Psychology: Perceiving Humanlikeness
Under what conditions do we attribute humanlikeness to nonhumans?
A living being isn't necessarily humanlike. That is, we can be animistic without being anthropomorphic. Here are some conditions for anthropomorphism, given animism.
- Having a human face
- Physical appearance and social behavior
- Social context cues
- Social interaction
- Relationships and possession
Over time, faces acquire emotional and social significance. People attend automatically to faces, and faces make objects seem more humanlike. In one of our studies, people rated the "humanlikeness" of robotic heads (see DiSalvo et al. below). Robotic heads with more facial features, and with a shape like that shown above, were rated as more humanlike.
DiSalvo, C. F., Gemperle, F., Forlizzi, J, Kiesler, S. (2002). All robots are not created equal: The design and perception of humanoid robot heads. DIS Conference Proceedings, London, England, June 25-28. [PDF 2.1MB]
Turati, C. (2004). Why faces are not special to newborns: An alternative account of the face preference. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13, 5-8.
Bruce, A., Nourbakhsh, I., and Simmons, R. The role of expressiveness and attention in human-robot interaction. ICRA 2002. [PDF 178K]
In the 1940s, Heider and Simmel made a silent cartoon animation [Quicktime 2.63MB, Flash 27KB, Editable 27KB]* in which two triangles and a circle move against and around each other and a diagram of a house. Virtually all people (except for autistic kids) make up a social plot in which the big triangle is seen as an aggressor. Studies have shown that the movements of the shapes cause automatic animistic perceptions. The movement of the shapes is very social and natural looking. When we speed up or slow the animation, or un it backward, the illusion of humanlikeness disappears.
Heider, F. and Simmel, M. (1944) An experimental study of apparent behavior. American Journal of Psychology, 57, 243249.
* We thank our animators, undergrads at CMU. Kenton Kline created the original animations. Shirlene Lim further developed them.
Interaction might increase the likelihood of anthropomorphic mental models because interaction consumes cognitive resources. Our attention is a limited resource. When we are interacting with an animal or object, we can't think intellectually about what is really going on, for instance, a biological or computer program. Instead we focus on what the animal or object is doing and automatically make attributions as we do with people.
Malle, B. F., and Pearce, B. E. (2001). Attention to behavioral events during interaction: Two actor-observer gaps and three attempts to close them. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 278-294.
If we are close to someone, we will take his perspective and see the world as he does, or assume that his behavior was motivated the way ours would have been motivated. We will see him less as a cardboard character and more complete with an inner life and pressures from the social situation and environment. His traits and motivations are something like ours. Hence, we can expect that our own cherished friend, pet, or product will be excused from any foibles and given credit for successes and benefits. We have begun studies on this topic.
Kiesler, T., & Kiesler, S. (2004). My pet rock and me: An experimental exploration of the self extension concept. Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. XXXII (32). [PDF 611K]
Bargh, J. A., Chen, M., and Burrows, L. (1996). Automaticity of social behavior: Direct effects of trait construct and stereotype activation on action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 230-244.
Goetz, J., Kiesler, S., & Powers, A. (2003). Matching robot appearance and behavior to tasks to improve human-robot cooperation (pp. 55-60). Proceedings. ROMAN 2003. The 12th IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Vol., IXX, Oct. 31-Nov. 2,, Milbrae, CA. [PDF 800K]
Gosling, S. D.; Kwan, V. S. Y.; John, O. P. (2003). A dog's got personality:
A cross-species comparative Approach to personality judgments in dogs
and humans. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 85,
See more titles in the bibliography.
This website promotes understanding of anthropomorphism. Our work on these projects has finished, but the website will continue to be available as a community resource.