0. DOCID:3980 SCORE: 0.00496883008030261
DOCNO: 1107828
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: pharmacology
QUALIFIER: drug effects
QUALIFIER: drug effects
AUTHOR: T Rossman T
AUTHOR: M S Meyn MS
AUTHOR: W Troll W
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Mutation research.
COUNTRY: NETHERLANDS
TITLE: Effects of sodium arsenite on the survival of UV-irradiated Escherichia coli: inhibition of a recA-dependent function.
PUBDATE: 19751101
Epidemiological studies and clinical observation suggesting potential hazards of arsenic compounds in increasing the incidence of cancer have been in complete contradiction with experimental findings in animals. Because of the predominance of skin cancers in the epidemiological reports, we decided to investigate the possibility that arsenic compounds might interfere with DNA repair. Using Escherichia coli as a test system, we show that this is indeed the case. Sodium arsenite, at concentrations of 0.1 mM and higher, decreases the survival of ultraviolet-irradiated E. coli WP2, a strain which possesses the full complement of repair genes. The effect of the arsenite increases with increasing ultraviolet dose. Similar results were obtained with the excision repair deficient strains WWP2 (uvrA) and WP6 (polA). Sodium arsenite had no effect on the survival of a recA mutant, WP10. Survival of ultraviolet-irradiated WP5 (exrA) was enhanced by sodium ardenite, the effect being greatest at low ultraviolet doses. It is postulated that arsenite inhibits a recA-dependent step in DNA repair. To account for the increased survival of the exrA mutant, we suggest that in the absence of the exr+ gene, the arsenite-sensitive recA-dependent function is deleterious. The ability of arsenite to inhibit DNA repair may account for the clinical and epidemiological reports linking arsenicals with an increased incidence of cancer.


1. DOCID:3617 SCORE: 0.00398032709227016
DOCNO: 1122765
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Smoking
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
AUTHOR: O Auerbach O
AUTHOR: L Garfinkel L
AUTHOR: V R Parks VR
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Chest.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Histologic type of lung cancer in relation to smoking habits, year of diagnosis and sites of metastases.
PUBDATE: 19750401
A study was made of histologic type of lung cancer in relation to smoking habit, year of diagnosis, age and sites of metastasis. It comprised 662 autopsies of men during the period from 1955 to 1972. As classified by the WHO system, 35.2 percent were epidermoid carcinoma, 24.6 percent were small cell carcinoma, 25.2 percent were adenocarcinoma and 14.2 percent were large cell undifferentiated carcinoma. The six non-smokers of the series were all found to be in class 3, adenocarcinoma. No clearcut and consistent relationships were observed. Although there was a steady decrease in the incidence of small cell carcinoma during this time period, this observation did not prove to be statistically significant. Small cell carcinomas increased with amount of smoking but not for all age groups. Adenocarcinomas decreased with advancing age but not in all smoking groups. Metastases were found in 96.3 percent of the cases and the sites most frequently involved were regional lymph nodes, liver, brain, distant lymph nodes, adrenals and bone. Small cell carcinomas showed the greatest percentage of involvement for those major sites and for the same sites, epidermoid carcinoma showed the lowest percentage.


