0. DOCID:3836 SCORE: 0.00265598236506207
DOCNO: 198130
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
AUTHOR: W V Greenhouse WV
AUTHOR: A L Lehninger AL
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer research.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Magnitude of malate-aspartate reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide shuttle activity in intact respiring tumor cells.
PUBDATE: 19771101
Measurements of respiration, CO2 and lactate production, and changes in the levels of various key metabolites of the glycolytic sequence and tricarboxylic acid cycle were made on five lines of rodent ascites tumor cells (two strains of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, Krebs II carcinoma, AS-30D carcinoma, and L1210 cells) incubated aerobically in the presence of uniformly labeled D-[14C]glucose. From these data, as well as earlier evidence demonstrating that the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) shuttle in these cells requires a transaminase step and is thus identified as the malate-aspartate shuttle (W.V.V. Greenhouse and A.L. Lehninger, Cancer Res., 36: 1392-1396, 1976), metabolic flux diagrams were constructed for the five cell lines. These diagrams show the relative rates of glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport, and the malate-aspartate shuttle in these tumors. Large amounts of cytosolic NADH were oxidized by the mitochondrial respiratory chain via the NADH shuttle, comprising anywhere from about 20 to 80% of the total flow of reducing equivalents to oxygen in these tumors. Calculations of the sources of energy for adenosine triphosphate synthesis indicated that on the average about one-third of the respiratory adenosine triphosphate is generated by electron flow originating from cytosolic NADH via the malate-aspartate shuttle.


1. DOCID:3770 SCORE: 0.00254957030504834
DOCNO: 937991
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: epidemiology
AUTHOR: T Salonen T
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Annals of clinical research.
COUNTRY: FINLAND
TITLE: Prenatal and perinatal factors in childhood cancer.
PUBDATE: 19760201
The material consists of malignant tumours in childhood notified to the Finnish Cancer Registry in 1959-1968. The maternity health centre cards for these children were collected through the National Board of Health. The immediately preceding parturient of the same maternity health centre was selected as the control. The number of complete pairs obtained for the final analysis was 972. All data concerning the parents, the pregnancy, parturition and the child were extracted from the cards. Information on the cancer patient and the paired control was compared. The results are presented as a comparison of the total tumour series and the controls, but also in smaller sub-groups: leukaemias (373 cases), brain tumours (245 cases) and other tumours (354 cases). Other tumours are further divided into: kidney tumours (96), eye tumours (37) and bone tumours (56). No significant correlations were found between potential aetiologic factors and the cases of cancer. The risk ratio for leukaemia in the group with pelvic radiography was 1.9, and in the group given vaccination against polio 1.8. However, because of the rare occurrence of the exposure mentioned these groups were small and the increase in the risk ratio statistically insignificant. BCG vaccination of children was common (90%) and no differences were established between the tumour and the control groups in this respect.


2. DOCID:1550 SCORE: 0.00231046953350627
DOCNO: 1235324
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
AUTHOR: B Strunge B
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Chest.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Primary lung cancer in a chest clinic: diagnosis and prognosis.
PUBDATE: 19750101
This reports a retrospective study of primary cancer of the lung diagnosed in the chest clinics of the Odense and Assens counties in Denmark during the period 1960 to 1966. There were 212 patients, 171 of whom had been referred because of symptoms, and 41 who were found in group screening. Of the latter, 13 had no symptoms. The histologic diagnosis, the diagnostic procedures on which the diagnosis was based, and the treatment are reported. Twenty percent of the patients were alive after five years, as compared with the calculated 13.5 percent for all cancers of the lung in the two counties. A close collaboration between general practitioners, chest clinics, and departments of thoracic surgery is stressed as a means of further improving the prognosis.


