0. DOCID:3992 SCORE: 0.00664564386053655
DOCNO: 1248000
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: complications
QUALIFIER: genetics
AUTHOR: M Swift M
AUTHOR: L Sholman L
AUTHOR: M Perry M
AUTHOR: C Chase C
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer research.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Malignant neoplasms in the families of patients with ataxia-telangiectasia.
PUBDATE: 19760101
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive syndrome associated with a greatly increased incidence of malignant neoplasms in homozygous affected individuals. Heterozygotes for the gene for A-T are thought to comprise about 1% of the general population and, therefore, it is important to know whether this gene also predisposes the heterozygous carrier to cancers. Heterozygous carriers of this gene are common among the close relatives of patients with A-T, although individual carriers cannot be identified by any clinical criterion or laboratory test. For this reason, we compared the incidence of death from malignant neoplasms in 2 families of patients with A-T to that expected in a random sample of the general population. There were 59 deaths from malignant neoplasms in relatives dying before age 75, compared to 42.6 expected (p less than 0.02). For A-T heterozygotes younger than age 45, the risk of dying from a malignant neoplasm was estimated to be greater than 5 times the risk for the general population. A-T heterozygotes may comprise more than 5% of all persons dying from a cancer before age 45. The incidence of ovarian, gastric, and biliary system carcinomas and of leukemia and lymphoma was increased in these A-T families. Other neoplasms that may be associated with this gene in heterozygotes include pancreatic, basal cell, colonic, breast, and cervical carcinomas.


1. DOCID:3995 SCORE: 0.00470908741075036
DOCNO: 838858
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: blood
QUALIFIER: blood
QUALIFIER: metabolism
AUTHOR: M D Benson MD
AUTHOR: M A Scheinberg MA
AUTHOR: T Shirahama T
AUTHOR: E S Cathcart ES
AUTHOR: M Skinner M
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The Journal of clinical investigation.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Kinetics of serum amyloid protein A in casein-induced murine amyloidosis.
PUBDATE: 19770301
Serum amyloid protein A (SAA), the precursor of secondary amyloid protein, is elevated in chronic diseases which are associated with an increased incidence of amyloid. However, SAA is also elevated in acute bacterial and viral infections and somes forms of cancer. The murine model of casein-induced amyloidosis was studied to determine the relationship between SAA production and amyloid deposition. SAA levels measured by radioimmunoassay were found to be as high as 200 times the normal level in CBA/J mice receiving daily parenteral casein. After a single injection of casein the SAA level was elevated by 3h and peaked by 12-18 h. Similar levels were found in casein-treated A/J mice, a strain less susceptible to the induction of amyloid. Parenterally administered bovine serum albumin, which has low potential for amyloid induction, gave SAA levels in CBA/J and A/J mice comparable to casein treatment. These data show that, while SAA levels are elevated during chronic antigenic stimulation, there are other factors involved in amyloid formation. These factors may include alterations in the degradation of SAA by the reticuloendothelial system caused by substances such as casein. Nude (athymic) mice were shown to attain high levels of SAA after receiving casein parenterally. Therefore, thymus-derived lymphocytes are not necessary for the synthesis of SAA.


2. DOCID:3978 SCORE: 0.00422061185206635
DOCNO: 1260761
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Immunity, Cellular
QUALIFIER: immunology
QUALIFIER: immunology
AUTHOR: E T Bloom ET
AUTHOR: R C Seeger RC
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer research.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Disease and non-disease-related cell-mediated cytotoxicity in humans.
PUBDATE: 19760401
The human bladder cancer/T24 system was used to investigate disease and non-disease-related cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC). CMC was determined in a modification of the microcytotoxicity assay of Takasugi and Klein. Analysis of data of groups of patients confirmed previous findings that effector cells (EC) from bladder cancer patients were more cytotoxic against T24 than were EC from normal individuals or from patients with other genitourinary cancers. Differences between patients with bladder cancer and other patients were not observed for other target cells. During the course of these experiments, non-disease-associated CMC by EC from individual normal donors and patients was observed. This phenomenon was investigated to determine its reproducibility and its relationship to different methods of preparing EC. Reproducibility of non-disease-related CMC was ascertained using EC prepared from heparinized blood by centrifugation over Ficoll-Hypaque (FH). A total of 126 experiments were performed in which 18 normal donors were tested 2 to 7 times each against 4 target cell lines. Of the resulting 46 combinations or groups of repeated assays, only 7 showed significant variability. Each normal donor had consistent CMC with differences from others being reproducible. CMC was therefore not due to crowding or physical effects. CMC mediated by EC prepared in this manner was then compared to that mediated by EC prepared by other methods in simultaneous tests.


