0. DOCID:2022 SCORE: 0.00383676911489625
DOCNO: 12229414
OWNER: PIP
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Diagnosis
DESCRIPTOR: Financial Management
DESCRIPTOR: Government Publications
DESCRIPTOR: Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Drug research reports.
COUNTRY: United States
TITLE: (Reprint of) National Cancer Act Amendments of 1974. Conference Report.
PUBDATE: 19740701
This is a conference committee report of the House and Senate to amend the Public Health Service Act to improve the national cancer program and to authorize appropriations for such programs. Title 1, Extension of Cancer Program, deals with administrative, budgetary, and personnel matters; programs of routine exfoliative cytology tests; and requirements of peer review of grant applications and contract projects. Title 2, Biomedical Research, establishes a President's Biomedical Research Panel to study and make recommendations concerning the subject, content, organization, and operation of biomedical and behavioral reserach conducted and supported under programs of the National Institutes of Health and the National Institutes of Mental Health. After 15 months, the panel will submit to the President and Congress a comprehensive report of its findings and recomendations. The 7-member panel shall expire after 18 months.


1. DOCID:6092 SCORE: 0.00374969241550081
DOCNO: 7248438
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Clinical Trials
DESCRIPTOR: Education, Graduate
DESCRIPTOR: Statistics
AUTHOR: E A Gehan EA
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Biometrics.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: The training of statisticians for cooperative clinical trials: a working statistician's viewpoint.
PUBDATE: 19801201
The methods of training statisticians for clinical trials can take diverse forms: attendance at courses and lectures, personal study, observing and doing, or working as an apprentice. Desirable qualifications for an effective working statistician are: adequate knowledge of biostatistics and the field of application for the clinical trial, an ability to communicate statistical ideas verbally at meetings and in the writing of reports and collaborative research papers, an awareness of potential sources of bias, an understanding of ethical issues, and an ability to set priorities for projects. These issues are discussed in the context of training, and personal comments are made from the viewpoint of a statistician with substantial experience of clinical trials in cancer.


2. DOCID:7938 SCORE: 0.00260774173263062
DOCNO: 7284734
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: ultrastructure
QUALIFIER: ultrastructure
QUALIFIER: ultrastructure
QUALIFIER: ultrastructure
AUTHOR: O J Traynor OJ
AUTHOR: N L Costa NL
AUTHOR: L H Blumgart LH
AUTHOR: C B Wood CB
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The British journal of surgery.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: A scanning electron microscopy study of ultrastructural changes in the colonic mucosa of patients with large bowel tumours.
PUBDATE: 19811001
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been used to compare the appearances of the colonic mucosal surface and overlying mucus layer of patients with normal colons, adenomatous polyps and colorectal carcinoma. The normal colonic mucosa had a characteristic orderly arrangement of crypts and was completely covered by an intact mucus layer. Epithelial and cryptal irregularities were seen on the surface of both polyps and carcinomas, and, in addition, the mucus layer was fragmented, leaving areas of the underlying epithelium exposed. These changes were more marked in colorectal cancers than in polyps and were present to a lesser degree in the apparently normal mucosa adjacent to tumours. The findings indicate that SEM can detect minor subtle irregularities on the surface of the colon and so may be useful in detecting pre-neoplastic and early neoplastic changes.


3. DOCID:3739 SCORE: 0.0022052668574883
DOCNO: 922666
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Immunity, Cellular
QUALIFIER: blood
QUALIFIER: blood
QUALIFIER: blood
AUTHOR: W P Bradley WP
AUTHOR: A P Blasco AP
AUTHOR: J F Weiss JF
AUTHOR: J C Alexander JC
AUTHOR: N A Silverman NA
AUTHOR: P B Chretien PB
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Correlations among serum protein-bound carbohydrates, serum glycoproteins, lymphocyte reactivity, and tumors burden in cancer patients.
PUBDATE: 19771101
Levels of glycoprotein-associated carbohydrates (neutral hexoses, hexosamine, sialic acid and fucose) were determined in the serum of patients with either local, regional or metastatic cancer, patients clinically cured of cancer, and controls (smokers and nonsmokers). Total protein-bound carbohydrates were compared with levels of 17 normal serum glycoproteins, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and with lymphocyte reactivity to phytohemagglutin (PHA). Tumor burden was directly related to protein-bound carbohydrate levels in patient groups. Levels of bound carbohydrates reflect the sum of all the changes in serum glycoproteins, but primarily changes in the acute-phase proteins (alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, alpha 1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin) found in the alpha-globulin fraction of serum. Increases in protein-bound carbohydrates in tumor-bearers were not related to increases in CEA. Increased levels of the acute-phase proteins occurred in individuals with depressed in vitro lymphocyte reactivity to PHA. A significant positive correlation was found between lymphocyte reactivity and level of alpha 2HS-glycoprotein. The results suggest that serum protein-bound carbohydrates or glycoproteins may be of adjunctive value is assessing tumor burden and immune reactivity in cancer patients.


