This section provides information about products available for some of these areas.
CCTV makes a number of small CCD surveillance cameras. Some as small as a pack of cigarettes that sell for less than $300. Small cameras -- 'Pincam' 1.5"x1.5"x.75" pinhole camera for $200. MOD-250 and MOD-275 are all single PC board cameras with wide angle 3.6 mm lenses 514x491V resolution, and composite outputs. Other cameras come in unique enclosures for surveilance (e.g. cigarette packs, clocks, smoke detectors).
Cohu makes a number of solid state cameras including board level and remote head devices. The 1100 series is designed for OEM use. It outputs standard RS-170 with 768x494 CCD resolution. 10cmx4.5cmx1.6cm w/o lens. Other units include the 550 series Intensified Monochrome CCD Camera for low-light applications. The 4110 has digital output (eliminates pixel jitter), The 6X00 series are small monochrome remote head cameras and the 8000 series cameras are color remote head devices. A variety of ouputs are available includeing NTSC, RGB, PAL/Y-C. A high resolution unit, the 8410 series, provides 1134x486 pixels (850 horz TV lines)
DAK sells all kinds of gadgets for the home and business. One device is a security camera that is smaller than a credit card (length and width) and 38mm deep. B/W 251,904 pixels, 60 degree lens and built-in microphone. Has built-in IR transmitters for seeing in total darkness. $199 for camera, 20m cable, AC adapter and stands. Other packages include monitors and two-camera switcher for $299 total. Extra cable is $29.90
Modular cameras -- you choose the entire configuration from the CCD device to the video output format. Known for their large selection of high speed, high sensitivity and high resolution CCD chips (up to 25 million pixels on a single chip CCD).
Offers digitial cameras and acquisition cards in an integrated system for use with PC's. The EDC-1000C is a complete image acquisition system with a 751x488v resolution camera that supports 24 bit color for $950 (including the PC interface card). The EDC-1000HR is the monochrome version. A recently released system (11/94) offers a ADSP2101 DSP on board the acquisition card.
Micro-sized cameras including a 12mm color unit, the UN411E. The ME441E is a remote head B&W ccd camera for machine vision applications. 17mm, 14g. Wide variety of features including electronics shuttering, field/frame modes, interlace and non-interlace etc.
Ultra Minature Camera $149.50. 1.6" X 1.8" X 1" with a 3.6 mm wide angle lens a 1/3 CCD sensor 380 lines of resolution and electronic sutter time of 1/60 - 1/50,000 sec. 12 VDC Video Camera and monitor combination 9" solid state monitor. This is a closed circuit camera monitor system that runs on 115 VAC. There is also a microphone in the Camera. $125.00
Offers a linup of general purpose single CCD cameras. The C4200 is a 768x493V single CCD color camera. The C3967 is a 3 CCD remote head color camera with 786x493V resolution. They also offer off-the-shelf image improvement/enhancing hardware and CCD chips (1024x1024V)
World's smallest low-cost digital camera on a single chip; under $10 for volume users. It is the first commercially available image sensor to have a built-in A/D converter. The Digital Video Camera Chip, VVL1070 delivers a digitized B&W image through processor-compatible serial and parallel ports. The IC uses a proprietary CMOS sensor technology developed by VLSI Vision Ltd., which also is developing a whole series of single-chip EIA cameras that will be shortly introduced to the American market.
The chip features a 160 x 160 pixel array. Pixel size is 10.5 x 10.5 microns. All circuitry to drive and sense the array is packaged in a single Optical Quad Flatpak. The digital converter provides an 8-bit digital output for serial or parallel interface. Other features include an analog output with sync pulses, wide-range electronic exposure control for use with a variety of low-cost fixed-aperture lenses and automatic black level circuitry. Power consumption is less than 100mw.
An Engineering Level Evaluation Kit is available to reduce development costs and allow designers to rapidly develop a prototype using their own defined interface circuitry. The kit includes a fully operational PCB using an LCC with glass lid mounted in an anodized aluminum enclosure with both a "C" mount 12mm lens and a wide-angle 4.3mm fixed-focus lens.
Also offers both a 330 line and 510x492v resolution miniature color cameras.
Mini B/W camera $179.00 2.5x2.5x5cm and 70g. 7-14 VCD and 80 milliamps Also carry underwater cameras, and transmitter/recievers for video.