3. DOCID:3929 SCORE: 0.00226059551737221
DOCNO: 57000
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Infusions, Parenteral
DESCRIPTOR: Injections, Intravenous
QUALIFIER: metabolism
AUTHOR: Z H Israili ZH
AUTHOR: W R Vogler WR
AUTHOR: E S Mingioli ES
AUTHOR: J L Pirkle JL
AUTHOR: R W Smithwick RW
AUTHOR: J H Goldstein JH
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer research.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: The disposition and pharmacokinetics in humans of 5-azacytidine administered intravenously as a bolus or by continuous infusion.
PUBDATE: 19760401
The disposition of 5-[4-14C]azacytidine, administered i.v. as a bolus or continuous infusion, was studied in cancer patients. After bolus, plasma 14C levels exhibited as multiphasic disappearance pattern; half-life (t1/2, beta phase) = 3.4 to 6.2 hr. Of 14C in plasma, less than 2% was associated with 5-[4-14C]azacytidine 30 min after dose. The ratios of 14C levels were: red cells/plasma, approximately 0.8; leukocytes/plasma, 1.1 to 2.3; nucleic acids/leukocytes, 0.2 to 0.43; sputum/plasma, 0.05 to 0.17. Urinary excretion (3 days) accounted for 73 to 98% of 14C, LEss than 1% in feces. The relative concentration of 5-azacytidine in plasma with continuous infusion stayed higher than with bolus; urinary excretion was similar. Fewer side effects were observed with continuous infusion than with bolus. The stability of 5-azacytidine was determined in various media at several temperatures by thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. At 20 degrees in Ringer's lactate (pH 6.2), the t1/2 was 94 to 100 hr. Stability increased with lowering of temperature and pH. From our data we conclude that 5-azacytidine should be given by continuous infusion rather than as a bolus.


4. DOCID:754 SCORE: 0.00199444769593962
DOCNO: 69206
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Military Medicine
DESCRIPTOR: Splenectomy
DESCRIPTOR: War
QUALIFIER: mortality
QUALIFIER: mortality
AUTHOR: C D Robinette CD
AUTHOR: J F Fraumeni JF
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Lancet.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: Splenectomy and subsequent mortality in veterans of the 1939-45 war.
PUBDATE: 19770701
A long-term follow-up of 740 American servicemen splenectomised because of trauma during the 1939-45 war showed a significant excess mortality from pneumonia and ischaemic heart-disease. Mortality from cirrhosis was also increased, but not significantly. The findings confirm that the risk of fatal infections is increased by asplenia; however, the risk of cancer was not increased, as it is in some other immunodeficiency states. Post-splenectomy thrombocytosis and hypercoagulability may account for the increased risk of fatal myocardial ischaemia in this group.


5. DOCID:3077 SCORE: 0.00190746691739099
DOCNO: 613246
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: epidemiology
AUTHOR: G F Basa GF
AUTHOR: T Hirayama T
AUTHOR: A G Cruz-Basa AG
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: National Cancer Institute monograph.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Cancer epidemiology in the Philippines.
PUBDATE: 19771201
Based on 16,492 cancer cases recorded at the Central Tumor Registry of the Philippines from July 1968 to June 1973, an epidemiologic analysis was conducted. Age-adjusted incidence rates for cancer of all sites in the Philippines, the United States, and Japan were similar. Cancers of the lung and breast were the leading sites in males and females, respectively. Age-specific incidence rates by each site were compared for the Philippines, the United States, and Japan. Cancers of the oral cavity, nasopharynx, liver, lung, breast, cervix, ovary, and thyroid and malignant lymphoma occurred with higher frequency in the Philippines. The more education people had, the more likely they were to develop cancers of the lung, pancreas, bladder, prostate, breast, and ovary, whereas cancers of the stomach, skin, esophagus, oropharynx, tongue, and mouth were more common in individuals who had not completed high school. Among smokers, neoplasms of the lung, larynx, tongue, mouth, liver, esophagus, and oropharynx occurred with significantly higher frequency. Epidemiologic implications and significance of these results for cancer control were discussed.