4. DOCID:7880 SCORE: 0.00219532218510019
DOCNO: 7284969
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: adverse effects
QUALIFIER: chemically induced
AUTHOR: W C Willett WC
AUTHOR: C Bain C
AUTHOR: C H Hennekens CH
AUTHOR: B Rosner B
AUTHOR: F E Speizer FE
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Oral contraceptives and risk of ovarian cancer.
PUBDATE: 19811001
Among a large cohort of married, female, registered nurses under 55 years of age, oral contraceptive (OC) use was examined in women with ovarian cancer and 470 age-matched controls. Use of OCs before the diagnosis of cancer was reported by 28% of the women with ovarian cancer and 33% of the controls, yielding a relative risk of 0.8 (95% confidence limits 0.4-1.5). This apparent inverse relationship was attributable to a large effect in women 35 years of age or younger (relative risk = 0.2, 95% confidence limits 0.1-1.0). Patients with ovarian cancer were 2.2 times more likely than controls to be nulliparous. These data provide reassurance that OC use is not likely to be associated with any major increase in risk of ovarian cancer, but suggest that future studies of this relationship need to consider the possible confounding effect of infertility.


5. DOCID:6141 SCORE: 0.00210461869699555
DOCNO: 7444514
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: radiotherapy
QUALIFIER: radiotherapy
AUTHOR: B Amendola B
AUTHOR: T A Hazra TA
AUTHOR: R Belgrad R
AUTHOR: E R King ER
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Southern medical journal.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Radiation therapy for esophageal cancer: the Medical College of Virginia experience.
PUBDATE: 19801101
In a retrospective review of 70 patients with carcinoma of the esophagus treated by external beam irradiation therapy from 1968 to 1977 at the Medical College of Virginia, we correlated survival with race, age, sex, histology, and site of tumor. Results of treatment were also analyzed in relation to the length of the esophagus treated, the total area of the treatment field, and the total tumor dose. From this analysis it appears that radiotherapy has a place in the palliative treatment of esophageal cancer and that palliation is independent of the total volume and dose. There is indication that with higher dosage the survival rate is slightly higher.


6. DOCID:3800 SCORE: 0.00205729084159262
DOCNO: 789782
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Ultraviolet Rays
QUALIFIER: radiation effects
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
AUTHOR: B Lambert B
AUTHOR: U Ringborg U
AUTHOR: G Swanbeck G
PUBTYPE: Clinical Trial
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The Journal of investigative dermatology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Ultraviolet-induced dna repair synthesis in lymphocytes from patients with actinic keratosis.
PUBDATE: 19761101
Actinic keratosis is an epidermal cancer in situ. Extensive exposure to sunlight is considered as a contributing factor to the etiology of this tumor. Ultraviolet (UV) light of solar radiation induces structural damage in DNA, which may give rise to mutations and transformed cells if the damage is not repaired. Repair of UV-induced DNA lesions is an essential property of human cells. The conditions so far reported to have defective DNA repair are all associated with an increased incidence of malignancy. Do patients with actinic keratosis also exhibit a reduced capacity to repair UV-induced DNA lesions? DNA repair synthesis in peripheral leukocytes was studied in 10 patients with actinic keratosis and 10 healthy subjects of corresponding age. After irradiation with various doses of UV light the leukocytes were incubated for 2 hr with [3H]thymidine in the presence of hydroxyurea. A dose-response relationship for the UV-induced DNA repair synthesis was established for each individual. The average repair capacity in the patients with actinic keratosis was about 30% below that of the controls. The difference is statistically significant (p less than 0.02). Reduced DNA repair synthesis may therefore be an important factor in the etiology of actinic keratosis.


7. DOCID:2965 SCORE: 0.00200501881752484
DOCNO: 831494
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Lymphatic Metastasis
QUALIFIER: classification
AUTHOR: R C Boronow RC
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: American journal of obstetrics and gynecology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Stage I cervix cancer and pelvic node metastasis: special reference to the implications of the new and the recently replaced FIGO classifications on Stage Ia.
PUBDATE: 19770101
The current staging system for cervix cancer of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) has been in use for less than 2 years. It is criticized by many because of a lack of quantitative features. While quantative features are important, the over-all morphology of the histologic pattern--the qualitative features--are those utilized by most pathologists in interpretating the "invasiveness" of a lesion and therefore its biologic potential. The most recent, as well as the previous FIGO Staging System was applied to 108 personal cases with particular reference to lymih node metastasis. By comparing results of the new and older staging system, the validity of the new system is suggested, and the inordinately high rate of node metastasis when using the older system appears to be at least one reason for the relatively high rate of node metastasis reported in earlier series of Stage Ia lesions reported in the literature.


