0. DOCID:3883 SCORE: 0.00629626710065732
DOCNO: 1203873
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: epidemiology
AUTHOR: M Hakama M
AUTHOR: T Hakulinen T
AUTHOR: L Teppo L
AUTHOR: E Saxen E
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Incidence, mortality or prevalence as indicators of the cancer problem.
PUBDATE: 19751201
The magnitude of the cancer problem, as conveyed by the incidence, mortality and prevalence figures, was studied by analysis of the material of the Finnish Cancer Registry from 1953-1970. The prevalence was defined as the number of persons who had cancer, or had ever had cancer, and were living on December 31, 1970. The incidence and mortality of cancer in males exceeded those in respect of females, whereas the prevalence with females was clearly higher than that with males. According to all 3 indices, the commonest site of cancer was in the lungs in males. In females, cancer of the breast was the commonest malignant neoplasm measured by incidence and prevalence, where as in mortality statistics it was second to cancer of the stomach. Cancers with poor prognosis such as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas and esophagus, and leukemia, exhibited relatively low prevalence figures, whereas cancers with good prognosis, such as cancer of the breast, uterus, larynx and lip, showed relatively large numbers of prevalent cases. In females, cancer of the genitals, including the breasts, constituted nearly as may prevalent cases as did the total figure in males. As the 3 cancer indices measure different things, the nature of the index used should be taken into account in evaluation of the magnitude of the cancer problem.


1. DOCID:3823 SCORE: 0.00612180474592139
DOCNO: 778283
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: blood supply
AUTHOR: T J Ryan TJ
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
PUBTYPE: Review
JOURNALTITLE: The Journal of investigative dermatology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: The blood vessels of the skin.
PUBDATE: 19760701
During the last 25 years, cutaneous biologists have been particularly interested in abnormal cutaneous vascular patterns, the profusion of capillary anastomoses, the leakiness of venules, clotting, fibrinolysis, and blood viscosity. As a result, the effects of hypoxia and the factors that encourage new vessel proliferation are better understood than before. Only when the biologic behavior of the two extremes of growth from hypoplasia to hyperplasia is studied and compared can the blood supply of a tissue be understood. Hyperplastic tissues are seen in wounds, psoriasis, cancer, and in selected sites of chronic stasis and hypoxia where the vessels are extremely permeable, where blood cells easily escape, and where lymphatics dilate and proliferate. The proliferation of other tissues, such as endothelium, epithelium, mast cells, and probably of locally infective organisms, is also encouraged in hyperplasia. Moreover, fibrinolysis does not occur and fibrin is deposited, the electrostatic charge on the internal vascular surface becomes more positive, and the organ is more vulnerable to subsequent injury. Atrophic or hypoplastic tissues have a reduced cellular turnover and are less hypoxic. The vessels are less permeable, blood cells do not escape, there is only a slight tendency to clot, and fibrinolysis is often increased. Lymphatics are sparse and infection is not a feature. The electrostatic charge on the internal surface of the vessel is negative.


2. DOCID:3771 SCORE: 0.00436937953501672
DOCNO: 770204
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Diet
DESCRIPTOR: Nutrition
QUALIFIER: etiology
AUTHOR: E L Wynder EL
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
PUBTYPE: Review
JOURNALTITLE: Federation proceedings.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Nutrition and cancer.
PUBDATE: 19760501
There is increasing epidemiological evidence that nutrition plays a dominant role in the pathogenesis of several types of human cancers. There is considerable epidemiological evidence showing that alcoholism in part because of associated nutritional deficiencies, significantly increases the risk of smokers for cancer of the alimentary tract. There is also some suggestion that nutritional deficiencies may relate to cancers of the stomach, cervix, and thyroid. Of particular importance, and based on relatively new concepts, are data indicating that overnutrition significantly affects the development of certain cancers, including cancers of the colon and pancreas, kidney, breast, ovary endometrium, and prostate. Except for cancer of the endometrium, and kidney cancer in women, there is no significant relationship to obesity. Rather, the evidence suggests both epidemiologically and experimentally that the etiological factors relate to a high intake of fats and possibly other variables associated with high fat intake. While we are investigating the mechanistic nature of the epidemiological and experimental observations, the question that needs to be asked is whether it is not prudent for us to associate ourselves with the recommendation of our colleagues in the cardiovascular disease field who call on both individuals and the food industry to practice a "Prudent Diet," i.e., one that is lower in total calories, total fat, saturated fats and cholesterol than is the present American diet.


