On a Representation of Friction in Configuration Space

Michael Erdmann
International Journal of Robotics Research, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1994.


This paper provides a geometric representation of friction for a rigid planar part with two translational and one rotational degrees of freedom. The paper constructs a generalized friction cone by imbedding into the part's configuration space the force constraints that define the classical Coulomb friction cone in real space. The resulting representation provides a simple geometric method for determining the possible motions of a part subjected to an applied force and torque. The representation has been used both for simulating part motions and for planning assembly operations. The approach generalizes to the six-dimensional configuration space of a three-dimensional part.