2. DOCID:3983 SCORE: 0.00351789750163376
DOCNO: 602778
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
AUTHOR: I Dahl I
AUTHOR: L Angervall L
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Acta pathologica et microbiologica Scandinavica. Section A, Pathology.
COUNTRY: DENMARK
TITLE: Pseudosarcomatous lesions of the soft tissues reported as sarcoma during a 6-year period (1958-1963).
PUBDATE: 19771101
Pseudosarcomatous lesion of the soft tissues is a term used in the present study for various soft tissue lesions and tumours easily clinically or histologically, or both, misinterpreted as sarcoma. Eighty-one cases, that is to say 10 per cent of all tumours classified and reported to the Swedish Cancer Registry as malignant soft tissue tumours during the 6-year period studied (1958-1963), were reclassified as pseudosarcomatous lesions of the soft tissues. Forty-seven cases were classified as pseudoarcomatous proliferative lesions of the soft tissue with or without bone formation; 38 cases of nodular fasciitis, 1 of proliferative fasciitis and 8 of proliferative myositis. In 3 of these cases there were mixed forms of proliferative fasciitis and proliferative myositis with areas compatible with the diagnosis of nodular fasciitis evident in all cases. Twenty-two cases of atypical fibroxanthomas of the skin were next in frequency, followed by 7 ancient neurilemmomas, 2 spindle cell lipomas, 1 pseudomalignant osseous tumour of the soft tissues, 1 pigmented villonodular synovitis and 1 juvenile xanthogranuloma. An attempt is made to explain the reasons for these erroneous diagnoses of sarcoma and it is stressed that for these lesions the conventional histological criteria for malignancy are not valid. The awareness and knowledge of the existence of these particular entities are therefore considered mandatory for an accurate diagnosis.


3. DOCID:3885 SCORE: 0.00337258506643793
DOCNO: 1162162
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Immunity, Cellular
DESCRIPTOR: Lymphocyte Activation
QUALIFIER: immunology
AUTHOR: J Peña J
AUTHOR: F Garrido F
AUTHOR: P Alemán P
AUTHOR: J L García-Puche JL
AUTHOR: C Osorio C
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Revista española de fisiología.
COUNTRY: SPAIN
TITLE: Behaviour of lymphocytes from cancer patients and normal individuals cultured with phytohaemagglutinin.
PUBDATE: 19750301
Blood lymphocytes from cancer patients with solid tumours without any previous immunosuppressive treatment and from normal individuals, were cultured in vitro with a wide range of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Sixty two per cent of all the cancer patients studied show a minimal of no response to PHA in comparison with the normal population. The rest (38%), show a quantitative identical response than normals. However, the maximal response in these patients occur in the high PHA doses, while the normal individuals show their maximal activity with low PHA doses. The low or no PHA response showed by the 62% of patients, may indicate they have impaired cellular immunity. The high response showed by the other 38%, may indicate that the patients of this group have high cellular immunity capacity. This immunity, however, higher PHA doses are required to reach the maximal response compared with the seems to be different from that of normal individuals, since higher PHA doses are required in cancer patients to reach maximal response. These results also suggest that a large range of PHA doses may be important to detect the degree of cellular immunity in cancer patients compared with the normal population. One or two random PHA doses, may not show a distinction.


4. DOCID:2923 SCORE: 0.00313102058445594
DOCNO: 770052
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Postoperative Complications
QUALIFIER: surgery
QUALIFIER: methods
AUTHOR: J Planas J
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Clinics in plastic surgery.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Mammary augmentation--surgical techniques, evaluation of results, and complications.
PUBDATE: 19760401
Mammary augmentation is the procedure of choice in all forms of breast underdevelopment, atrophy or absence due to disease (subcutaneous or radical mastectomy), or trauma (burns of the thoracic region). Old reconstructive methods employing autogenous tissues have no substitute in special cases, but they are used less and less in favor of the new alloplastic materials (silicones) introduced as implants under the mammary gland. These implants have been shown to be permanently accepted by body tissues, the aesthetic results are good, and the operation is easier, faster, and less dangerous. Complications, however, do exist and the most frequent is the constriction of the fibrous envelope surrounding the implant. The etiology of this complication is still unknown. The patient should be advised of such a possibility. Circular incision of the fibrous envelope seems to be the best treatment for this complication. Silicone implants do not modify the physiology of the mammary gland and there is no reason to believe they have any influence on the incidence of breast cancer.