3. DOCID:3799 SCORE: 0.00424525206332218
DOCNO: 1071089
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Registries
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
AUTHOR: S E Larsson SE
AUTHOR: R Lorentzon R
AUTHOR: L Boquist L
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: Fibrosarcoma of bone. A demographic, clinical and histopathological study of all cases recorded in the Swedish cancer registry from 1958 to 1968.
PUBDATE: 19761101
The clinical records, radiographs and histopathological material of all forty-one patients recorded as suffering from fibrosarcoma of bone in the Swedish Cancer Registry for the years 1958 to 1968 have been analysed; in addition, four cases were found on histological review of a series of osteosarcomas. From this re-examination, twenty-four patients with genuine fibrosarcoma of bone were identified; twenty-two had primary neoplasms and two secondary. No sex or geographical differences were found. The tumours showed a prevalence for patients in the adult and older age groups. Half of the tumours arose from femoral or tibial metaphysial bone adjacent to a knee joint. All the tumours were of the medullary type. Almost one-third presented with a pathological fracture, and soft-tissue extension had occurred in all but three tumours. In contrast to previous reports, these tumours were more malignant than osteosarcomas and showed a five-year survival rate of only 4-2 per cent. In accessible sites, ablative surgery was used as the primary treatment, Fibrosarcoma of bone is a distinctive lesion and should be distinguished carefully from periosteal and soft-tissue fibrosarcomas because of differences in prognosis and treatment.


4. DOCID:3979 SCORE: 0.00420030062849208
DOCNO: 174814
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: enzymology
QUALIFIER: enzymology
QUALIFIER: metabolism
AUTHOR: A L Singer AL
AUTHOR: R P Sherwin RP
AUTHOR: A S Dunn AS
AUTHOR: M M Appleman MM
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer research.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases in neoplastic and nonneoplastic human mammary tissues.
PUBDATE: 19760101
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity was studied in 33 malignant neoplastic, 2 benign neoplastic, and 18 nonneoplastic human mammary tissues. Enzyme activity, using both cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate and cyclic guanosine 3':5'-monosphosphate as substrates, was measured in whole homogenates over a concentration range of 1 to 100 muM. Specific activity was calculated at substrate concentrations of 1 muM (low KM enzyme activity) and 100 muM (high KM activity). Diethylaminoethyl cellulose chromatography was used to separate the different enzyme species. The malignant neoplastic tissues had higher levels of both low-KM cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate and low-KM cyclic guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterases. Further, the mean value of the ratio of low-km cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate to low-KM cyclic guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate activity was higher for the cancer tissues than for the nonneoplastic tissues. Diethylaminoethyl cellulose chromatography indicated the presence of three enzymes in both neoplastic and nonneoplastic mammary tissue. The kinetic as well as regulatory properties of the separated enzymes indicated that they are distinct enzyme activities. The phosphodiesterase properties were similar for neoplastic and nonneoplastic tissues and resembled those described previously in many other mammalian tissues. While both neoplastic and nonneoplastic tissues had detectable levels of the protein activator for phosphodiesterase, the cancer tissues appeared to have a higher level.


5. DOCID:3681 SCORE: 0.00413815951711648
DOCNO: 1083285
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: radiation effects
QUALIFIER: radiotherapy
QUALIFIER: radiation effects
AUTHOR: M Raben M
AUTHOR: N Walach N
AUTHOR: U Galili U
AUTHOR: M Schlesinger M
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: The effect of radiation therapy on lymphocyte subpopulations in cancer patients.
PUBDATE: 19760301
The proportion of T and B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood was determined in patients with either mammary cancer or with various pelvic malignancies. In cancer patients studied prior to irradiation the level of cells forming either E-rosettes or EAC'-rosettes was similar to that found among healthy controls. Radiation therapy resulted in a striking lymphopenia. The level of cells with T-cell markers was diminished to a greater extent than the level of cells with B-cell markers. The relative proportion of T-cells forming high affinity E-rosettes was not reduced following radiation, so that it can be concluded that radiation affects predominantly the subpopulation of T-cells which do not form high affinity E-rosettes. Irradiation of the pelvic area resulted in a more rapid reduction of the level of T lymphocytes than irradiation of the mediastinum, although the final relative proportions of the cells were similar in both groups of patients. The results of the present study suggest that the reduction of the level of T lymphocytes following irradiation results from its effect on the lymphocytes in the major blood vessels, and that radiation of the thymus is not a prerequisite for this phenomenon.


