0. DOCID:3980 SCORE: 0.00496883008030261
DOCNO: 1107828
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: pharmacology
QUALIFIER: drug effects
QUALIFIER: drug effects
AUTHOR: T Rossman T
AUTHOR: M S Meyn MS
AUTHOR: W Troll W
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Mutation research.
COUNTRY: NETHERLANDS
TITLE: Effects of sodium arsenite on the survival of UV-irradiated Escherichia coli: inhibition of a recA-dependent function.
PUBDATE: 19751101
Epidemiological studies and clinical observation suggesting potential hazards of arsenic compounds in increasing the incidence of cancer have been in complete contradiction with experimental findings in animals. Because of the predominance of skin cancers in the epidemiological reports, we decided to investigate the possibility that arsenic compounds might interfere with DNA repair. Using Escherichia coli as a test system, we show that this is indeed the case. Sodium arsenite, at concentrations of 0.1 mM and higher, decreases the survival of ultraviolet-irradiated E. coli WP2, a strain which possesses the full complement of repair genes. The effect of the arsenite increases with increasing ultraviolet dose. Similar results were obtained with the excision repair deficient strains WWP2 (uvrA) and WP6 (polA). Sodium arsenite had no effect on the survival of a recA mutant, WP10. Survival of ultraviolet-irradiated WP5 (exrA) was enhanced by sodium ardenite, the effect being greatest at low ultraviolet doses. It is postulated that arsenite inhibits a recA-dependent step in DNA repair. To account for the increased survival of the exrA mutant, we suggest that in the absence of the exr+ gene, the arsenite-sensitive recA-dependent function is deleterious. The ability of arsenite to inhibit DNA repair may account for the clinical and epidemiological reports linking arsenicals with an increased incidence of cancer.


1. DOCID:11849 SCORE: 0.00447762467239293
DOCNO: 6416244
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: economics
AUTHOR: R B Black RB
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: The Australian and New Zealand journal of surgery.
COUNTRY: AUSTRALIA
TITLE: Considerations of cost and effectiveness in the choice of mastectomy.
PUBDATE: 19831001
Operable breast cancer may be managed equally well by a number of different regimens of mastectomy and/or radiotherapy. This paper examines the financial and morbidity costs, together with the node sampling efficacy, of three commonly employed techniques: simple mastectomy; total mastectomy with node biopsy or limited node excision; and modified radical mastectomy. Adjuvant radiotherapy (and/or chemotherapy) can only be applied rationally if node sampling is effective. Simple mastectomy cannot achieve this. Total mastectomy, providing that a node sample is obtained, is effective, and is probably the cheapest option. Total axillary clearance runs the risk of increased morbidity (and financial cost), while not necessarily guaranteeing more effective node sampling. Much of the cost and morbidity of mastectomy may be reduced by a limited but rational radiation policy.


2. DOCID:3617 SCORE: 0.00398032709227016
DOCNO: 1122765
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Smoking
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
AUTHOR: O Auerbach O
AUTHOR: L Garfinkel L
AUTHOR: V R Parks VR
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Chest.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Histologic type of lung cancer in relation to smoking habits, year of diagnosis and sites of metastases.
PUBDATE: 19750401
A study was made of histologic type of lung cancer in relation to smoking habit, year of diagnosis, age and sites of metastasis. It comprised 662 autopsies of men during the period from 1955 to 1972. As classified by the WHO system, 35.2 percent were epidermoid carcinoma, 24.6 percent were small cell carcinoma, 25.2 percent were adenocarcinoma and 14.2 percent were large cell undifferentiated carcinoma. The six non-smokers of the series were all found to be in class 3, adenocarcinoma. No clearcut and consistent relationships were observed. Although there was a steady decrease in the incidence of small cell carcinoma during this time period, this observation did not prove to be statistically significant. Small cell carcinomas increased with amount of smoking but not for all age groups. Adenocarcinomas decreased with advancing age but not in all smoking groups. Metastases were found in 96.3 percent of the cases and the sites most frequently involved were regional lymph nodes, liver, brain, distant lymph nodes, adrenals and bone. Small cell carcinomas showed the greatest percentage of involvement for those major sites and for the same sites, epidermoid carcinoma showed the lowest percentage.


