WORDS
ice
acid
polar
water
particles
cloud
clouds
temperatures
surface
hno3
chlorine
form
phase
temperature
gas
pscs
cold
type
formation
stratospheric
h20
reaction
heterogeneous
laboratory
sulfuric
hcl
smoke
vapor
liquid
reactions
hci
observed
chemistry
particle
observations
aerosol
size
data
measurements
large
h2so4
cio
mechanism
science
nucleation
layer
conditions
high
fig
aerosols
chemical
stratosphere
lower
geophys
effect
formed
small
cooling
winter
loss
hc1
university
results
time
ozone
concentrations
arctic
psc
model
nat
research
frost
presence
low
nitric
vol
solid
nuclei
first
vortex
occur
area
droplets
process
important
clono2
point
two
increase
condensation
center
indicate
shown
concentration
forms
region
processes
conversion
composition
depletion
RELATED TOPICS
ozone atmospheric air measurements atmosphere
ice acid polar water particles
RELATED DOCUMENTS
"Sulfate Aerosols and Polar Stratospheric Cloud Formation" (1994)
"Metastable Phases in Polar Stratospheric Aerosols" (1995)
"Polar Clouds and Sulfate Aerosols" (1996)
"Vapor Pressures of Solid Hydrates of Nitric Acid: Implications for Polar Stratospheric Clouds" (1993)
"Interhemispheric Differences in Polar Stratospheric HNO$_3$, H$_2$O, CIO, and O$_3$" (1995)
"Heterogeneous Reaction Probabilities, Solubilities, and the Physical State of Cold Volcanic Aerosols" (1993)
"Stratospheric Meteorological Conditions in the Arctic Polar Vortex, 1991 to 1992" (1993)
"Melting of H$_2$SO$_4\cdot$4H$_2$O Particles upon Cooling: Implications for Polar Stratospheric Clouds" (1996)
"Physical Chemistry of the H$_2$SO$_4$/HNO$_3$/H$_2$O System: Implications for Polar Stratospheric Clouds" (1993)
"The Effect of Smoke Particles on Clouds and Climate Forcing" (1997)
"Chemical Analysis of Polar Stratospheric Cloud Particles" (1999)
"Chlorine Chemistry on Polar Stratospheric Cloud Particles in the Arctic Winter" (1993)
"The Reaction of CIONO$_2$ with Submicrometer Sulfuric Acid Aerosol" (1995)
"Molecules on Ice" (1996)
"Cold Gas Traps for Ice Particle Formation" (1998)
"Reduced Antarctic Ozone Depletions in a Model with Hydrocarbon Injections" (1991)
"Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Hydrochloric Acid Ionization at the Surface of Stratospheric Ice" (1996)
"Dissipation of Marine Stratiform Clouds and Collapse of the Marine Boundary Layer Due to the Depletion of Cloud Condensation Nuclei by Clouds" (1993)
"Evidence for Liquid-Phase Cirrus Cloud Formation from Volcanic Aerosols: Climatic Implications" (1992)
"Cannot Earthquakes be Predicted?" (1997)
"Satellite Observations of Smoke from Oil Fires in Kuwait" (1991)
"Particle Formation in the Upper Tropical Troposphere: A Source of Nuclei for the Stratospheric Aerosol" (1995)
"Vertical Distribution of Water in the Atmosphere of Venus: A Simple Thermochemical Explanation" (1990)
"Probing Stratospheric Ozone" (1993)
"The Seasonal Evolution of Reactive Chlorine in the Northern Hemisphere Stratosphere" (1993)
"Mount Pinatubo Aerosols, Chlorofluorocarbons, and Ozone Depletion" (1992)
"Chemiluminescence of Anodized and Etched Silicon: Evidence for a Luminescent Siloxene-Like Layer on Porous Silicon" (1992)
"Hydrogen-Bond Breaking and Proton Exchange in Collisions of Gaseous Formic Acid with Liquid Sulfuric Acid" (1996)
"Crystal Polarity: A Window on Ice Nucleation" (1992)
"Stratospheric Chlorine Injection by Volcanic Eruptions: HCl Scavenging and Implications for Ozone" (1993)
"No Ice on the Moon?" (1999)
"Particle Nucleation in the Tropical Boundary Layer and Its Coupling to Marine Sulfur Sources" (1998)
"Increase in the Stratospheric Background Sulfuric Acid Aerosol Mass in the Past 10 Years" (1990)
"Chemical Loss of Ozone in the Arctic Polar Vortex in the Winter of 1991-1992" (1993)
"The Energy Density of Water and Ice Nucleation" (1993)
"Sulfuric Acid on Europa and the Radiolytic Sulfur Cycle" (1999)
"Formation of Molecular Chlorine from the Photolysis of Ozone and Aqueous Sea-Salt Particles" (1998)
"The Effect of Surface Roughness on Triton's Volatile Distribution" (1992)
"The Dynamics of the Stratospheric Polar Vortex and Its Relation to Springtime Ozone Depletions" (1991)
"A Possible Intracluster Origin for the Excess Soft X-ray Component in Some Clusters" (1997)