6. DOCID:3604 SCORE: 0.00365346433766243
DOCNO: 304003
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Cytotoxicity, Immunologic
QUALIFIER: immunology
AUTHOR: B M Vose BM
AUTHOR: F Vánky F
AUTHOR: S Argov S
AUTHOR: E Klein E
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: European journal of immunology.
COUNTRY: GERMANY, WEST
TITLE: Natural cytotoxicity in man: activity of lymph node and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.
PUBDATE: 19771101
Lymphocytes from blood, lymph node and tumor have been tested for cytotoxicity against the K562 cell line which is known to be highly sensitive to lysis by spontaneously reactive cells. Cytotoxicity was found in all 13 samples from healthy donors and in 17/32 cancer patients. By contrast, activity was determined in only 1/18 lymph node and 1/14 preparations of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Lymph node cells were similarly nonreactive against 3 other cell lines known to be sensitive to natural cytotoxicity. Studies of the composition of the effector populations revealed no absolute deficit of a particular cell type although there were differences between them resulting from the different isolation procedures used. Enrichment of the lymph node population for non-T, non-B lymphocyte was ineffective in inducing cytotoxicity in previously nonreactive samples although this procedure uniformly increased the cytotoxic potential of blood lymphocytes. Tests with blood taken during operation showed that the lack of reactivity in these preparations was unlikely to be a result of the effects of anesthesia or surgery. The reason for the low cytotoxicity in the lymph node and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is as yet undefined.


7. DOCID:2681 SCORE: 0.00363051427644015
DOCNO: 890657
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: enzymology
QUALIFIER: biosynthesis
QUALIFIER: biosynthesis
QUALIFIER: enzymology
AUTHOR: M Yokoyama M
AUTHOR: T Natsuizaka T
AUTHOR: Y Ishii Y
AUTHOR: S Ohshima S
AUTHOR: A Kasagi A
AUTHOR: S Tateno S
PUBTYPE: Case Reports
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Amylase-producing lung cancer: ultrastructural and biochemical studies.
PUBDATE: 19770801
A case of lung cancer with elevated amylase activity in serum, urine, and tumor tissue was studied electron microscopically and biochemically. Ultrastructurally, there were numerous electron-dense granules in the cytoplasm of most tumor cells. These granules were located in the apical region of tumor cells and had a single limiting membrane, associated with a clear zone just beneath it. Furthermore, circular, lamellar and annulate structures, which closely resembled those observed within zymogen granules of the salivary glands in postnatal mice and rats, were sometimes recognized within these granules. These observations suggested that these granules were identical to a postnatal or immature form of zymogen granules in salivary glands. Biochemical analysis confirmed that the amylases obtained from the tumor tissue were composed of the sialic acid-containing glycoprotein, which was not found in normal amylases. A possible histogenesis of the amylase-producing lung cancer was briefly discussed.


