MAJORS-- A batter gets a walk after 5 balls, the batter strikes out after 2 strikes.
INTERMEDIATE-- A batter walks after 5 balls and the batter strikes out after 2 strikes.
MINORS-- The batter may never walk, the batter strikes out after 3 strikes.
Strikes for all leagues include swinging strikes, and called strikes. A called strike is one that lands on the league supplied mat behind the plate. If it hits any part of the mat it is a strike. The catcher will call "called" strikes loudly.
A) The pitches maximum arc must be between 6 and 15 feet, anything higher or lower is a ball, and must be called in the air by either umpire. (the batter may still swing, it is just an automatic ball call)
B) Pitching style-- In the minors the pitcher must release the ball with the palm up. (no spins). In the Majors and intermediate the ball may be released in any manner.
EXAMPLE 1-- bases empty, the batter hits a grounder to the pitcher who throws it over the first basemans head, out of play. the runner gets second base. (simple)
EXAMPLE 2-- runner on second, a grounder to the pitcher, the man on second never leaves second, the pitcher throws it out of play. The batter gets second and the runner scores!! The runners last base was second, the runner gets second plus 2 (home). The fact the runner never left second is irrelevant.
EXAMPLE 3-- A runner on 1st, (one out), the batter hits a fly to the outfield, the runner is almost to second (has not tagged up), the outfielder makes the catch and throws to first trying to get the DP and it goes out of play. The runner gets third base, even though the runner is going back to first his last established base was first, he gets first plus two = third.