5. DOCID:2490 SCORE: 0.00312982132456654
DOCNO: 831755
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Drug Evaluation
DESCRIPTOR: Statistics
AUTHOR: R Peto R
AUTHOR: M C Pike MC
AUTHOR: P Armitage P
AUTHOR: N E Breslow NE
AUTHOR: D R Cox DR
AUTHOR: S V Howard SV
AUTHOR: N Mantel N
AUTHOR: K McPherson K
AUTHOR: J Peto J
AUTHOR: P G Smith PG
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: British journal of cancer.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: Design and analysis of randomized clinical trials requiring prolonged observation of each patient. II. analysis and examples.
PUBDATE: 19770101
Part I of this report appeared in the previous issue (Br. J. Cancer (1976) 34,585), and discussed the design of randomized clinical trials. Part II now describes efficient methods of analysis of randomized clinical trials in which we wish to compare the duration of survival (or the time until some other untoward event first occurs) among different groups of patients. It is intended to enable physicians without statistical training either to analyse such data themselves using life tables, the logrank test and retrospective stratification, or, when such analyses are presented, to appreciate them more critically, but the discussion may also be of interest to statisticians who have not yet specialized in clinical trial analyses.


6. DOCID:2924 SCORE: 0.00312366241708112
DOCNO: 55541
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Breast Neoplasms
DESCRIPTOR: Radionuclide Imaging
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
AUTHOR: J G Roberts JG
AUTHOR: I H Gravelle IH
AUTHOR: M Baum M
AUTHOR: A S Bligh AS
AUTHOR: K G Leach KG
AUTHOR: L E Hughes LE
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Lancet.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: Evaluation of radiography and isotopic scintigraphy for detecting skeletal metastases in breast cancer.
PUBDATE: 19760101
Experience with technetium-phosphate compounds for skeletal scintigraphy in patients with breast cancer was analysed. When tumours were 5 cm or less in diameter (T1-2N0-1M0) metastases were demonstrated by radiographs in 1-7% (2/114). However, when radiography did not demonstrate metastases, lesions were found by scintigraphy in 41-3% (19/46). When lesions demonstrated by scintigraphy at the same site as abnormalities regarded as "benign" by radiography were excluded, 23% (11/46) had scintigraphs strongly suggestive of metastases. It is proposed that routine radiographic skeletal survey for patients presenting with breast cancer be abandoned, and replaced by skeletal scintigraphy, chest radiography, and specific localised radiographs of lesions demonstrated by scintigraphy. It is suggested that with this policy the development of expertise in interpreting scintigraphs will be accelerated, the cost of pre-treatment assessment will be reduced, and clinical management rationalised.


7. DOCID:2161 SCORE: 0.00301707791200436
DOCNO: 174798
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: ultrastructure
AUTHOR: G Tremblay G
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Ultrastructure of elastosis in scirrhous carcinoma of the breast.
PUBDATE: 19760101
The stroma of scirrhous breast carcinoma frequently contains an abundance of material with the histologic staining properties of elastic tissue referred to as elastosis. In the present study, this lesion was found to correspond at the ultrastructural level to elastic fibers of various sizes and random orientation. These fibers displayed the two characteristic components, consisting of an amorphous core with a peripheral mantle of microfibrils. Interspersed among the elastic fibers were modified fibroblasts. These cells exhibited an irregular contour with numerous cytoplasmic processes and indentations. Their cytoplasm contained abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, prominent Golgi complexes, and bundles of filaments. In the extracellular space, elastic fibers were often closely apposed to the plasma membrane of the fibroblasts. Carcinoma cells were also observed in the elastic tissue. It is postulated that fibroblasts, probably under an inductive influence from cancer cells, are the cells responsible for elastic production.


