0. DOCID:6092 SCORE: 0.00374969241550081
DOCNO: 7248438
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Clinical Trials
DESCRIPTOR: Education, Graduate
DESCRIPTOR: Statistics
AUTHOR: E A Gehan EA
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Biometrics.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: The training of statisticians for cooperative clinical trials: a working statistician's viewpoint.
PUBDATE: 19801201
The methods of training statisticians for clinical trials can take diverse forms: attendance at courses and lectures, personal study, observing and doing, or working as an apprentice. Desirable qualifications for an effective working statistician are: adequate knowledge of biostatistics and the field of application for the clinical trial, an ability to communicate statistical ideas verbally at meetings and in the writing of reports and collaborative research papers, an awareness of potential sources of bias, an understanding of ethical issues, and an ability to set priorities for projects. These issues are discussed in the context of training, and personal comments are made from the viewpoint of a statistician with substantial experience of clinical trials in cancer.


1. DOCID:7938 SCORE: 0.00260774173263062
DOCNO: 7284734
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: ultrastructure
QUALIFIER: ultrastructure
QUALIFIER: ultrastructure
QUALIFIER: ultrastructure
AUTHOR: O J Traynor OJ
AUTHOR: N L Costa NL
AUTHOR: L H Blumgart LH
AUTHOR: C B Wood CB
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The British journal of surgery.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: A scanning electron microscopy study of ultrastructural changes in the colonic mucosa of patients with large bowel tumours.
PUBDATE: 19811001
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been used to compare the appearances of the colonic mucosal surface and overlying mucus layer of patients with normal colons, adenomatous polyps and colorectal carcinoma. The normal colonic mucosa had a characteristic orderly arrangement of crypts and was completely covered by an intact mucus layer. Epithelial and cryptal irregularities were seen on the surface of both polyps and carcinomas, and, in addition, the mucus layer was fragmented, leaving areas of the underlying epithelium exposed. These changes were more marked in colorectal cancers than in polyps and were present to a lesser degree in the apparently normal mucosa adjacent to tumours. The findings indicate that SEM can detect minor subtle irregularities on the surface of the colon and so may be useful in detecting pre-neoplastic and early neoplastic changes.


2. DOCID:7880 SCORE: 0.00219532218510019
DOCNO: 7284969
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: adverse effects
QUALIFIER: chemically induced
AUTHOR: W C Willett WC
AUTHOR: C Bain C
AUTHOR: C H Hennekens CH
AUTHOR: B Rosner B
AUTHOR: F E Speizer FE
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Oral contraceptives and risk of ovarian cancer.
PUBDATE: 19811001
Among a large cohort of married, female, registered nurses under 55 years of age, oral contraceptive (OC) use was examined in women with ovarian cancer and 470 age-matched controls. Use of OCs before the diagnosis of cancer was reported by 28% of the women with ovarian cancer and 33% of the controls, yielding a relative risk of 0.8 (95% confidence limits 0.4-1.5). This apparent inverse relationship was attributable to a large effect in women 35 years of age or younger (relative risk = 0.2, 95% confidence limits 0.1-1.0). Patients with ovarian cancer were 2.2 times more likely than controls to be nulliparous. These data provide reassurance that OC use is not likely to be associated with any major increase in risk of ovarian cancer, but suggest that future studies of this relationship need to consider the possible confounding effect of infertility.


3. DOCID:6141 SCORE: 0.00210461869699555
DOCNO: 7444514
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: radiotherapy
QUALIFIER: radiotherapy
AUTHOR: B Amendola B
AUTHOR: T A Hazra TA
AUTHOR: R Belgrad R
AUTHOR: E R King ER
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Southern medical journal.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Radiation therapy for esophageal cancer: the Medical College of Virginia experience.
PUBDATE: 19801101
In a retrospective review of 70 patients with carcinoma of the esophagus treated by external beam irradiation therapy from 1968 to 1977 at the Medical College of Virginia, we correlated survival with race, age, sex, histology, and site of tumor. Results of treatment were also analyzed in relation to the length of the esophagus treated, the total area of the treatment field, and the total tumor dose. From this analysis it appears that radiotherapy has a place in the palliative treatment of esophageal cancer and that palliation is independent of the total volume and dose. There is indication that with higher dosage the survival rate is slightly higher.