3. DOCID:3919 SCORE: 0.0041984507102481
DOCNO: 1251298
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
AUTHOR: W B Gill WB
AUTHOR: M Bibbo M
AUTHOR: S Thomsen S
AUTHOR: C T Lu CT
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The Surgical clinics of North America.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Evaluation of renal masses including retrograde renal brushing.
PUBDATE: 19760201
1.The evaluation of renal masses has become an increasingly important topic because of the increasing incidence of kidney cancer, the improved cure rate of renal carcinoma with the proper preoperative diagnosis, and the proliferation in renal mass diagnostic methodology. 2. A variety of benign entities can produce an abnormal renal mass with attendant difficulties in being distinguished from malignant neoplasms. Among these benign lesions are: simple renal cysts, polycystic kidneys, congenital variations in renal size and shape, segmental renal hypertrophy, renal infarcts, intrarenal hematomas, renal hamartomas, renal leiomyomas, renal adenomas, renal angiomas, renal fibrolipomatosis, hydronephrosis of a duplicated collecting system, renal abscesses, and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. 3. Nephrotomography, nephrosonography (ultrasound), adrenalin renal arteriography, selective magnification renal arteriography, renal venography and cavography, lymphangiography, renal scintillation scanning, abnormal levels of enzymes in blood and urine, immunologic studies (circulating antibodies and tumor-associated antigens), percutaneous needle aspirations, and retrograde renal brushing have all increased the diagnostic accuracy of determining the etiology of renal masses. None of these diagnostic procedures is infallible. A judicious combination of procedures gives the most reliable diagnostic results. 4. A search continues for (a) chemical agent(s) or a chemical profile in the blood or urine which is (are) specific for renal carcinoma, but as yet this is an investigational area and not a practical clinical reality.


4. DOCID:3686 SCORE: 0.00395483782785522
DOCNO: 175527
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Receptors, Cell Surface
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
AUTHOR: K B Horwitz KB
AUTHOR: M E Costlow ME
AUTHOR: W L McGuire WL
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Steroids.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: MCF-7; a human breast cancer cell line with estrogen, androgen, progesterone, and glucocorticoid receptors.
PUBDATE: 19751201
We have identified receptors for glucocorticoids, progestins, and androgens in a human breast tumor cell line (MCF-7) known to have estrogen receptor. Sucrose density gradients show that MCF-7 cytosol contains approximately 100 fm/mg protein estradiol (E2-3H) receptor, more than 300 fm/mg protein progesterone receptor (measured with R5020-3H), about 40 fm/mg protein 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5alpha-DHT-3H) receptor, and 800 fm/mg glucocorticoid receptor (measured with dexamethasone-3H). Dissociation constants obtained by Scatchard analyses were approximately 0.6 x 10(-10)M (E2), 1 x 10(-9)M (R5020), 2.8 x 10(-10)M (5alpha-DHT) and 8 x 10(-9)M (dexamethasone). No cross competition was found for estrogen receptor, but progestins competed for androgen and glucocorticoid binding. The androgen, but not the glucocorticoid, partially competed for R5020 binding to progesterone receptor. This first demonstration of 4 classes of steroid receptors in human breast cancer means that MCF-7 may be an excellent in vitro model for studying the mechanism of tumor response to endocrine therapy as well as the complex relationships between binding and biological actions of these hormones.


5. DOCID:1892 SCORE: 0.00375428856794415
DOCNO: 764957
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: enzymology
QUALIFIER: enzymology
AUTHOR: M K Schwartz MK
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
PUBTYPE: Review
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Enzymes in colon cancer. General information.
PUBDATE: 19751201
Serum enzymes have not proved useful in evaluation of patients with early colon cancer, but certain enzymes such as transpeptidase, phosphohexone isosomerase, or 5'-nucleotidase have been of assistance in following the course of the disease, particularly in patients with metastatic spread to the liver. Attempts have been made to improve the utility of enzyme analysis in colon cancer by examination of enzyme patterns in colon biopsy specimens, feces, and colon washings. These studies, which will be summarized, are of importance in the possible development of diagnostic tools and as probes in the understanding of the etiology of colon cancer. The technical problems in carrying out these assays in humans, as well as the significance of the activity of aryl sulfatase, beta-glucuronidase, beta-glucosidase, lactic dehydrogenase, glucose-6-p-osphate dehydrogenase, and other enzymes will be considered.