8. DOCID:3544 SCORE: 0.00292550057766887
DOCNO: 198914
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: pathology
AUTHOR: T W Shields TW
AUTHOR: R J Keehn RJ
PUBTYPE: Clinical Trial
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
PUBTYPE: Randomized Controlled Trial
JOURNALTITLE: Surgery, gynecology & obstetrics.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Postresection stage grouping in carcinoma of the lung.
PUBDATE: 19771101
The postsurgical treatment classification and staging system for carcinoma of the lung has been evaluated in a series of 403 patients admitted to a completed prospective randomized adjuvant cancer chemotherapy trial conducted by the Veterans Administration Surgical Adjuvant Group. The proposed T, N and M classification suggested by the American Joint Committee for Cancer Staging and End Results Reporting is supported. However, the stage groupings as suggested by the Committee fails to separate adequately the various prognostic groups. This appears to be better accomplished by the stage grouping modification suggested by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. In the latter schema, the five year survival rate of patients with postsurgical treatment Stage I disease is 40.9 per cent; Stage II, 26.2 per cent, and Stage III, 10.5 per cent. In the Joint Committee classification, these survival rates are 30.8 per cent, 25.5 per cent and 10.5 per cent, respectively. In addition, 18 patients with undifferentiated small cell carcinoma were also evaluated. The long term survival of three of sixe patients with small peripheral lesions without metastatic lymph node involvement supports the opinion that resection of these specific lesions continues to be the treatment of choice.


9. DOCID:1604 SCORE: 0.0029185874434048
DOCNO: 870901
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
AUTHOR: R C Coombes, RC
AUTHOR: T J Powles TJ
AUTHOR: D G Joplin DG
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: Calcium metabolism in breast cancer.
PUBDATE: 19770301
Patients with breast cancer and bone destruction were found to have a pattern of calcium metabolism which was broadly similar to that found in other malignancies, but different from that in primary hyperparathyroidism. Thus, they tended to have reduced absorption of calcium from the intestine, elevated endogenous faecal calcium and normal or reduced urinary cyclic AMP excretion. Since prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors have been shown to inhibit breast cancer-induced osteolysis in vitro we have attempted to reduce bone destruction and serum calcium in patients with hypercalcaemia complicating breast cancer using these agents. High doses failed to reduce the serum calcium or the urinary hydroxyproline: creatinine ratio in ten patients with skeletal metastases, four of whom had hypercalcaemia.


10. DOCID:692 SCORE: 0.00289732420194464
DOCNO: 1276034
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
AUTHOR: C L Olweny CL
AUTHOR: A Kaddumukasa A
AUTHOR: I Atine I
AUTHOR: R Owor R
AUTHOR: I Magrath I
AUTHOR: J L Ziegler JL
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: British journal of cancer.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: Childhood Kaposi's sarcoma: clinical features and therapy.
PUBDATE: 19760501
Twelve cases of childhood Kaposi's sarcoma seen at the Uganda Cancer Institute over the last 7 years are reported. The disease presents mainly as generalized lymphadenopathy, with sparsely and anomalously distributed cutaneous nodules, and has a higher proportion of females with the disease than in the adult form. The histology is usually of mixed cell type. If not treated, childhood Kaposi's sarcoma runs a fulminating course, but disease control with chemotherapy is associated with prolonged survival.


11. DOCID:2952 SCORE: 0.00286511052428361
DOCNO: 1142009
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: metabolism
AUTHOR: K P McConnell KP
AUTHOR: W L Broghamer WL
AUTHOR: A J Blotcky AJ
AUTHOR: O J Hurt OJ
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The Journal of nutrition.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Selenium levels in human blood and tissues in health and in disease.
PUBDATE: 19750801
The levels of selenium in human sera and pancreatic, hepatic and synovial tissues were measured. An attempt was made to correlate the selenium level with certain disease states. Selenium was determined by nerutron activation analysis, using the 17.4 second half-life isotope 77mSe with a sensitivity of 2ppb. Serum-bound selenium was determined in normal individuals and individuals with various malignancies, and medical and surgical disorders. Tissue selenium was assayed in diseased and normal pancreases, livers, and synovial membranes. A wide variation was observed both in the serum selenium content of patients with a malignancy and in postmoren pancreatic and synovial showing histopathological changes. Significantly lower selenium values were observed in sera from cancer patients than from normal individuals. Higher values were generally observed in patients with primary neoplasms of the reticuloendothelial system. Higher tissue concentrations were obtained in synovia from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and in pancreatic tissues associated with histopathological changes.