8. DOCID:2324 SCORE: 0.00199899963161427
DOCNO: 852338
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Carcinoma
DESCRIPTOR: Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
DESCRIPTOR: Heart Neoplasms
DESCRIPTOR: Lung Neoplasms
AUTHOR: B L Strauss BL
AUTHOR: M J Matthews MJ
AUTHOR: M H Cohen MH
AUTHOR: R Simon R
AUTHOR: F Tejada F
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Chest.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Cardiac metastases in lung cancer.
PUBDATE: 19770501
Cardiac metastases from bronchogenic carcinoma are not commonly diagnosed prior to death. This study isolates factors associated wtih the development of cardiac involvement. Four hundred eighteen consecutive patients with lung cancer who had autopsies were studied. Twenty-five percent of these patients had cardiac involvement. Factors associated with cardiac metastases were (1) histologic cell type of the tumor, (2) aggressive therapy, (3) extent of disease, and (4) tumor differentiation. The presence of cardiac metatases was not related to the length of survival. Clinical signs of cardiac involvement included an enlarging heart on the chest x-ray film, development of congestive heart failure, or electrocardiographic changes. Suspicion of cardiac metastases in high-risk individuals, prompt diagnostic evaluation, and rapid institution of therapy may improve the outlook for many patients, since reaccumulation of fluid was generally slow.


9. DOCID:3870 SCORE: 0.00197977823834815
DOCNO: 1008360
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: therapeutic use
QUALIFIER: drug therapy
QUALIFIER: drug therapy
AUTHOR: P Mannes P
AUTHOR: R Derriks R
AUTHOR: R Moens R
AUTHOR: C Laurent C
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Annales de médecine interne.
COUNTRY: FRANCE
TITLE: [Chemotherapy in primary and metastatic intrathoracic cancer]
PUBDATE: 19760101
Chemotherapy has procured results which are still modest surely valid in the treatment of inoperable primary bronchial cancer: - prolongation of the mean survival time from 3 1/2 months for the nontreated cases to 8 1/2 months for those patients treated with complex combinations; - more than 15% of very good results with return to normal professional activity for 6 to 18 months; - approximately 30% of considerable subjective improvement with a definite sense of "well being"; - considerable reduction in the use of pain-killers. These results amply justify the pursuit of research. 2) The results for the combination hormone-chemotherapy, in the case of thoracic metastases of breast cancer, are definitely better. After leukemia in children, and Hodgking and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, metastases from breast cancer constitute a third group of chemosensitive tumors: - for 64 cases, the percentage of complete or partial remission is 84.3%; - there were 34 complete remissions: mean survival 27 months, at present 11 patients still remain alive: 1 to 16, 1 to 17, 2 to 19, 1 to 23, 31, 35, 38, 43, 68 and 70 months; - 20 partial remissions, mean survival 10 1/2 months, one patient still alive; - 10 failures, mean survival 6 months; - mean duration of complete remission 18 months; - mean duration of partial remission 6 months.


10. DOCID:6922 SCORE: 0.00192713941640689
DOCNO: 6944532
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: genetics
QUALIFIER: urine
QUALIFIER: urine
AUTHOR: D Trichopoulos D
AUTHOR: J B Brown JB
AUTHOR: J Garas J
AUTHOR: A Papaioannou A
AUTHOR: B MacMahon B
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Elevated urine estrogen and pregnanediol levels in daughters of breast cancer patients.
PUBDATE: 19810901
Urine levels of three major estrogens and of pregnanediol were measured for 76 nulliparous daughters of breast cancer patients and for 115 control women of similar age and parity. Concentrations of estrone and estradiol tended to be higher in the daughters of breast cancer patients than in the controls; total estrogens were elevated in both phases than in the controls; total estrogens were elevated in both phases of the menstrual cycle and significantly so in the luteal phase. There was little difference between the daughters and the controls in estriol ratios--the ratios of the concentration of estriol to the sum of the concentrations of estrone and estradiol. Pregnanediol levels were higher in the daughters than in the controls.