8. DOCID:3925 SCORE: 0.00361048541565471
DOCNO: 404913
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: radiotherapy
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: immunology
QUALIFIER: radiotherapy
AUTHOR: Z L Olkowski ZL
AUTHOR: J R McLaren JR
AUTHOR: S A Wilkins SA
AUTHOR: A J Maruszczak AJ
AUTHOR: A B Kirchner AB
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: AJR. American journal of roentgenology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Cytochemical and immunologic of women treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.
PUBDATE: 19770501
A total of 126 individuals were tested for circulating T lymphocyte levels: 10 patients with stage I-III squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix before treatment; 65 women previously treated with radiation for stage I and II squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix; and 51 healthy age-matched controls. Percentages of aneuploid cells and DNA content in vaginal or cervical smears were determined in 94 patients. All patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix had lower ratios and levels of circulating T lymphocytes than healthy controls. Cytologic and cytochemical DNA studies of vaginal and cervical smears revealed that these individuals had high percentages of aneuploid cells in cervical smears as well as high DNA values. Patients with no evidence of dysplasia had increased circulating T lymphocyte levels compared to pretreatment values, a lower number of aneuploid cells, and mean DNA values close to diploid cells. Based on cytologic and quantitative DNA studies of vaginal and cervical smears, postirradiation dysplasia was diagnosed in 17 of 65 women previously treated by radiation for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. No difference in the levels of circulating T lymphocytes between women with postirradiation dysplasia and women without this mucosal disorder and no evidence of cancer was found.


9. DOCID:2745 SCORE: 0.00352680818279332
DOCNO: 991124
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: blood
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
AUTHOR: J Shimamura J
AUTHOR: L Fridhandler L
AUTHOR: J E Berk JE
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Unusual isomaylase in cancer-associated hyperamylasemia.
PUBDATE: 19761101
Hyperamylasemia and hyperamylasuria were found in two patients with carcinoma of the pancreas and in two other patients with carcinoma of the lung. Detailed isoamylase analyses were conducted on the serum amylase of three and the urine amylase of all four of these patients, using a modified chromatographic procedure. The studies demonstrated the existence, in one of the lung cancer patients and in one of the patients with pancreatic cancer, of an unusual component of amylase given the designation "Y." This component had also been noted in some human milk samples. In one of the lung cancer patients, an isoamylase was found in the serum and urine after radiation treatment that was close to but not identical to the Y isoamylase in chromatographic position. Although a relationship of isoamylase component Y to generating tissue is suggested by these findings, such a relationship of isoamylase component Y to generating tissue is suggested by these findings, such a relationship remains to be proven.


10. DOCID:3858 SCORE: 0.00348028836160513
DOCNO: 561030
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Blood Glucose
QUALIFIER: administration & dosage
QUALIFIER: blood
AUTHOR: H G Luppmann HG
AUTHOR: D Graichen D
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Infusionstherapie und klinische Ernährung.
COUNTRY: SWITZERLAND
TITLE: [Glucose and K+ balance during high-dosage intravenous glucose infusion]
PUBDATE: 19770601
Intravenous infusion of glucose in high dosage was given to 42 tumor patients, attaining a hyperglycemia of about 40 mg/100 ml over a period of 24 hours. This hyperglycemia is a part of the so-called "cancer-multistep-therapie". During the period of glucose-infusion a water-turnover of about 6,000 ml can be registered which is connected with a requirement of glucose of about 2,000 g. Only 1/3 of this amount is loosing by renal excretion, but 2/3 are metabolised to correspond with a glucose-uptake of 0,94 g and a glucosuria of 0,32 g per kg bodyweight and hour. Requirement of glucose and glucose uptake are in inverse proportion to the age of the patients and to the duration of hyperglycemia. Further a "glucose-potassium-equivalent" existed: about 10 mval potassium per 100 g infused glucose, whereas the netto uptake of potassium is 0,049 mval per g of metabolised glucose. Acid-base-equilibrium and red blood-picture did not show any relevant variations while typical deviations of some other parameters (cardiac-frequency, body-temperature), white blood-picture) are can be associated with the so-called "general adaptation syndrom". The findings are discussed in view of their general importance for the parenteral application of glucose.


11. DOCID:3657 SCORE: 0.00344905884590083
DOCNO: 1113317
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Military Medicine
QUALIFIER: mortality
QUALIFIER: poisoning
QUALIFIER: poisoning
AUTHOR: J E Norman JE
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Lung cancer mortality in World War I veterans with mustard-gas injury: 1919-1965.
PUBDATE: 19750201
A study of the mortality experience of three samples of World War I veterans totaling 7,151 U.S. white males was extended from 1956 through 1965 to learn whether a single exposure to mustard gas with respiratory injury was associated with increased risk of lung cancer in later life. Rosters of men born between 1889 and 1893 [2,718 exposed to mustard gas, 1,855 hospitalized with pneumonia in 1918, and 2,578 with wounds of the extremities (controls)] were traced via the Veterans Administration's death records. The 4,136 deaths reported were 95% of that expected. The conclusions of the original study were not altered by the additional 10 years of follow-up. Observed deaths from lung cancer numbered 69, or 2.5% for the mustard-gas group as compared to 33, or 1.8%, for the pneumonia group and 50, or 1.9%, for the controls. The risk of death from lung cancer among men gassed relative to that for the controls was estimated as 1.3, with 95% confidence limits of 0.9-1.9. These figures failed to make a strong case for a carcinogenic effect, apparently because a suffcient dose of mustard gas was not received,