4. DOCID:6922 SCORE: 0.00192713941640689
DOCNO: 6944532
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: genetics
QUALIFIER: urine
QUALIFIER: urine
AUTHOR: D Trichopoulos D
AUTHOR: J B Brown JB
AUTHOR: J Garas J
AUTHOR: A Papaioannou A
AUTHOR: B MacMahon B
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Elevated urine estrogen and pregnanediol levels in daughters of breast cancer patients.
PUBDATE: 19810901
Urine levels of three major estrogens and of pregnanediol were measured for 76 nulliparous daughters of breast cancer patients and for 115 control women of similar age and parity. Concentrations of estrone and estradiol tended to be higher in the daughters of breast cancer patients than in the controls; total estrogens were elevated in both phases than in the controls; total estrogens were elevated in both phases of the menstrual cycle and significantly so in the luteal phase. There was little difference between the daughters and the controls in estriol ratios--the ratios of the concentration of estriol to the sum of the concentrations of estrone and estradiol. Pregnanediol levels were higher in the daughters than in the controls.


5. DOCID:7530 SCORE: 0.00189020507185275
DOCNO: 510848
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
AUTHOR: H Kawamura H
AUTHOR: Y Hashimoto Y
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Gann = Gan.
COUNTRY: JAPAN
TITLE: Keratinization of transformed epithelial cells of the rat urinary bladder: its quantification and effect of various drugs.
PUBDATE: 19790801
In vitro and in vivo transformed epithelial cells of the rat urinary bladder keratinized well on a coverslip culture. Keratinization proceeded more rapidly in in vitro-transformed cells than in in vivo-induced bladder cancer cells. The grade of keratinization was estimated from the absorption spectrum of a papanicolaou-stained specimen which afforded two peaks derived from keratinized cells and viable cells. Using this semiquantitative method, effect of various drugs on keratinization was studied on 3 lines of in vitro-transformed epithelial cells. Vitamin A and its analogs prevented the keratinization in 2 out of 3 lines at dosage over 1 micrograms/ml, but other drugs such as vitamin C, E, and K, steroid hormones, cyclic AMP, polyamines, polyanions, and dimethyl sulfoxide were ineffective for preventing keratinization. Amino acid compositions of keratinized cells and viable cells were not fundamentally different.


6. DOCID:7716 SCORE: 0.00188098431666312
DOCNO: 6991895
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Cell Aggregation
DESCRIPTOR: Lymphocytes
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
AUTHOR: O W Bjerrum OW
AUTHOR: R E Kast RE
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Medical hypotheses.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: Cancer diagnostic test of Field and Caspary: Part I. Spontaneous aggregation of lymphocytes in saline suspension is blocked by albumin and histone in normals but not in various disease states: the lymphocyte aggregation blocking test.
PUBDATE: 19800101
A blood test is described which is often positive in diverse disease states. In this test washed patient lymphocytes are incubated with histone or albumin. Early aggregation indicates that the patient might have inflammatory, malignant, or other disease, while absence of aggregation is the pattern found in normals. The test is called the lymphocyte aggregation blocking (LAB) test. Positive results when testing cancer patients were 86%, normals 14%, and non-malignant hospitalized patients were 50%. Lymphocyte aggregation was not an active process mediated by added protein. All washed lymphocyte suspensions will aggregate in the test conditions, whether, from normals, cancer or non-cancer patients if no protein is added. Normals' lymphocyte suspensions are prevented from aggregating by the added histone or albumin.