11. DOCID:7530 SCORE: 0.00189020507185275
DOCNO: 510848
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
AUTHOR: H Kawamura H
AUTHOR: Y Hashimoto Y
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Gann = Gan.
COUNTRY: JAPAN
TITLE: Keratinization of transformed epithelial cells of the rat urinary bladder: its quantification and effect of various drugs.
PUBDATE: 19790801
In vitro and in vivo transformed epithelial cells of the rat urinary bladder keratinized well on a coverslip culture. Keratinization proceeded more rapidly in in vitro-transformed cells than in in vivo-induced bladder cancer cells. The grade of keratinization was estimated from the absorption spectrum of a papanicolaou-stained specimen which afforded two peaks derived from keratinized cells and viable cells. Using this semiquantitative method, effect of various drugs on keratinization was studied on 3 lines of in vitro-transformed epithelial cells. Vitamin A and its analogs prevented the keratinization in 2 out of 3 lines at dosage over 1 micrograms/ml, but other drugs such as vitamin C, E, and K, steroid hormones, cyclic AMP, polyamines, polyanions, and dimethyl sulfoxide were ineffective for preventing keratinization. Amino acid compositions of keratinized cells and viable cells were not fundamentally different.


12. DOCID:3581 SCORE: 0.00188977862764375
DOCNO: 180188
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: cytology
AUTHOR: M Pruniéras M
AUTHOR: C Delescluse C
AUTHOR: M Regnier M
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
PUBTYPE: Review
JOURNALTITLE: The Journal of investigative dermatology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: The culture of skin. A review of theories and experimental methods.
PUBDATE: 19760701
Two main criticisms can be leveled against the standard methods of skin culture: they are poorly quantifiable and the cultured cell populations are heterogeneous. A new technique based mainly on enzymatic dissociation allows specific cell types to be extracted from the skin before cultivation. In this way, separate cultures of epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts can be obtained from the same piece of skin. These purified systems have been used to study the kinetics of epidermal cell growth and to quantify the effect of various chemically defined substances on the growth and differentiation of keratinocytes. With further refinements in technique, purified populations of melanocytes can be extracted. The co-culture of pigmented melanocytes with albino keratinocytes has been proposed as a model to study pigment donation in vitro. The usual organ culture technique, including the use of large explants of skin immersed in the culture fluid, has been modified to show that adult human skin partially regenerates in vitro and that mitotic activity goes on for months in the regenerated epidermis. The use of nucleic acid hybridization techniques, combined with skin cell cultures from human tumors, opens new avenues of research on human cancer.


13. DOCID:7716 SCORE: 0.00188098431666312
DOCNO: 6991895
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Cell Aggregation
DESCRIPTOR: Lymphocytes
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
AUTHOR: O W Bjerrum OW
AUTHOR: R E Kast RE
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Medical hypotheses.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: Cancer diagnostic test of Field and Caspary: Part I. Spontaneous aggregation of lymphocytes in saline suspension is blocked by albumin and histone in normals but not in various disease states: the lymphocyte aggregation blocking test.
PUBDATE: 19800101
A blood test is described which is often positive in diverse disease states. In this test washed patient lymphocytes are incubated with histone or albumin. Early aggregation indicates that the patient might have inflammatory, malignant, or other disease, while absence of aggregation is the pattern found in normals. The test is called the lymphocyte aggregation blocking (LAB) test. Positive results when testing cancer patients were 86%, normals 14%, and non-malignant hospitalized patients were 50%. Lymphocyte aggregation was not an active process mediated by added protein. All washed lymphocyte suspensions will aggregate in the test conditions, whether, from normals, cancer or non-cancer patients if no protein is added. Normals' lymphocyte suspensions are prevented from aggregating by the added histone or albumin.


14. DOCID:3689 SCORE: 0.00182719074580398
DOCNO: 142934
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Hypophysectomy
QUALIFIER: metabolism
AUTHOR: G C Lachelin GC
AUTHOR: S C Yen SC
AUTHOR: J F Alksne JF
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Obstetrics and gynecology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Hormonal changes following hypophysectomy in humans.
PUBDATE: 19770901
Pituitary function was studied before and after surgery in 1 patient who underwent chryohypophysectomy and 5 patients who underwent transsphenoidal excision hypophysectomy for metastatic breast cancer ablation therapy. Changes in serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, growth hormone, thyrotropin stimulating hormone, pituitary prolactin (PRL), and steroid hormone levels of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and rostenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone levels were determined. All of the above were assessed before and from 6 weeks to 10 months after hypophysectomy. Pituitary hormone release in response to sequential stimuli of arginine infusion, thyrotropic releasing factor (TRF), and luteinizing hormone-releaseing factor was analyzed. In 3 patients, hypophysectomy was considered incomplete because of the presence of measurable amounts of circulating pituitary hormones and their release in response to stimuli, although all levels except PRL were markedly reduced. In 3 patients, hypophysectomy was considered nearly complete. Basal PRL levels remained unchanged whether the procedure was considered complete or not. PRL release was absent in response to TRF or arginine stimulation in 4 patients with substantial residual pituitary function. Hypophysectomy was followed by a marked reduction in circulating levels of estrogens and androgens. The assessment of quantitative release of pituitary hormones in response to stimuli is an improved direct measure of residual functioning pituitary tissue.