6. DOCID:1242 SCORE: 0.00190485074526949
DOCNO: 1179565
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: epidemiology
QUALIFIER: epidemiology
AUTHOR: M Y Heshmat MY
AUTHOR: J Kovi J
AUTHOR: J Herson J
AUTHOR: G W Jones GW
AUTHOR: M A Jackson MA
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Urology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Epidemiologic association between Gonorrhea and prostatic carcinoma.
PUBDATE: 19751001
The curves for death rates from prostatic cancer and gonorrhea incidence rates in Denmark, over a span of thirty years, matched well with a lag period of forty-five years. Moreover, a retrospective study conducted in the United States involving 75 cancer patients and 75 age-matched controls demonstrated a statistically significant association between gonorrheal infection and subsequent development of prostatic carcinoma. Two postulates are presented: the viral-venereal and the chronic infection theories. The recent increase in incidence of prostatic cancer in the United States could be the beginning of an epidemic in which astronomically high rates may be reached.


7. DOCID:3868 SCORE: 0.00187078762425424
DOCNO: 877854
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Pancreatic Ducts
QUALIFIER: secretion
QUALIFIER: secretion
QUALIFIER: physiopathology
AUTHOR: H A Reber HA
AUTHOR: F E Johnson FE
AUTHOR: C Montgomery C
AUTHOR: W R Carl WR
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Surgery.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Pancreatic secretion in hamsters with pancreatic cancer.
PUBDATE: 19770701
Pancreatic secretory abnormalities develop in most persons with pancreatic cancer and have been attributed to ductal obstruction. These experiments investigated whether abnormal secretion results instead from carcinogen-induced changes in the secreting cells. Fifty male Syrian Golden hamsters (40 to 100 grams) received weekly injections of di-isopropyl-nitrosamine (250 mg/kg, subcutaneously), and survivors and age-matched controls were studied after 3.5 to 6.5 months of treatment. Pancreatic secretion was stimulated by secretin or cholecystokinin (2 units/kg, intravenously, as a bolus). After each stimulus four 15-minute collections of pancreatic juice were analyzed for HCO3- and Cl- or total protein, amylase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin. The organs were examined histologically. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma developed in 30% of the animals at 5 months, 56% at 5.5 months, and 100% at 6.5 months. The animals without cancer either had hyperplasia of the duct epithelium or were histologically normal. The histologic appearance of acinar tissue and protein secretion were normal in all groups. The tumors did not obstruct the major ducts. In all treated animals the pancreatic secretory response to secretin was of low volume, low maximal [HCO3-] and HCO3- output, and low [Cl- + HCO3-]; these changes progressed with time. The secretory abnormalities antedated the appearance of the neoplasms and were not caused by obstruction.


8. DOCID:3047 SCORE: 0.00186323482461125
DOCNO: 1234627
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: radiotherapy
AUTHOR: C A Perez CA
AUTHOR: B J Walz BJ
AUTHOR: P L Lacobson PL
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: National Cancer Institute monograph.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Radiation therapy in the management of carcinoma of the ovary.
PUBDATE: 19751001
The results in 212 patients treated with radiation therapy for various stages of carcinoma of the ovary are reported. The role of radiation therapy in the management of these patients is analyzed in the light of available data. Radiation therapy may improve the survival of patients with stage I ovarian cancer (with poorly differentiated lesions or extension through the capsule) and the survival of patients with stage II ovarian tumors. The patients with stage III ovarian lesions may benefit by a combination of irradiation and chemotherapy. A multidisciplinary approach to ovarian carcinoma must be promptly established, with participation of gynecologic surgeons, radiation therapists, pathologists, and chemotherapists. More thorough staging procedures and well-defined pathologic classifications are necessary. The biologic and pathologic behavior of these tumors must be further elucidated. The limitations of each treatment method must be exactly defined. Based on this information, rational treatment schemes may be formulated. Controlled clinical trials are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of optimal surgery, irradiation, and chemotherapy, or their combinations.