12. DOCID:2223 SCORE: 0.00342778921143539
DOCNO: 4427199
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Breast Neoplasms
QUALIFIER: pharmacology
QUALIFIER: pharmacology
QUALIFIER: pharmacology
QUALIFIER: pharmacology
AUTHOR: R A Sellwood RA
AUTHOR: J E Castro JE
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The Journal of pathology.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: The effect of hormones on ogran cultures of human mammary carcinoma.
PUBDATE: 19740801
A simple method of organ culture was used to study the effects of various hormones on human mammary cancer in vitro. Samples of mammary cancer tissue were taken at mastectomy from 15 patients and processed at once under sterile conditions. The hormones were dissolved in ethyl alcohol to a concentration of .25 mg/ml. Testosterone, estradiol, stilbestrol, and hydrocortisone succinate, each 10 mcg/ml, were tested. After 4 days incubation in an atmosphere of 95% oxygen and 5% carbon dioxide, specimens were prepared for microscopic study. In 5 instances no viable tissues were found. In the remaining 10 specimens there was no evidence that viability was influenced by any hormone. Good survival of the cancer tissue was obtained in only 2 instances. The method is not considered applicable for the determination of treatment or prognosis.


13. DOCID:2204 SCORE: 0.00342778491318923
DOCNO: 322845
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: etiology
QUALIFIER: etiology
AUTHOR: V E Archer VE
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
PUBTYPE: Review
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Occupational exposure to radiation as a cancer hazard.
PUBDATE: 19770401
There is much experimental data which indicates that ionizing radiation is a very potent carcinogenic agent. Most types of carcinoma can be produced by radiation. Carcinoma is apparently induced through a single or a series of mutations in somatic cells. Radiologists have excess leukemia and other malignancy from external x-ray; uranium and other miners have excess lung cancer from internal alpha radiation; luminous dial painters have excess osteogenic sarcomas; and uranium mill workers appear to have excess lymphomas. A large number of persons are now exposed occupationally to radiation from nuclear reactors, and from various uses of radioisotopes. For the induction of most types of cancers from radiation it appears that the risk is between 0.5 and 2 cancers per rem per million person years. Epidemiological techniques are essential in determining risks of this low magnitude. Other agents may inhibit or enhance the carcinogenicity of radiation.


14. DOCID:3391 SCORE: 0.0032956096985677
DOCNO: 880572
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Attitude to Health
DESCRIPTOR: Neoplasms
AUTHOR: G W Mitchell GW
AUTHOR: A S Glicksman AS
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Cancer patients: knowledge and attitudes.
PUBDATE: 19770701
Fifty patients undergoing treatment were interviewed on what they knew about radiotherapy and their attitudes towards their disease and those treating their disease. Ninety-four percent used the word "cancer" or "malignant tumor" to describe the reason for being treated. All patients were told their diagnosis by the physician who referred them for therapy. Nineteen patients remembered feeling frightened by the equipment at first, but all had a lessening of anxiety with time. All patients perceived the role of the radiation technologist as that of operating the treatment machine and spoke only about trivialities to them. Eighty percent felt that the radiotherapist gave them satisfactory information about their treatment before commencing treatment. In contrast, the referring physician was thought to have been of no help in preparing for the experience of undergoing radiotherapy by 52% of those interviewed. Eighty-two percent of the patients expressed the opinion that both the referring physician and therapist were not the people to whom they would bring emotional problems. Therefore, mental health professionals could make a major contribution in the total program if they were involved in the day to day care of patients receiving radiotherapy.