0. DOCID:3688 SCORE: 0.0069794025482156
DOCNO: 1223358
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: etiology
QUALIFIER: etiology
QUALIFIER: etiology
QUALIFIER: complications
AUTHOR: V S Zhdanov VS
AUTHOR: A M Vikhert AM
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Kardiologiia.
COUNTRY: USSR
TITLE: [Characteristics of the development of arteriosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries in patients with cancer of different organs]
PUBDATE: 19751201
A morphometric study of atherosclerotic lesions of the vessels was conducted in males dying of cancer of the stomach and lungs, and in females dying of cancer of the stomach, lungs, uterus, breast and ovaries. In total, 918 observations were studied, the age of the deceased ranging from 30 to 79 years. The severity of the atherosclerotic lesions in the vessels of those who died of malignant tumors was compared to that in normal individuals. The material was compiled and examined in accordance with the program and method developed by WHO expertpathologists (Uemura et al.). In those who died of cancer of the stomach, uterus and breast the severity of coronary atherosclerosis was much milder than in the normals; however, no important differences were revealed between these groups as to the severity of atherosclerosis of the aorta. In lung cancer in males and in ovarian cancer in females under 50 years of age a distinct enhancement of the atherosclerotic process in the aorta was observed, and less-in the coronaries. In females dying of lung cancer the severity of atherosclerosis of the aorta was the same as in the normals, and in the coronaries - even milder.


1. DOCID:3922 SCORE: 0.0057633375490437
DOCNO: 1209474
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Surgical Procedures, Operative
QUALIFIER: isolation & purification
QUALIFIER: microbiology
QUALIFIER: microbiology
AUTHOR: N B Ackerman NB
AUTHOR: J Kronmueller J
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Surgery, gynecology & obstetrics.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: The importance of candida as an infectious agent.
PUBDATE: 19750101
During the two and a half year period from January 1971 through Jyly 1973, 23 patients had cultures positive for candida from intra-abdominal isolates. Most of these patients had intestinal or biliary fistulas or abscesses and were seriously ill. Major contributing factors to the development of candidal infections included the extensive use of multiple antibiotics, multiple operations, advanced age, and debility. Thirty additional patients had cultures positive for candida from skin and subcutaneous isolates. Candida appeared to contribute to the poor healing of wounds in some of these patients, particularly those with peripheral vascular ischemic lesions and decubitus ulcers. Antibiotics and concurrent diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, renal failure, and cardiovascular disease, were common factors relating to the development and growth of candida in these patients. There is often considerable difficulty in determing whether or not candida is only a contaminant or is an infectious agent contributing to the illness of the patient. This must be determined in each individual instance. In spite of the fact that candida appeared to be a significant infectious agent in many of these patients, specific antifungal therapy was used sparsely. It is suggested that appropriate antifungal drugs be used in patients with significant disease and that there should be greater awareness of the factors leading to the development of these extremely serious candidal infections.


2. DOCID:3920 SCORE: 0.00576333721812118
DOCNO: 764989
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: etiology
AUTHOR: R Nery R
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
PUBTYPE: Review
JOURNALTITLE: Chemico-biological interactions.
COUNTRY: NETHERLANDS
TITLE: Carcinogenic mechanisms: a critical review and a suggestion that oncogenesis may be adaptive ontogenesis.
PUBDATE: 19760201
The precise mechanism(s) whereby normal cells become malignant are not known with any degree of certainty. However, many mechanisms have been proposed on the basis of available experimental evidence as interpreted by the proposer. These fall into two main groups and are based upon changes in genetic structure (somatic mutation hypotheses) or in genetic expression (epigenetic hypotheses). Yet a third group embodies elements of the first two. The more important of all these proposals are critically reviewed and yet another hypothesis is ventured. In this hypothesis, the induction of neoplasia is envisaged as embodying (a) initiation of preferentially partly-differentiated and resting stem cells and (b) promotion of the initiated cells, through mitosis and further differentiation and by adaptations of normal ontogenic mechanisms, into a variety of novel phenotypes which are malignant or potentially so. Cancer-specifying genes, altered chromosomes, de-differentiations and interrupted re-differentiations are not considered to be causally involved, although the last three of these can be present as epiphenomena. Evidence cited in support of this proposal appears to show a general absence from cancer cells of any single property, including an abnormality in genetic constitution or in cellular expression, which is specific to malignancy. Malignancy is thus envisaged as abnormal expressions of the genetic potential of the zygote. Some practical and theoretical implications of this concept are discussed.