9. DOCID:2234 SCORE: 0.0018458293426907
DOCNO: 861930
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Carcinogens
QUALIFIER: methods
AUTHOR: T R Fears TR
AUTHOR: R E Tarone RE
AUTHOR: K C Chu KC
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer research.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: False-positive and false-negative rates for carcinogenicity screens.
PUBDATE: 19770701
The implementation of a number of chemical carcinogen screening programs has been accompanied by the observation that some screens might have high false-positive error rates. With designs presently used at the National Cancer Institute and historical spontaneous tumor rates based upon control animals in previous experiments, we compute upper bounds on the false-positive error rates for several screening strategies. False-positive results are much less likely to occur at tissue sites with low spontaneous tumor rates; hence the site at which a significant tumor increase occurs is important. There is danger in relying solely upon the finding of statistical significance without incorporating biological knowledge and corroborative evidence such as the presence of a dose-response relationship or experimentally consistent results in different species or sexes. A report by the National Cancer Institute Carcinogenesis Program demonstrates these concepts.


10. DOCID:3456 SCORE: 0.00178242899628202
DOCNO: 853522
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
AUTHOR: A P Maskens AP
AUTHOR: E E Deschner EE
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Tritiated thymidine incorporation into epithelial cells of normal-appearing colorectal mucosa of cancer patients.
PUBDATE: 19770501
A radioautographic analysis of the number and position of labeled epithelial nuclei after in vitro incorporation of tritiated thymidine ([3H]TDR) was carried out with 30 specimens of histologically normal colorectal mucosa from 26 patients, of whom 13 were being treated for rectal or sigmoid cancer and 13 were controls. A higher mean labeling index was found in the cancer than in the control group (9.8% +/- 1.2 and 7.9% +/- 0.9, respectively). Because of wide individual variations, this difference was not statistically significant. However, a highly significant upward shift of the proliferating cell compartment was observed in the cancer group, resulting in a specific modification of the [3H]TDR labeling pattern in 6 of 17 specimens. DNA synthesis predominated in the middle or middle and upper thirds of the crypts of Lieberk├╝hn rather than in the lower third as observed in controls. The patchy alteration of epithelial cell renewal frequently accompanying colorectal cancer was suggestive of a defect in the regulatory control mechanism. This in vitro [3H]TDR incorporation assay could provide a valuable discriminatory parameter in studies of high-risk populations.


11. DOCID:1680 SCORE: 0.00176828156505679
DOCNO: 947521
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
AUTHOR: R L Kirch RL
AUTHOR: M Klein M
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Prospective evaluation of periodic breast examination programs.
PUBDATE: 19760701
A mathematical model is developed to obtain prospective estimates of average tumor sizes and the expected proportion of positive regional lymph node cases for periodic breast cancer examination programs. Semiannual, annual, and biannual programs, with or without mammography, are evaluated and compared with results from the National Breast Poject. Calculations indicate that a semiannual clinical-mammographic program can be expected to result in about 37% fewer positive node cases than those observed in the National Breast Project and substantially small tumors. The expected reduction in positive node cases from a similar annual program is about 30%, and from a biannual program, even without mammography, about 20%. Calculations also indicate the important role of diligent patient self-examination in such programs, especially for the detection of fast-growing tumors.