6. DOCID:3812 SCORE: 0.00356838200910841
DOCNO: 1138537
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: etiology
AUTHOR: J I Hamburger JI
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The American journal of medicine.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Solitary autonomously functioning thyroid lesions. Diagnosis, clinical features and pathogenetic considerations.
PUBDATE: 19750601
One hundred sixty-four patients with autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (AFTL), 140 with nontoxic and 24 with toxic lesions, were studied over 12 years. To avoid pitfalls in diagnosis of nontoxic AFTL, a suppression procedure should precede the repeat scan after the administration of thyroid stimulating hormone. Women outnumbered men by 13 to 1 for nontoxic AFTL and 3.8 to 1 for toxic AFTL. Larger and toxic lesions were found in older patients, suggesting their derivation from smaller nontoxic lesions. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine concentrations exhibited parallel deviations from average normal levels for most of 29 patients with hot AFTL. T3 toxicosis was not seen. Ultrasound was more sensitive than scanning in detecting cystic degeneration. Observation was advised for patients with nontoxic AFTL unless toxicity appeared imminent. Of 51 such patients, followed from 1 to 12 years, none became hyperthyroid, but 10 AFTL increased from slightly to fourfold in size or showed evidence of degeneration. Of 24 patients with toxic AFTL, 20 were treated with radioiodine and the remaining 4 surgically; surgery is the preferred treatment for patients under 40 years of age. Three of 29 patients who were treated surgically had thyroid cancer. Since AFTL have histologic and pathophysiologic features characteristic of benign endocrine neoplasms, the association with cancer may be more than coincidental.


7. DOCID:3835 SCORE: 0.00341045370056595
DOCNO: 915570
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Copper
DESCRIPTOR: Metallurgy
DESCRIPTOR: Mining
DESCRIPTOR: Mortality
AUTHOR: A C Rencher AC
AUTHOR: M W Carter MW
AUTHOR: D W McKee DW
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Journal of occupational medicine. : official publication of the Industrial Medical Association.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: A retrospective epidemiological study of mortality at a large western copper smelter.
PUBDATE: 19771101
In comparing the smelter with the mine, concentrator, and State of Utah, it was found that they were very similar in the percentage of deaths due to all causes except lung cancer; 7.0% of all deaths at the smelter were due to lung cancer compared to 2.2% for the mine, 2.2% for the concentrator, and 2.7% for the state. The excess at the smelter was statistically significant. Approximate age-adjusted death rates were obtained for various causes of death. The rates for the smelter are higher than for the mine and the state for lung cancer and for all causes combined. The average age at death for smelter workers is nearly the same as for mine employees, even for those who died of lung cancer. Smoking data was examined and there was no indication of a smoking synergism. Cumulative exposure indices for SO2, H2SO4 mist, As, Pb, and Cu were computed for each deceased smelter worker based n the length of time he worked in each of 12 major areas. Those who died of lung cancer had the highest average exposure index for all five constituents. Stack emission data showed much higher levels of As and SO2 prior to 1959.


8. DOCID:3672 SCORE: 0.00321927126636927
DOCNO: 197261
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: veterinary
QUALIFIER: analysis
QUALIFIER: analysis
QUALIFIER: analysis
QUALIFIER: analysis
AUTHOR: H L Niman HL
AUTHOR: M B Gardner MB
AUTHOR: J R Stephenson JR
AUTHOR: P Roy-Burman P
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Journal of virology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Endogenous RD-114 virus genome expression in malignant tissues of domestic cats.
PUBDATE: 19770901
Endogenous xenotropic cat type C virus (RD-114)- and infectious feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-specific gene expressions were measured in spontaneous sarcomas carcinomas, and nonmalignant cat tissues by molecular hybridization for virus-specific RNA and competition radio-immunoassays for the major internal protein (p30) of these two viruses. The results indicate that RD-114 gene expression in sarcomas and carcinomas at both RNA and p30 levels is significantly higher than histologically normal tissues from cats free of cancer. In contrast, the levels of FeLV viral RNA and p30 are fount to be low or undetectable in the majority of these tumored and normal tissues examined. Whereas variability in the amounts of RD-114 OR FeLV RNA and p30 expressed is found in tissues from different cats, their expression is fairly uniform in multiple malignant tissues of the same cat. The finding of widespread occurrence of elevated RD-114 gene expression in sarcomas and carcinomas is consistent with our similar observation with natural lymphomas of domestic cats and suggests that expression of certain functions of this endogenous virus may be etiologically involved in the development of many different spontaneous neoplasms of cats.