"Structural Transitions in Amorphous Water Ice and Astrophysical Implications" (1994)
"Solving the Aerosol Puzzle" (1999)
"Direct Observation of Heterogeneous Chemistry in the Atmosphere" (1998)
"Nucleoid Condensation in Escherichia coli That Express a Chlamydial Histone Homolog" (1992)
"In situ Measurements of Organics, Meteoritic Material, Mercury, and Other Elements in Aerosols at 5 to 19 Kilometers" (1998)
"Clathrate Hydrate Formation in Amorphous Cometary Ice Analogs in Vacuo" (1991)
"The Photoreactivity of Chlorine Dioxide" (1995)
"The Dark Side of Venus: Near-Infrared Images and Spectra from the Anglo- Australian Observatory" (1991)
"Warming Early Mars with Carbon Dioxide Clouds That Scatter Infrared Radiation" (1997)
"The Potential for Ozone Depletion in the Arctic Polar Stratosphere" (1991)
"The Role of Crystal Polarity in $\alpha$-Amino Acid Crystals for Induced Nucleation of Ice" (1992)
"Oxygen on Ganymede: Laboratory Studies" (1997)
"Ambiguities in Direct Dating of Rock Surfaces Using Radiocarbon Measurements" (1998)
"Heterogeneous and Multiphase Chemistry in the Troposphere" (1997)
"Ice Nucleation by Alcohols Arranged in Monolayers at the Surface of Water Drops" (1990)
"Aqueous-Phase Photochemical Formation of Peroxides in Authentic Cloud and Fog Waters" (1993)
"Compression of Ice to 210 Gigapascals: Infrared Evidence for a Symmetric Hydrogen-Bonded Phase" (1996)
"Direct Observation of CIO from Chlorine Nitrate Photolysis" (1992)
"Signs of Wet Weather in the Polar Mesosphere?" (1991)
"Volcano-Ice Age Link Discounted" (1996)
"Sparse Crystals" (1998)
"News Assaults Seen on Earth's Ozone Shield" (1992)
"Bosonic Stimulation in the Formation of a Bose-Einstein Condensate" (1998)
"Peculiarities of Methane Clathrate Hydrate Formation and Solid-State Deformation, Including Possible Superheating of Water Ice" (1996)
"Germ Plasm Revisited and Illuminated" (1992)
"Voyager at Triton" (1990)
"Carbonic Acid in the Gas Phase and Its Astrophysical Relevance" (1998)
"Taking a Bottom-to-Sky Slice of the Arctic Ocean" (1994)
"Gravitational Enrichment of $^{84}$Kr/$^{36}$Ar Ratios in Polar Ice Caps: A Measure of Firn Thickness and Accumulation Temperature" (1996)
"Long-Term Effects of Acid Rain: Response and Recovery of a Forest Ecosystem" (1996)
"Arctic Ozone Loss Due to Denitrification" (1999)
"Life at the Freezing Point" (1998)
"Acid Rain Revisited?" (1996)
"Spectroscopic Detection of Molecular Hydrogen Frozen in Interstellar Ices" (1993)
"The Silica Balance in the World Ocean: A Reestimate" (1995)
"Cold-Induced Expression of $\Delta^9$-Desaturase in Carp by Transcriptional and Posttranslational Mechanisms" (1996)
"Clouds of High Contrast on Uranus" (1998)
"Ozone Destruction by Chlorine: The Impracticality of Mitigation Through Ion Chemistry" (1995)
"High-Resolution Water Vapor Mapping from Interferometric Radar Measurements" (1999)
"Sulfur and Hydrogen Isotope Anomalies in Meteorite Sulfonic Acids" (1997)
"Age and Origin of Carlsbad Cavern and Related Caves from $^40$Ar/$^39$Ar of Alunite" (1998)
"Space Carbon: Neutral Pathways?" (1996)
"High Over the Permafrost" (1997)
"Scatterers in Triton's Atmosphere: Implications for the Seasonal Volatile Cycle" (1990)
"Sources of Acidity in Surface Waters" (1991)
"Using Satellite Infrared Data in Studies of Variabilities of the Western Pacific Warm Pool" (1993)
"Formaldehyde and Organic Molecule Production in Astrophysical Ices at Cryogenic Temperatures" (1993)
"The Possibility of Ice on the Moon" (1997)
"Retention of Helium in Subducted Interplanetary Dust Particles" (1994)
"Ozone Depletion Theory" (1993)
"Controlling the Morphology of Amorphous Solid Water" (1999)
"Two Calorimetrically Distinct States of Liquid Water Below 150 Kelvin" (1996)
"Airborne Particle Analysis" (1996)
"Direct pH Measurement of NaCl-Bearing Fluid with an in Situ Sensor at 400$^\circ$C and 40 Megapascals" (1996)
"Gravitational Separation in Polar Firn" (1993)
"High-Altitude Observations of the Polar Wind" (1997)
"Hydrogen Peroxide on the Surface of Europa" (1999)
"Greenhouse Effect-Clouds and Sunshine" (1997)
"Silicon Isotopic Composition in large Meteoritic SiC Particles and $^{22}$ Na Origin of $^{22}$Ne" (1992)
"Water in SNC Meteorites: Evidence for a Martian Hydrosphere" (1992)