7. DOCID:7755 SCORE: 0.00181836424859952
DOCNO: 6262561
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: etiology
QUALIFIER: etiology
QUALIFIER: physiology
AUTHOR: T Sakakura T
AUTHOR: Y Sakagami Y
AUTHOR: Y Nishizuka Y
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Accelerated mammary cancer development by fetal salivary mesenchyma isografted to adult mouse mammary epithelium.
PUBDATE: 19810501
Transplantation of fetal salivary mesenchyma into adult mammary glands resulted in atypical outgrowths from the mammary duct system. These duct-alveolus nodules (DAN) were distinguishable from hyperplastic alveolar nodules (HAN) that arose from normal mammary duct systems in mice infected with murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV). DAN displayed a type of ductal branching characteristic of salivary gland rather than of mammary gland, reflecting a tissue-specific perturbation of epithelium-mesenchyma in DAN in milk-transmitted MuMTV-infected C3H/HeN mice and in MuMTV-negative BALB/c mice given 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) subsequent to transplantation of fetal salivary mesenchyma. Mammary cancers were not increased in milk-transmitted MuMTV-free C3H/HeN and GRS/A mice that received salivary mesenchyma transplants. Salivary mesenchyma accelerated mammary carcinogenesis by increasing the mammary epithelial cell population responsive to MuMTV and DMBA.


8. DOCID:7470 SCORE: 0.00167596078155078
DOCNO: 481606
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: pharmacology
QUALIFIER: drug effects
AUTHOR: J D Buckley JD
AUTHOR: P J O'Connor PJ
AUTHOR: A W Craig AW
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Nature.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: Pretreatment with acetylaminofluorene enhances the repair of O6-methylguanine in DNA.
PUBDATE: 19791001
Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that the interplay of environmental factors may be particularly relevant to the induction of cancer in man. We have investigated the possible interrelationships, at the level of DNA repair, of two chemically different hepatocarcinogens administered to rats. Animals were pretreated for several weeks by inclusion of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) in the diet and a study was made of the capacity of liver to repair lesions subsequently introduced into DNA by a pulse of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). Of particular interest was the repair of adducts at the O6 position of guanine as this product has been implicated as a critical reaction site for carcinogenesis by the monofunctional alkylating agents. We show here that the capacity of liver to repair O6-methylguanine in DNA is enhanced by prolonged exposure of rats to the chemically unrelated agent, AAF.


9. DOCID:7991 SCORE: 0.00167410679203139
DOCNO: 717904
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Colonic Neoplasms
DESCRIPTOR: Rectal Neoplasms
AUTHOR: B B Baughman BB
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The American surgeon.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Cancer of the large bowel with special reference to incidence and etiology.
PUBDATE: 19780901
1. Cancer of the large bowel is second in cancer incidence to lung cancer in Kentucky and in the United States. It is second only to breast cancer in women. 2. It is far more common in the United States and countries with people in the higher socio-economic levels. 3. In addition to the well known associated or premalignant disease, diets high in fats and proteins are thought to increase the risk of the disease. 4. Much research is being carried on to determine other factors in the etiology of this condition. 5. The treatment of choice is still surgical removal of the lesion and all node-bearing and neighboring tissue, including the no-touch isolation technique with early ligation of the section of bowel to be removed. 6. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are of proven value in more advanced disease. 7. Carcinoembryonic antigen is of value in the prognosis of colorectal cancer.


10. DOCID:5579 SCORE: 0.00164080800654679
DOCNO: 7208308
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
AUTHOR: C Chardot C
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: La Nouvelle presse médicale.
COUNTRY: FRANCE
TITLE: [Diagnosis of breast cancer. Value and futility of paraclinical screening tests (author's transl)]
PUBDATE: 19810201
During the past 10 years a number of screening tests aimed at an earlier diagnosis of breast cancer have been introduced, and the time has come for their value to be assessed. In this paper, thermography, senography, xerography, echography and needle aspiration or biopsy are reviewed, and their insufficiencies and drawbacks are shown. Periodical self-examination of the breasts, more detailed examination by the practitioner, systemic senography once every 5 years in women older than 35 and earlier in high risk women, needle aspiration for cysts and needle biopsy for solid tumours are at present the only efficient means of early detection of breast cancer.