3. DOCID:3990 SCORE: 0.00524264333575838
DOCNO: 957533
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: chemically induced
QUALIFIER: adverse effects
AUTHOR: A M Lilienfeld AM
AUTHOR: L Chang L
AUTHOR: D B Thomas DB
AUTHOR: M L Levin ML
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The Johns Hopkins medical journal.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Rauwolfia derivatives and breast cancer.
PUBDATE: 19760801
During the course of a collaborative study initiated in investigate the relationship of breast cancer and the use of hormones, it was possible to study the possible relationship of rauwolfia derivatives, mainly reserpine, to breast cancer. Interviews were administered to breast cancer patients admitted to five hospitals in the Baltimore metropolitan area. The study of reserpine use was conducted for a period of approximately one and a half years and information on reserpine use was obtained on 164 breast cancer cases. Each case was matched with a control with respect to age, color, hospital of admission, and admission date. An additional set of controls was drawn from women residing in the same neighborhood as the cases. Neither reserpine, methyldopa, nor thiazides were found to be significantly associated with breast cancer. The exclusion from the analysis of hospital controls with a diagnosis of hypertensive disease and their matched cases did not significantly alter the results. Those cases who used reserpine, used more for longer periods of time than did the controls, however this was judged inconclusive due to a considerable amount of missing data. After comparison of these results with previously reported studies, it did not appear that reserpine was strongly associated with breast cancer. However, because of methodological problems and differences between the studies, a possible small overall relationship could not be definitely excluded.


4. DOCID:2480 SCORE: 0.00509067156065641
DOCNO: 332334
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: adverse effects
QUALIFIER: etiology
AUTHOR: B Modan B
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
PUBTYPE: Review
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Role of diet in cancer etiology.
PUBDATE: 19771001
Current evidence for the involvement of diet in cancer etiology is based on indirect relationships between the consumption of selected food constituents and incidence, dietary studies, and laboratory data. The indirect evidence most often referred to is the suggested correlation between the complex of fats-meat-egg-animal protein and the risk for cancer of the colon. Such observations are, however, hampered by the fact that human diet does not consist of isolated food components. Case control studies implicate a higher intake of starchy foods in gastric cancer, a lower intake of fiber in colon cancer, and possibly coffee in renal cancer. Carcinogenic agents identified include food additives, plant toxicants, aflatoxins, polycyclic hydrocarbons, nitrosamines, and certain normal major food constituents. The experimental evidence is augmented by studies indicating an inter-relationship between dietary constituents, intestinal flora, and bile acid metabolism. A synergistic action of ingested or metabolized carcinogens and a co-carcinogenic function of certain dietary components are suggested.


5. DOCID:3536 SCORE: 0.00505112959197316
DOCNO: 1223345
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Pectoralis Muscles
QUALIFIER: methods
AUTHOR: T Murakami T
AUTHOR: M Sunagawa M
AUTHOR: I Takahashi I
AUTHOR: K Hayashi K
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The Japanese journal of surgery.
COUNTRY: JAPAN
TITLE: Modified radical mastectomy with preservation of the pectoralis major muscle.
PUBDATE: 19750601
A new technique of modified radical mastectomy for early breast cancer was devised with an express purpose of preserving pectoralis major muscle but still enabling radical removal of the regional lymphnodes. The pectoralis major muscle was transected at its midportion to expose the thoracic wall for radical dissection of axillar and subclavicular lymphnodes followed by resuturing of the muscle to preserve its continuity. The parasternal nodes can also be dissected if necessary. The pectoralis minor muscle is either resected or preserved. This procedure should be applied mainly in T1N0 and T1N1a (Stage I in the TNM staging system) which seems recently to be increasing rapidly in number and for which the radical mastectomy with resection of pectoralis major muscle is thought to be too excessive. The procedure proposed in the present communication offers advantage not only in functional but also cosmetic aspect by preserving the pectoralis major muscle while the radicality of the operation is retained. Although the number of cases thus treated is limited and the long-term follow up with survival rate is not yet available, the procedure seems to be of considerable value in selected patients.