9. DOCID:3822 SCORE: 0.00306128726117116
DOCNO: 959717
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: physiopathology
AUTHOR: R Heber R
AUTHOR: S Edward S
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Röntgen-Blätter; Zeitschrift für Röntgen-Technik und medizinisch-wissenschaftliche Photographie.
COUNTRY: GERMANY, WEST
TITLE: [Mammographic observations on the growth of untreated cancer of the breast (author's transl)]
PUBDATE: 19760201
Report on 21 primary breast cancers in 19 untreated women. The longest follow-up was 1074 days, the shortest 24 days. Doubling time of the tumors was calculated with Collins formula. The necessary assessment of the volume of tumors was calculated with a simple method. Doubling time differs greatly and, in parts, greatly exceeds published data. The radiologic development is surveyed. Collins formula is discussed in its strict interpretation starting from the volume of one tumor cell. Our own results lead to conclusions on the radiologic diagnosis of breast cancer. Usually diagnosis is immediately followed by therapy. Observations on the spontaneous course of, expecially primary, cancer of the breast are therefore scanty. Larger numbers of repeated mammography of the same tumor do not exist. Clinical examinations of growth belong to earlier times, the patients even to past centuries (Bloom 1964). Systematic investigations of this type cannot be defended on ethical grounds. In order to acquire insight into spontaneous growth of this cancer one has to rely on the few cases in whom operation wa5 not done for various reasons Here repeat mammography was possible. Such cases are important in practice since repeat mammography may have to be recommended by the radiologist, our own material will be discussed.


10. DOCID:3254 SCORE: 0.00289164988195266
DOCNO: 66834
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: blood
QUALIFIER: blood
QUALIFIER: analysis
AUTHOR: J Milosavljevic J
AUTHOR: M Stajic M
AUTHOR: N Vilhar N
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Acta hepato-gastroenterologica.
COUNTRY: GERMANY, WEST
TITLE: Diagnostic significance of alpha-fetoproteins in neonatal hyperbilirubinaemias and primary cancer of the liver in adults.
PUBDATE: 19770201
The presence in the serum of alpha-1-fetoprotein (AFP) was studied by the following immunological methods: immunoprecipitation electrophoresis after Pesendorfer et al., modified micro Ouchterlony technique as described by Prince, and for quantitative determination of this fraction commercial Partigen plates with sensitivity above 1 mg/100 ml. were used (Behringwerke A.G.). Anti AFP serum produced by the same company was used. In our experiance these three methods were equally sensitive In the newborn (41) with hyperbilirubinemia (cytomegalic inclusion disease, toxoplasmosis, ABO and Rh incompatibility) despite persisting abnormal laboratory tests indicating liver damage AFP disappeared from circulation by the end of the first month. Fetoprotein has been demonstrated in the serum by the end of the third month in nine babies in whom malformation of the biliary ducts was confirmed intraoperatively (7,14). In adults AFP was observed in the serum of only those patients in whom presence of primary hepatocellular liver cancer was proved pathohistologically Out of 15 verified cases of primary liver cancer AFP was positive in 43.7%.


11. DOCID:3340 SCORE: 0.00288697086598001
DOCNO: 1116103
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: drug therapy
QUALIFIER: therapeutic use
QUALIFIER: therapeutic use
QUALIFIER: therapeutic use
AUTHOR: R H Creech RH
AUTHOR: R B Catalano RB
AUTHOR: M J Mastrangelo MJ
AUTHOR: P F Engstrom PF
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: An effective low-dose intermittent cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil treatment regimen for metastatic breast cancer.
PUBDATE: 19750401
A low-dose, three-drug regimen, C.M.F. (cyclophosphamide 50 mg, p.o., days 1-14; methotrexate, 25 mg, and 5-fluorouracil, 500 mg, i.v., days 1 and 8; cycled every 28 days) was used in 46 consecutive chemtherapy-eligible women (41 previously hormonally treated) with recurrent breast cancer. Thirteen percent of the patients had complete regressions (C.R.); 33% had partial regressions (P.R.); 26% stabilized; and 28% progressed. In evaluating response by sites of metastases, lymph nodes (30%), lung nodules (22%), and subcutaneous deposits (2/3) had the highest incidence of C.R.; 46-71% of patients with lymph node, lung, subcutaneous, liver, breast, or peritoneal disease showed C.R. or P.R. Skin and pleural disease responded in 30% of patients whereas no patients had radiographic healing of bony metastases. The toxicity was minimal: 7% gastrointestinal, 26% marrow-suppressive, and 7% infectious. This low-dose C.M.F. regimen resulted in regression resulted in regression rates similar to higher dose C.M.F. protocols, which use approximately twice these drug dosages with commensurate toxicity.