12. DOCID:2138 SCORE: 0.00176208767677511
DOCNO: 888099
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: surgery
QUALIFIER: radiography
AUTHOR: M H Max MH
AUTHOR: H C Polk HC
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Surgery.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Routine preoperative upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) in patients with biliary tract disease: a plea for more selectivity.
PUBDATE: 19770901
Preoperative upper gastrointestinal x-ray series (UGIS) in patients with documented biliary tract disease commonly is carried out before cholecystectomy. Of 250 patients who had consecutive cholecystectomies performed in a 400-bed private hospital, 105 patients did not have UGIS prior to operation and no gastroduodenal disease was discovered at operation. Thirty-nine positive x-ray examinations were obtained among the 145 patients who had preoperative UGIS. In only three of these patients was a gastric procedure added at operation; no unexpected cancers were found. In the other 36, "positive" findings consisted of small hiatal hernias, diverticula of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum not clinically significant or postgastrectomy anatomic abnormalities. This review suggests that routine preoperative UGIS may not be warranted in such patients and urges greater selectivity of patients having this procedure.


13. DOCID:3693 SCORE: 0.0017398676668396
DOCNO: 980740
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: drug therapy
QUALIFIER: drug therapy
QUALIFIER: therapeutic use
QUALIFIER: drug therapy
AUTHOR: M Legrand M
PUBTYPE: Case Reports
PUBTYPE: Letter
JOURNALTITLE: La Nouvelle presse m├ędicale.
COUNTRY: FRANCE
TITLE: [Apparent cure with a progestagen of endometrial cancer with pulmonary metastases]
PUBDATE: 19761001
A 65-year-old woman with a 20-year history of metrorrhagia had been treated with estrogens since menopause. In December 1974, a tumor was discovered and treated with medroxyprogesterone 250 mg/day. In 10 days the abnormal image on the X-ray was almost gone. After 1 month the thoracic image was normal. The treatment was similar until April; then 250 mg every 2 days, 20 days/month. A hysterectomy was done in September 1975. From the time of removal, 500 mg/week were given without side effects. In June 1976, the woman was in good health and the thoracic X-ray was normal. All X-rays indicating a metastatic lung should prompt a search for a uterine tumor in monopausal women because many are curable. Total histologic recoveries have been reported in cases considered too late for radiotherapy or surgery. Doses of 1 gm/week are recommended for 6 months and 500 mg/week if tolerance is high. The progesterone makes the cancerous tissue sensitive to radiotherapy and indicates 90% survival to 5 years and 100% if accompanied by surgery. Medroxyprogesterone is especially useful for cancers of the endometrium occurring in postmenopausal women who have had long-term use of estrogens.


14. DOCID:3919 SCORE: 0.00173472096144474
DOCNO: 1251298
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
AUTHOR: W B Gill WB
AUTHOR: M Bibbo M
AUTHOR: S Thomsen S
AUTHOR: C T Lu CT
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The Surgical clinics of North America.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Evaluation of renal masses including retrograde renal brushing.
PUBDATE: 19760201
1.The evaluation of renal masses has become an increasingly important topic because of the increasing incidence of kidney cancer, the improved cure rate of renal carcinoma with the proper preoperative diagnosis, and the proliferation in renal mass diagnostic methodology. 2. A variety of benign entities can produce an abnormal renal mass with attendant difficulties in being distinguished from malignant neoplasms. Among these benign lesions are: simple renal cysts, polycystic kidneys, congenital variations in renal size and shape, segmental renal hypertrophy, renal infarcts, intrarenal hematomas, renal hamartomas, renal leiomyomas, renal adenomas, renal angiomas, renal fibrolipomatosis, hydronephrosis of a duplicated collecting system, renal abscesses, and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. 3. Nephrotomography, nephrosonography (ultrasound), adrenalin renal arteriography, selective magnification renal arteriography, renal venography and cavography, lymphangiography, renal scintillation scanning, abnormal levels of enzymes in blood and urine, immunologic studies (circulating antibodies and tumor-associated antigens), percutaneous needle aspirations, and retrograde renal brushing have all increased the diagnostic accuracy of determining the etiology of renal masses. None of these diagnostic procedures is infallible. A judicious combination of procedures gives the most reliable diagnostic results. 4. A search continues for (a) chemical agent(s) or a chemical profile in the blood or urine which is (are) specific for renal carcinoma, but as yet this is an investigational area and not a practical clinical reality.