6. DOCID:3284 SCORE: 0.00496165485985551
DOCNO: 872044
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: radiotherapy
QUALIFIER: administration & dosage
QUALIFIER: radiotherapy
QUALIFIER: radiotherapy
QUALIFIER: administration & dosage
AUTHOR: A M Syed AM
AUTHOR: B H Feder BH
AUTHOR: F W George FW
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Persistent carcinoma of the oropharynx and oral cavity re-treated by after-loading interstitial 192Ir implant.
PUBDATE: 19770601
After-loading implantation techniques apparently offer an effective alternative in the management of persistent (or recurrent) oropharynx and oral cavity carcinoma postirradiation. A total of 29 patients with such lesions was treated from February 1974, to July 1975, in the LAC/USC Radiation Medicine Section, using after-loading 192Ir implantation techniques. These patients all had extensive persistent cancer after "full tolerance" irradiation (with or without previous surgery) and were referred for palliation or for possible salvage. Additional doses administered ranged from 5000 to 7000 rads in three to five days. Eighteen of the 29 patients (63%) have had complete local control for 18 to 36 months. These patients have maintained a relatively satisfactory palliative status. Ten of the 29 are dead. Follow-up periods are short, but early indications are that problem patients with persistent cancer after "full tolerance irradiation" can be salvaged, or at least satisfactorily palliated, with after-loading interstitial implant techniques. Clinical details, sites of involvement, implantation techniques, dosimetry methodology, reactions and complications will be described.


7. DOCID:3685 SCORE: 0.0049278625203514
DOCNO: 129974
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Immunologic Techniques
QUALIFIER: pharmacology
QUALIFIER: drug effects
AUTHOR: H Pees H
AUTHOR: A Pappas A
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Zeitschrift für Immunitätsforschung, experimentelle und klinische Immunologie.
COUNTRY: GERMANY, WEST
TITLE: [A micro-method for PHA-induced stimulation of human lymphocytes. I. Communication: Technical considerations (author's transl)]
PUBDATE: 19751001
A microculture system is described for PHA-induced stimulation of human peripheral lymphocytes. Following purification on Ficoll-Isopaque cells are incubated in microplates (Falcon 3040) for 66 hours in 5% CO2 using PHA-P (Difco) as a stimulant. DNA-synthesis is measured by labelling with 3H-thymidine (spec. act. 400 mCi/mmole) 16 hours prior to the end of the test. Using a multiple automatic sample harvester rapid evaluation is possible. Several variables were analyzed and optimal conditions defined for PHA- and cell-concentration, time dependence, thymidine dosage and buffer capacity of the medium. High variability and otherwise unexplained loss of lymphocyte stimulation in a population of "normal donors" are often due to acute viral infections, especially during the incubation period. On the other hand, source and concentration of serum are of equal importance since sera of healthy individuals differ greatly in their capacity to support PHA-induced stimulation of normal allogeneic lymphocytes. Using pooled or autologous serum we found the reproducibility of the technique to be good. Provided optimal conditions are employed the microtest system described herein should be ideal for in-vitro-analysis of inhibitory or stimulating factors in cancer patients' sera.


8. DOCID:3953 SCORE: 0.00458981339151869
DOCNO: 894657
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Inclusion Bodies, Viral
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
AUTHOR: J Chalon J
AUTHOR: H Turndorf H
AUTHOR: J S Katz JS
AUTHOR: P B Rand PB
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The Journal of reproductive medicine.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Tracheobronchial epithelial multinucleation, viral inclusion bodies and malignant disease.
PUBDATE: 19770901
Patients with malignant disease are known to have an increased incidence of multinucleation in their tracheobronchial ciliated epithelial cells as compared with controls matched by age, sex and smoking habit. A seasonal relationship of viral inclusion bodies in the cilated epithelium of asymptomatic subjects has also been shown and is not related to age, sex and smoking habit. We have conducted an epidemiologic study to determine the possible relationships between these factors. Smears from 4,150 patients with a wide variety of pathologic conditions were examined for the presence of viral inclusions and multinucleated, ciliated epithelial cells. High degress of multinucleation were observed least frequenctly in the summer both in patients with and without known malignancy. Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies were also seen least frequently in the summer and autumn both in patients with and without know malignancy. In the presence of cancer, multinucleated epithelial cells and inclusion bodies were seen more frequently regardless of the season. When the seasonal incidence of multinucleated cells in 155 smears containing viral inclusion bodies was analyzed, it was found that patients without cancer had the lowest levels of multinucleation in the summer, whereas cancer patients had a depressed incidence of multinucleation in the winter and spring. Respiratory viruses may have a specific effect on the ciliated epithelium of cancer patients.