12. DOCID:2913 SCORE: 0.00286510093855376
DOCNO: 876325
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: biosynthesis
QUALIFIER: enzymology
AUTHOR: B Paigen B
AUTHOR: H L Gurtoo HL
AUTHOR: J Minowada J
AUTHOR: L Houten L
AUTHOR: R Vincent R
AUTHOR: K Paigen K
AUTHOR: N B Parker NB
AUTHOR: E Ward E
AUTHOR: N T Hayner NT
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The New England journal of medicine.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Questionable relation of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase to lung-cancer risk.
PUBDATE: 19770801
To test whether the genetically determined trait, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase inducibility, affects susceptibility to lung cancer, we measured this trait in cultured lymphocytes from a normal population, patients with lung cancer and progeny of such patients. We found very low aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity (19 per cent of normal) in about half the patients with lung cancer. Only part of this activity can be accounted for by reduced cell growth and by reduced protein synthesis. In an indirect assessment of inducibility, both 57 progeny and 27 matched controls had a mean inducibility of 2.95 and a similar distribution into low, intermediate and high groups (chi-square = 0.3 P = 0.9). No differences in basal or induced activity were observed. Thus, if patients with lung cancer possess altered aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase inducibility or activity these characteristics are not transmitted to their progeny.


13. DOCID:2194 SCORE: 0.00283104139299821
DOCNO: 942883
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Angiography
QUALIFIER: radiography
AUTHOR: S R Reuter SR
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: The current status of angiography in the evaluation of cancer patients.
PUBDATE: 19760101
Angiography has maintained a central role in the preoperative evaluation of patients with both benign and malignant tumors. A great deal of experience has accumulated with the method and the angiographic appearance of most tumors is well established. Although most cancer patients are first evaluated by less invasive techniques,angiography remains the most accurate method for the diagnosis of tumors of the liver and pancreas. In those patients in whom excision of a malignancy is considered, angiograms should be used preoperatively to assess both the resectability and curability of the lesion. In patients with carcinoma of the lung or esophagus invading the azygos vein or in patients with pancreatic carcinoma invading the visceral veins, needless radical operative procedures can be avoided. Finally, as angiographers are becoming more therapy-oriented, the palliative effects of selective arterial embolization with radioactive and infarcting materials are being evaluated.


14. DOCID:2635 SCORE: 0.00279669083726525
DOCNO: 986236
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: analysis
QUALIFIER: analysis
QUALIFIER: analysis
QUALIFIER: enzymology
QUALIFIER: analysis
QUALIFIER: enzymology
AUTHOR: C Hoch-Ligeti C
AUTHOR: F J Jarsen FJ
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Enzymes in peripheral and bone marrow serum in patients with cancer.
PUBDATE: 19760901
Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), and acid and alkaline phosphatase activities in bone marrow and in cubital vein serum were compared. For patients without cancer, marrow serum LDH attained levels four times as high, and GOT and alkaline phosphatase, levels twice as high as those normal for cubital vein serum; levels of acid phosphatase were the same for both sources. For patients with cancer, significant increase of enzyme levels over reference levels depends on the tumor origin and on the presence and localization of metastases. Marrow enzyme levels may become elevated with or without concurrent elevation in cubital vein serum. Concurrent elevations were found with colonic carcinoma and lymphoid leukemia, and noncurrent elevations, with prostatic cancer, myeloid leukemia, and myeloma. A nonconcurrent elevation of marrow enzymes indicates that the origin of the enzyme is in the marrow, whereas with concurrent elevation, the source of the enzyme may be another organ.