usually higher multipoles are weaker.m

charged particle in external scalar potential

tex2html_wrap175 (potential local and non-relativistic)

tex2html_wrap176 (no source charges)

Then tex2html_wrap177 Note that tex2html_wrap178 is an operator. define tex2html_wrap179 = electric multipole operator.

if tex2html_wrap182 , the soution will be the same except tex2html_wrap183

Can identify solution with classical solutions:


Cartesian equivalent of l=2: tex2html_wrap185 or tex2html_wrap186 . symmetric and traceless.


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