9. DOCID:2827 SCORE: 0.0043111652295829
DOCNO: 168837
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Mass Screening
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
AUTHOR: J D Lewis JD
AUTHOR: J R Milbrath JR
AUTHOR: K A Shaffer KA
AUTHOR: T K Das Gupta TK
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Implications of suspicious findings in breast cancer screening.
PUBDATE: 19750801
Breast cancer screening, performed on asymptomatic women over 35 years of age, has identified 32 breast cancers in 30 of 4,500 women screened. Screening included a physical examination by trained technologists, thermography, and xeromammography. This represents 26 percent of the biopsies performed (116). Results of xerommammography were suspicious in 24 cases (80 percent), and results of physical examination were suspicious in 11 (37 percent). Only six were suspicious by both methods, with one other having changes that were considered benign. Fourteen (44 percent) were microinvasive or noninvasive. Only two (6 percent) had axillary metastases. Breast cancer detected by screening is in its "early" stages and is usually well localized. Operative management, including removal of the entire breast, has a significant potential for cure. Thirty patients with changes considered suspicious have not yet had biopsies. Improved overall survival depends on appropriate management of all patients screened.


10. DOCID:1698 SCORE: 0.00400996693192484
DOCNO: 860706
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Hysterectomy
QUALIFIER: epidemiology
AUTHOR: J L Lyon JL
AUTHOR: J W Gardner JW
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: American journal of epidemiology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: The rising frequency of hysterectomy: its effect on uterine cancer rates.
PUBDATE: 19770501
The number of hysterectomies performed in the United States increased approximately 60% between 1965 and 1973, far in excess of population growth. This has altered the population at risk for uterine malignancies, and published incidence rates do not correct for this effect. Using US data, the authors developed correction factors to estimate the actual population at risk, and they applied them to uterine cancer rates. Correction for hysterectomy increased incidence and mortality rates for uterine cancer by 20-45% in any year and changes the time trend by as much as 30% from 1960 to 1973. This effect was greater for endometrial than cervical cancer, and future studies on uterine cancer occurrence should consider prevalence of hysterectomized women in the population.


11. DOCID:3327 SCORE: 0.00397758828291113
DOCNO: 836383
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
AUTHOR: A Burkhardt A
AUTHOR: G Seifert G
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
COUNTRY: GERMANY, WEST
TITLE: [Morphological classification of oral leukoplakia (author's transl)]
PUBDATE: 19770201
656 cases of oral leukoplakia were analysed according to macroscopic aspects, microscopic growth patterns and histologicalcytological differentiation, and the relationship to cancer of the oral cavity was studied. Homogeneous and speckled leukoplakia can be distinguished macroscopically, while flat (70%), papillary-endophytic (22%) and papillomatous-exophytic (8%) types can be distinguished by their growth pattern. Histological-cytological characteristics consist of epithelial hyperplasia (hyperkeratosis with ortho- or parakeratosis; akanthosis) and epithelial dysplasia (dyskeratosis, basal-cell hyperplasia, loss of polar arrangement of the basal cells, cell polymorphism, increased mitosis rate). No or little dysplasia was demonstrated in 74% of leukoplakias, moderate in 17% and marked in 6%. Carcinoma-in-situ, defined as high-grade dysplasia with additional loss of epithelial layering, was found in 3%. Precancerous leukoplakia (in almost 10% of cases, counting high-grade dysplasias and carcinoma-in-situ) must be delineated as a special group. Numerous correlations were found between dysplastic leukoplakias and oral cavity cancer as regards localisation, age and sex distribution. In the various leukoplakia forms there was an increased incidence of marked stroma reactions and of Candida colonisation with increased degrees of dysplasia.


