception to the latter statement is a possible increased risk of cancer in long-term users who have had previous surgery for benign breast disease.


13. DOCID:3561 SCORE: 0.0024362809102499
DOCNO: 597371
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
QUALIFIER: metabolism
AUTHOR: E E Deschner EE
AUTHOR: S J Winawer SJ
AUTHOR: F C Long FC
AUTHOR: C C Boyle CC
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Early detection of colonic neoplasia in patients at high risk.
PUBDATE: 19771101
An abnormal zone of DNA synthesis at the surface and upper portion of colonic crypts has been thought to be related to future adenomatous polyp development and to express a regulatory defect in the mechanism that normally terminates synthesis in the upper third. As part of a screening program for early colon cancer detection, patients over 40 years of age found to have occult blood in their stool (Ho+) are evaluated by barium enema and colonscopy as well as isotopic incorporation studies of biopsy and lavage specimens. This proliferative abnormality occurred most frequently among patients with an adenoma or adenocarcinoma although the frequency varied among simultaneous biopsies from the same patient. Specimens from Ho+ patients with a tumor often contained small areas of focal atypism in the biopsy or fragments of atypical epithelial cells in the lavage sample. A small group of Ho+ patients in whom no overt neoplasm could be detected also demonstrated surface-labeled epithelial cells with morphological alteration of these cells. Based on the microscopic findings presented, continued surveillance of these patients is suggested, as well as extension of these studies to include other high risk groups.


14. DOCID:3163 SCORE: 0.00242609176614652
DOCNO: 51084
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: pharmacology
QUALIFIER: drug effects
AUTHOR: G Briganti G
AUTHOR: L Galloni L
AUTHOR: G Levi G
AUTHOR: V Spalletta V
AUTHOR: F Mauro F
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Effects of bleomycin on mouse bone-marrow stem cells.
PUBDATE: 19750701
The mouse hematopoietic stem-cell population was tested by the spleen colony technique for effects of the antineoplastic agent bleomycin (BLM). The time response of normal bone marrow was investigated by a single dose of BLM (400 mg/kg) between 0 and 72 hours. The dose response was studied over a wide range of doses (from 40 to 1,600 mg/kg) at a 4-hour exposure. Additional experiments concerned 1) the fraction of colony-forming units in the S phase after BLM administration (by means of pulse hydroxyurea treatment), 2) the response of bone marrow stimulated by endotoxin, and 3) the effects of split-dose treatments. The relatively low toxicity of BLM on both the differentiated and stem-cell populations of unstimulated bone marrow was confirmed and detailed. This drug exhibited peculiar, proliferation-dependent cell inactivation kinetics. Furthermore, BLM induced parasynchronous behavior in the unstimulated stem-cell population. The various aspects of BLM action are discussed with regard to its use in cancer chemotherapy.