12. DOCID:3927 SCORE: 0.00288554433882623
DOCNO: 989307
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: etiology
QUALIFIER: complications
AUTHOR: H Glanz H
AUTHOR: O Kleinsasser O
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Archives of oto-rhino-laryngology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: [Chronic laryngitis and carcinoma (author's transl)]
PUBDATE: 19760201
35 cases of continuous series of 841 laryngeal cancers were studied separately. Those patients had already been suffering from hoarseness for more than 2 years, in the average for 9 years. Many of these patients had been examined and treated by inhalations, and biopsies were taken because of a chronic laryngitis. Clinically in half of the cases a big carcinoma could be found. In 10 cases a chronic laryngitis had been diagnosed; in spite of the preceeding examination by microlaryngoscopy in 4 cases, however, the carcinoma could only be proved by histologic examination. The histologic examinations of the specimens regularly displayed an extended field of epidermisation of the laryngeal mucosa following chronic laryngitis, In these fields of epidermisation the carcinoma developed multicentrically and--in the early stages--mostly showed a covering-like, minutely infiltrating growth. Disseminated dot-like cancer-focuses in the epidermisation field and cancer buds arising from the basal layers of an intact covering of the hypertrophic epithelium could be observed several times. Chronic-hypertrophic laryngitis seems to favour the development of cancer within some patients (promoting factor), it even might accelerate it. As in about 6% of all the vocal cord cancers a preexistent chronic laryngitis is proved by history and clinical findings each patient with a chronic hypertrophic laryngitis must be examined by microlaryngoscopy as well as histological examinations and must be constantly observed.


13. DOCID:1428 SCORE: 0.00279742990153916
DOCNO: 1030663
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Lymph Nodes
DESCRIPTOR: Radionuclide Imaging
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
AUTHOR: M Bechynĕ M
AUTHOR: Z Dienstbier Z
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: European journal of nuclear medicine.
COUNTRY: GERMANY, WEST
TITLE: Isotope lymphography of the retrosternal region.
PUBDATE: 19760801
The authors have examined 150 patients with Hodgkin's lymphomas and cancer of the breast and lung. They consider indirect lymphography as a screening method necessary to be completed with available clinical examinations. In normal scintigram it is possible eliminate the pathological process. Even when some part of lymphatic region is not scanned it is possible to say that the suspicion of a pathological process is highly probable. It is necessary to consider the anatomical variability of lymphatic vessels. Therefore, the scintigram must be evaluated together with other clinical findings. The examination of axillar and cervical area of lymphatic system and the determination of eventual collateral circulation is recommended simultaneously with retrosternal lymphography.


14. DOCID:3999 SCORE: 0.00273219587086357
DOCNO: 971605
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Bronchi
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
AUTHOR: J Aisner J
AUTHOR: L K Kvols LK
AUTHOR: E A Sickles EA
AUTHOR: S C Schimpff SC
AUTHOR: P H Wiernik PH
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Chest.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Transtracheal selective bronchial brushing for pulmonary infiltrates in patients with cancer.
PUBDATE: 19760301
Patients with cancer frequently develop pneumonitis for which no cause is documented ante mortem. Noninvasive diagnostic techniques, such as sputum induction, are generally inadequate, especially in myelosuppressed patients. To avoid pulmonary contamination with organisms colonizing the oronasopharynx and to obtain uncontaminated speciemens, 38 patients underwent bronchial brushing utilizing a transtracheal approach after sputum induction and transtracheal aspiration failed to establish the etiology. Patients with thrombocytopenia were brushed after platelet transfusion. Eleven patients were not clinically considered to be infected; seven proved to have pulmonary metastases, of which one case was diagnosed by this technique; and four patients in whom no diagnosis was obtained by brushing subsequently proved to have interstitial fibrosis (three cases) or a collapsed lobe (one case). Twenty-seven patients were clinically presumed to be infected. Ultimately, 17 of these 27 patients were proven to have pulmonary infection, and 14 of these 17 were etiologically documented by brushing. In ten of the 27 patients presumed to be infected, no etiology could be established by any method. Seven of these ten patients were receiving broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy at the time. Significant but nonfatal complications, including hemoptysis, pneumothorax, and cervical cellulitis, occurred in seven patients; however, this procedure is a relatively safe and useful method to include in the orderly evaluation of myelosuppressed cancer patients with suspected pulmonary infections.