3. DOCID:6982 SCORE: 0.00367132393208309
DOCNO: 6791024
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: complications
QUALIFIER: therapy
AUTHOR: K M Foley KM
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: NIDA research monograph.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Current issues in the management of cancer pain: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
PUBDATE: 19810501
Recent attention to the management of cancer pain in the mass media (TV, books, newspapers) and the medical press provides ample evidence to suggest that many cancer patients are not receiving appropriate therapy for their pain. Since cancer therapy is often not curative, only palliative, specific attention to the management of pain in such patients is essential. However, the management of cancer pain requires a specific approach and expertise. Narcotic analgesics are the mainstay of therapy in the management of such patients, yet physicians lack sufficient knowledge of narcotic pharmacology to use these drugs appropriately. Recent controversy has arisen in 3 specific aspects of narcotic drug therapy: 1) the choice of a narcotic drug and its method of administration; 2) the development of tolerance, and 3) the risk of substance abuse, drug dependence, and addiction.


4. DOCID:10755 SCORE: 0.00354778783076975
DOCNO: 6632212
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: immunology
QUALIFIER: immunology
AUTHOR: I Takanami I
AUTHOR: T Utsunomiya T
AUTHOR: H Onishi H
AUTHOR: H Shinohara H
AUTHOR: T Besso T
AUTHOR: T Kondo T
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Gan no rinsho. Japan journal of cancer clinics.
COUNTRY: JAPAN
TITLE: [Costus root oil test in cancer patients; correlation with tumor stage]
PUBDATE: 19830901
Delayed hypersensitivity skin responses to costus root oil were measured in patients with colon, stomach, breast and lung cancer and in healthy controls. Cancer patients were staged according to tumor spread. Differences were demonstrated between cancer patients and controls. Patients with localized cancer showed no impairment, but diminished responses did occur in patients with advanced or metastatic cancer. There were no significant differences among any cancer groups with lymph node involvement. In the late cancer stage, costus root oil sensitivity was lost to a greater extent in patients with gastric cancer than in those with colon cancer.


5. DOCID:3983 SCORE: 0.00351789750163376
DOCNO: 602778
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
AUTHOR: I Dahl I
AUTHOR: L Angervall L
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Acta pathologica et microbiologica Scandinavica. Section A, Pathology.
COUNTRY: DENMARK
TITLE: Pseudosarcomatous lesions of the soft tissues reported as sarcoma during a 6-year period (1958-1963).
PUBDATE: 19771101
Pseudosarcomatous lesion of the soft tissues is a term used in the present study for various soft tissue lesions and tumours easily clinically or histologically, or both, misinterpreted as sarcoma. Eighty-one cases, that is to say 10 per cent of all tumours classified and reported to the Swedish Cancer Registry as malignant soft tissue tumours during the 6-year period studied (1958-1963), were reclassified as pseudosarcomatous lesions of the soft tissues. Forty-seven cases were classified as pseudoarcomatous proliferative lesions of the soft tissue with or without bone formation; 38 cases of nodular fasciitis, 1 of proliferative fasciitis and 8 of proliferative myositis. In 3 of these cases there were mixed forms of proliferative fasciitis and proliferative myositis with areas compatible with the diagnosis of nodular fasciitis evident in all cases. Twenty-two cases of atypical fibroxanthomas of the skin were next in frequency, followed by 7 ancient neurilemmomas, 2 spindle cell lipomas, 1 pseudomalignant osseous tumour of the soft tissues, 1 pigmented villonodular synovitis and 1 juvenile xanthogranuloma. An attempt is made to explain the reasons for these erroneous diagnoses of sarcoma and it is stressed that for these lesions the conventional histological criteria for malignancy are not valid. The awareness and knowledge of the existence of these particular entities are therefore considered mandatory for an accurate diagnosis.


6. DOCID:7899 SCORE: 0.00349878543478216
DOCNO: 7193368
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: therapeutic use
QUALIFIER: drug therapy
AUTHOR: J E Altwein JE
AUTHOR: G H Jacobi GH
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Der Urologe. Ausg. A.
COUNTRY: GERMANY, WEST
TITLE: [Hormone therapy of prostatic cancer (author's transl)]
PUBDATE: 19801101
64% of all patients with newly diagnosed prostatic carcinoma present with metastases. Hormone application with or without orchiectomy appears to be the adequate form of primary treatment. The most common therapeutic modality is estrogen administration, which has, however distinct disadvantages: The patient is protected up to 5 years only, there is a 27% cardiovascular mortality, it induces a prolactin surge, and is immunosuppressive. Phase III-studies of the EORTC and VACURG have demonstrated that medroxyprogesterone acetate and cyproterone acetate parallel the effectiveness of estrogens. In a phase II-trial adjunctive bromocriptine was found to be necessary to suppress estrogen or antiandrogen induced hyperprolactinemia. The following concept is derived: In disseminated untreated prostatic cancer estrogens or antiandrogens in combination with bromocriptine or high dose injectable gestagens are effective means of primary treatment. Distinct clinical parameters determine the "hormone of first choice". Orchiectomy is reserved for patients with ureteral compression or progressing disease.