11. DOCID:6176 SCORE: 0.00155012397817249
DOCNO: 7265357
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: radiography
QUALIFIER: complications
AUTHOR: B C Umerah BC
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The Journal of urology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Bilharzial hydronephrosis: a clinicoradiological study.
PUBDATE: 19810801
I have studied 68 patients with hydronephrosis. Except when complicated by infection, calculosis, cancer and severe strictures, function at excretory urography was relatively good even in advanced cases of hydronephrosis. In Zambia, Central Africa the intensity of infection and the disordered ureteral motility are the most important factors in the pathogenesis of bilharzial hydronephrosis. In other countries strictures, calculosis, ureteroceles, vesicoureteral reflux and bladder cancer apparently are more significant in these cases. Since reimplantation of the ureters usually fails because of fibrosis conservative treatment is advocated with periodic dilation of troublesome stricture(s). This is especially true since supra-infection is rare even after repeated surgical procedures. The importance of geographical variations of the disease and the relevance to clinical management are stressed.


12. DOCID:5907 SCORE: 0.0014675453630781
DOCNO: 101774
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Bone Neoplasms
DESCRIPTOR: Sarcoma
AUTHOR: G Ott G
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: MMW, M√ľnchener medizinische Wochenschrift.
COUNTRY: GERMANY, WEST
TITLE: [Bone sarcoma (author's transl)]
PUBDATE: 19781001
Sarcogenesis essentially follows two laws: The frequency of sarcoma is distributed according to the mesenchymal cell content in the different sections of the body. The sites of predilection are found within the same tissue systems in zones of increased growth activity and cell division. Clinical oncogenic statistics show that other factors apart from quantity of sarcogenic noxae and latent period are important in producing the malignancy. The synopsis of histology, X-ray findings and clinical examination is significant for diagnosis and for prognosis the degree of spread (TNM classification), localization and therapy. Early operation is still the most successful and most decisive therapeutic measure. The necessity for a supervised cancer follow-up is also shown in these tumors.


13. DOCID:6346 SCORE: 0.0014616508236952
DOCNO: 679167
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: prevention & control
QUALIFIER: pharmacology
AUTHOR: P G Smith PG
AUTHOR: H Jick H
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Cancers among users of preparations containing vitamin A: a case-control investigation.
PUBDATE: 19780801
The frequency of regular use of Vitamin A preparations was compared among 800 newly diagnosed cancer patients and 3433 patients with certain nonmalignant conditions. Overall there was no convincing evidence that regular consumption of such preparations protected against the development of cancer (risk ratio 0.85). However, there was a suggestion of a negative association among men (risk ratio 0.54, p less than 0.01) but not among women (risk ratio 1.11). The negative association among men did not increase with the period that such preparations had been regularly taken and was not greater for squamous cell tumors. The results of this study offer encouragement for further epidemiologic studies of the possible protective role of Vitamin A against cancer.


14. DOCID:4691 SCORE: 0.00146100576628104
DOCNO: 389416
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
AUTHOR: G Montes G
AUTHOR: C Cuello C
AUTHOR: G Gordillo G
AUTHOR: W Pelon W
AUTHOR: W Johnson W
AUTHOR: P Correa P
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer letters.
COUNTRY: NETHERLANDS
TITLE: Mutagenic activity of gastric juice.
PUBDATE: 19791001
Gastric juice samples from patients of a rural area of the Colombian Andes at high risk to gastric cancer were tested for mutagenesis with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100 and TA1538. Direct mutagenic effect was found in samples with detectable amounts of nitrite. This effect was not accountable by nitrite alone. Nitrite-negative samples from the same area and samples from the low-risk area of Cali were negative using the same mutagenesis assay.