12. DOCID:3473 SCORE: 0.00389300467288813
DOCNO: 1140874
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: immunology
QUALIFIER: immunology
AUTHOR: A W Boddie AW
AUTHOR: E C Holmes EC
AUTHOR: J A Roth JA
AUTHOR: D L Morton DL
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer.
COUNTRY: DENMARK
TITLE: Inhibition of human leukocyte migration in agarose by kcl extracts of carcinoma of the lung.
PUBDATE: 19750501
The leukocyte migration in agarose assay recently developed by Clausen (Clausen, 1971), was used to test 22 lung cancer patients against soluble extracts of allogeneic lung cancer and allogeneic normal lung. Seventeen were inhibited to a significantly greater degree by at least one tumor extract (average migration index (MI equals 0.58) than by the corresponding normal lung extract (average MI equals 0.83). DNCB-positive and DNCB-negative patients reacted with equal frequency to tumor extracts. Three patients tested against their autologous tumor and normal lung extracts were specifically inhibited by the tumor extract (average MI equals 0.53) but not by the normal lung extract (average MI equals 0.83). None of seven lung cancer patients tested against non-pulmonary tumor extracts was significantly inhibited (average MI equals 1.1). Only 6/53 controls including patients with other tumors, patients with emphysema and age-matched non-smokers showed significant inhibition against any of the lung cancer extracts. These findings strongly suggest the presence of tumor-associated antigens in KCl-solubilized extracts of human lung cancer.


13. DOCID:3746 SCORE: 0.00387543969264934
DOCNO: 975730
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: therapeutic use
AUTHOR: W E Grose WE
AUTHOR: G P Bodey GP
AUTHOR: D Stewart D
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Observations in man on some pharmacologic features of cefamandole.
PUBDATE: 19761101
Comparative studies of cefamandole and cephalothin were carried out in 32 cancer patients. After rapid intravenous injection of 1 gm cefamandole or cephalothin, the peak mean serum concentrations in 11 patients achieved at 0.25 hr were 103.4 mcg/ml and 56.7 mcg/ml, respectively. Except at 6 hr, the serum concentration of cefamandole was higher (p less than 0.05) at all times. The terminal half-lives (t 1/2) were similar, being 1.2 hr for cefamandole and 1.0 hr for cephalothin. Cefamandole, 1 gm intramuscularly, induced a peak mean serum concentration of 26.6 mcg/ml at 1 hr, with a slow decay. Intermittent cefamandole (2 gm intravenously every 6 hr) induced very high mean serum concentrations (7 patients), but at 4 hr the concentrations were similar to those after 1 gm intravenously. Per cent of urinary excretion was similar for both drugs regardless of dose and mode of administration. Continuous-infusion cefamandole or cephalothin (2 gm loading followed by 2 gm every 6 hr) in 14 patients showed consistently higher serum concentrations for cefamandole (p less than 0.05) over a 5-day period. There was no evidence of drug accumulation in the multiple-dose studies. Both the single- and multiple-dose schedules were well tolerated.


14. DOCID:3372 SCORE: 0.0036170710457681
DOCNO: 140182
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: genetics
QUALIFIER: genetics
AUTHOR: N T Berlinger NT
AUTHOR: C Lopez C
AUTHOR: M Lipkin M
AUTHOR: J E Vogel JE
AUTHOR: R A Good RA
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The Journal of clinical investigation.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Defective recognitive immunity in family aggregates of colon carcinoma.
PUBDATE: 19770501
Cancer-free individuals from family agregates of seemingly hereditary colon carcinoma were studied to determine the nature of their cell-mediated immune capacities in miexed leukocyte culture. Members of families who demonstrated no evidence of a precancerous condition such as polyposis coli did demonstrate substantial cellular immunopathology. Of these, 44% showed a decreased responsiveness of their peripheral mononuclear cells to allogeneic stimuli, and in a number of these individuals this deficiency clearly manifested itself as an inappropriate suppression of potentially normal lymphocyte blastogenic capacities by an adherent population of mononuclear leukocytes. This in vitro defect of recognitive immunity appears to be the same type of defect that has already been described for individuals with established maligancies. The pattern of phenotypic expression of this immunopathology within these families is not inconsistent with an hereditary disorder. Individuals from families with a known hereditary somatic precancerous condition usually did not demonstrate this immunopathology. It is appropriate to speculate that the defect of recognitive immunity in the former families could be contributory to the genesis of the colon carcinoma.