7. DOCID:5911 SCORE: 0.00346754370199041
DOCNO: 98229
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: metabolism
QUALIFIER: enzymology
QUALIFIER: enzymology
AUTHOR: B C Ghosh BC
AUTHOR: L Ghosh L
AUTHOR: B L Newson BL
AUTHOR: T K Das Gupta TK
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Cancer research.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Histochemical and ultrastructural study of lactic dehydrogenase in chemically induced lung cancer.
PUBDATE: 19780901
Light and electron microscopy studies of lactic dehydrogenase activity were carried out in embryonic, neonatal, and adult mouse lungs and in lungs undergoing chemically induced carcinogenesis. Embryonic mouse lungs were collected on the 6th, 12th, and 18th days of gestation; 1-day-old lungs were used for the neonatal model. These were compared with adult normal mouse lung and lungs of the animals treated with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide at a monthly interval until cancer developed. Enzymatic activity was seen in the embryonic, precancerous, and malignant lung tissues and was found diffusely in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells.


8. DOCID:14324 SCORE: 0.00345371999230803
DOCNO: 2777441
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: adverse effects
QUALIFIER: chemically induced
AUTHOR: T Y Chuang TY
AUTHOR: J Tse J
AUTHOR: D J Cripps DJ
AFFILIATION: Dermatology Section, William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Madison, Wisconsin.
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: International journal of dermatology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: A preliminary study on the link between PUVA and skin cancer.
PUBDATE: 19890901
One hundred four psoriatic patients who had 8-methoxypsoralen-ultraviolet light A (PUVA) treatment between 1975-1987 were investigated to determine if skin cancer had ever occurred during or after the therapeutic period. Incidence data of skin cancer was applied to this group of patients to measure the expected number of patients with skin cancer. The significance of observed number versus expected of PUVA-treated patients with skin cancer was analyzed. The authors did not observe a significant increase of patients with skin cancer.


9. DOCID:14297 SCORE: 0.00345371456735787
DOCNO: 3343036
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: pathology
QUALIFIER: pathology
AUTHOR: K Mizumoto K
AUTHOR: T Inagaki T
AUTHOR: M Koizumi M
AUTHOR: M Uemura M
AUTHOR: M Ogawa M
AUTHOR: S Kitazawa S
AUTHOR: M Tsutsumi M
AUTHOR: M Toyokawa M
AUTHOR: Y Konishi Y
AFFILIATION: Department of Oncological Pathology, Nara Medical College, Japan.
PUBTYPE: Case Reports
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Human pathology.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Early pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma.
PUBDATE: 19880201
A 68-year-old Japanese woman presented with complaints of appetite and weight loss. Early pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma was diagnosed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which revealed partial obstruction of the main pancreatic duct. Pancreatoduodenectomy with lymph node dissection was performed. Macroscopically, no pancreatic tumor was detected. Histologically, the pancreatic lesion showed continuous changes consisting of duct epithelial cell hyperplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma. Immunohistochemical stains for carcinoembryonic antigen and CA19-9 were positive in cancer cells.


10. DOCID:7865 SCORE: 0.00344975375708657
DOCNO: 711976
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
QUALIFIER: pathology
AUTHOR: A M De Bono AM
AUTHOR: E M Pillers EM
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Journal of epidemiology and community health.
COUNTRY: SWITZERLAND
TITLE: Carcinoma of the breast in East Anglia 1960-1975: a changing pattern of presentation?
PUBDATE: 19780901
A study was made of the clinical stage at presentation in 10 081 cases of carcinoma of the breast registered with the East Anglian Cancer Registration Bureau between 1960 and 1975. Information about the length of clinical history was obtained in 8862 cases. There has been a gradual increase in the population-adjusted incidence of breast carcinoma in the region during the period studied. Since 1968, there has been a consistent increase in Stage I and II registrations, but a fall in Stage III registrations. Stage IV registrations have remained constant. A greater proportion of women with Stage I or II lesions present with a short clinical history, and this pattern has not changed during the course of the study. We suggest that increased interest in, and opportunities for, the early diagnosis of breast disease are leading to a change in the pattern of presentation.


