In second order, you get: . numerator not 0 for l=1 and n 1. Approximation gives:

= quadratic stark effect. Polarization= . Polarizability= polarization. This is . Actual calculation gives which agrees well with experimentation.

For excited states:

For n=2, there is 8 fold degeneracy

With spin orbit coupling, you get a 6 fold degeneracy on .

Weak fileds - non-degenerate P.T. = 2nd order quadratic.

Strong fields, then 2s and 2p are degenerate.

. Constructing a 4x4 matrix, you get:

. Diagonilizing, you get: the roots, 0,0, . The eigen states are , . This is the linear stark effect. Only shows up for strong fields, when lamb shifts and spin orbit coupling are neglectable. This means .

source

psfile jl@crush.caltech.edu index

relativistic_correction