11. DOCID:3885 SCORE: 0.00337258506643793
DOCNO: 1162162
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Immunity, Cellular
DESCRIPTOR: Lymphocyte Activation
QUALIFIER: immunology
AUTHOR: J Peña J
AUTHOR: F Garrido F
AUTHOR: P Alemán P
AUTHOR: J L García-Puche JL
AUTHOR: C Osorio C
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Revista española de fisiología.
COUNTRY: SPAIN
TITLE: Behaviour of lymphocytes from cancer patients and normal individuals cultured with phytohaemagglutinin.
PUBDATE: 19750301
Blood lymphocytes from cancer patients with solid tumours without any previous immunosuppressive treatment and from normal individuals, were cultured in vitro with a wide range of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Sixty two per cent of all the cancer patients studied show a minimal of no response to PHA in comparison with the normal population. The rest (38%), show a quantitative identical response than normals. However, the maximal response in these patients occur in the high PHA doses, while the normal individuals show their maximal activity with low PHA doses. The low or no PHA response showed by the 62% of patients, may indicate they have impaired cellular immunity. The high response showed by the other 38%, may indicate that the patients of this group have high cellular immunity capacity. This immunity, however, higher PHA doses are required to reach the maximal response compared with the seems to be different from that of normal individuals, since higher PHA doses are required in cancer patients to reach maximal response. These results also suggest that a large range of PHA doses may be important to detect the degree of cellular immunity in cancer patients compared with the normal population. One or two random PHA doses, may not show a distinction.


12. DOCID:15942 SCORE: 0.00313239235937739
DOCNO: 2682365
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Tomography, X-Ray Computed
DESCRIPTOR: Ultrasonography
QUALIFIER: diagnosis
AUTHOR: A Paduos A
AUTHOR: G Falcetto G
AUTHOR: P Alluminio P
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Minerva chirurgica.
COUNTRY: ITALY
TITLE: [Use of computerized axial tomography and transrectal echography in the preoperative evaluation of cancer of the rectum]
PUBDATE: 19890701
Eight patients were subjected to two types of preoperative investigation in the attempt to stage cancers localised in the final 13 cm of the rectum: CT scan and transrectal echography. CT scan was used to assess infiltration of perirectal tissues and any lymph node metastases. Echography was used to examine the degree of infiltration of the rectal wall. Patients were then submitted to surgery. The predictivity of these studies proved sufficiently high. 7 Miles amputations and 1 anterior resection were carried out. One case only in which the scan did not show signs of parietal lesions presented two perirectal lymph node metastases. If refined further, these evaluations will therefore influence surgical tactics.


13. DOCID:2923 SCORE: 0.00313102058445594
DOCNO: 770052
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Postoperative Complications
QUALIFIER: surgery
QUALIFIER: methods
AUTHOR: J Planas J
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: Clinics in plastic surgery.
COUNTRY: UNITED STATES
TITLE: Mammary augmentation--surgical techniques, evaluation of results, and complications.
PUBDATE: 19760401
Mammary augmentation is the procedure of choice in all forms of breast underdevelopment, atrophy or absence due to disease (subcutaneous or radical mastectomy), or trauma (burns of the thoracic region). Old reconstructive methods employing autogenous tissues have no substitute in special cases, but they are used less and less in favor of the new alloplastic materials (silicones) introduced as implants under the mammary gland. These implants have been shown to be permanently accepted by body tissues, the aesthetic results are good, and the operation is easier, faster, and less dangerous. Complications, however, do exist and the most frequent is the constriction of the fibrous envelope surrounding the implant. The etiology of this complication is still unknown. The patient should be advised of such a possibility. Circular incision of the fibrous envelope seems to be the best treatment for this complication. Silicone implants do not modify the physiology of the mammary gland and there is no reason to believe they have any influence on the incidence of breast cancer.


14. DOCID:2490 SCORE: 0.00312982132456654
DOCNO: 831755
OWNER: NLM
STATUS: MEDLINE
DESCRIPTOR: Drug Evaluation
DESCRIPTOR: Statistics
AUTHOR: R Peto R
AUTHOR: M C Pike MC
AUTHOR: P Armitage P
AUTHOR: N E Breslow NE
AUTHOR: D R Cox DR
AUTHOR: S V Howard SV
AUTHOR: N Mantel N
AUTHOR: K McPherson K
AUTHOR: J Peto J
AUTHOR: P G Smith PG
PUBTYPE: Journal Article
JOURNALTITLE: British journal of cancer.
COUNTRY: ENGLAND
TITLE: Design and analysis of randomized clinical trials requiring prolonged observation of each patient. II. analysis and examples.
PUBDATE: 19770101
Part I of this report appeared in the previous issue (Br. J. Cancer (1976) 34,585), and discussed the design of randomized clinical trials. Part II now describes efficient methods of analysis of randomized clinical trials in which we wish to compare the duration of survival (or the time until some other untoward event first occurs) among different groups of patients. It is intended to enable physicians without statistical training either to analyse such data themselves using life tables, the logrank test and retrospective stratification, or, when such analyses are presented, to appreciate them more critically, but the discussion may also be of interest to statisticians who have not yet specialized in clinical trial analyses.