Offers many types of general purpose monochrome cameras as well as a 811x508V resolution color camera with a variety of output formats (RGB, NTSC, Y/C). The TI-324A is a small high-res B/W CCD camera designed for machine vision and robotics applications. A variety of other B/W and Color CCD cameras are also made.
Sells a complete line of monochrome cameras and a high performance broadcast quality 3 CCD RGB color camera.
Offers gereral purpose, reasonably priced CCD cameras. The TMC-7RGB is a 768x494V resolution color camera with electronic shutter for $1100. Many monochrome cameras are available including a high resolution 1024x1024V. The 'Card-Cam' line of cameras are small PC board cameras with simple C-mount remote heads.
CCD Micro Camera From Chinon. $159.00 B/W 1/3" CCD with a full 250,000+ pixels. 350 lines of resolution. Auto gain control and electronic shutter. 9 VDC at 80 milliamps. Adjustable focus 4mm, f 1.8 lens (provides 78 degree FOV, 10mm to infinity). Standard Composite video out. Weighs 14g, IR Sensitive. Also reportedly sold by by Creative Micro Electronics in Colorado. tel: 303.770.8928, fax: 303.796.0979
Sony XC/999/999P is a nice small color CCD camera the size of a microphone. CCD resolution is 768Hx493V. The 999 is NTSC and the 999P is the PAL format. XC-75 has small camera head and separate electronics. The XC711 is a nice general purpose single CCD color camera with 768x493V resolution, but not as expensive as to XC999. The XC-711 RR is the remote head version. An appreciable lineup of monochrome cameras are offered as well.
Electronic timers and beepers, miniature cameras and transmitters. Super Circuits specializes in affordable microvideo products. One of the tiny cameras, the PC-9XS is about the size of a silver dollar, has 380 lines resolution, 1 lux rating at a price of only $149. Some of the cameras go down to .2 lux. Other products include small color cameras, ATV UHF transmitter kits, Short range transmitter sets, and other specialty video products.
TI makes a full line of cameras and CCD chips includeing linear and 2D arrays. TI makes a $35 CCD Imager, the TC-211, with 192x165 resolution. Newark Electronics sells the TC211-M for around US$50.00 See TI's Array Image Sensor Products data manual for more details. Update: Unfortunately, Telescope Making Magazine went out of business with the issue mentioned above and may be hard to find. Hope to find copy and contact author wrt to posting it.
Toshiba IK-M40A high resolution microminiature color camera. Camera head is 39mm long, 17mm diameter and weighs 16g. 1/2" CCD w/ 410,000 pixels, high sensitivity (5 lux at F1.6) and electronic shutter. RGB output standard. uses cables up to 30m. Several lenses available. About $2K.
Toshiba also makes a very small C-mount Lens color CCD camera, the IK-C40A. It is only slight larger than a 30mm cube.
Wintriss makes a 2048 pixel line scan camera that can be used for object imaging, velocity measurement and positioning with multiple cameras. Can be used to determine spped and trajectory of objects in flight. This has been used in archery applications. RS485 interface with 8Mb/sec serial data rate. Can be linked directly with Wintriss DSP boards for post-processing and communications. Price $1250.
Specializing in High-res CCD cameras. Product line includes a 12-bit 1317x1035 pixel resolution. Target market has been medical imaging. Full computer control and compatible with a number of image capture and display boards.
Much of the initial research, development and marketing in this area were for military applications. However, markets and commercial units are now found in mass market and even consumer applications these days. This has brought the price of systems down significantly. There are several inexpensive gyros used in radio controlled helicopters. These are rate gyros, used to sense the rate of turn about a particular axis (usually vertical, for tail rotor control), and are designed to connect between an R/C receiver and a servo.
These gyros work by modifying the PWM signal that the rx produces, before it gets to the servo. The sensing is usually done by a linear hall effect device, which senses the position of a magnet on the bottom of the flywheel assembly. The gyros have both sensitivity and gain controls, and some can be switched on and off remotely. They have been used for sensing rotation about an axis for a VR headset, with some success. The big advantage is they are relatively cheap, the big disadvantage is high drift rate.
Analog Devices ADXL50 accelerometer. Power Supply........................... +5V (+/- 5%) Measurement Range...................... +/- 50g Pre-Amp Zero-g output level............ +1.8V Pre-Amp output span.................... +1.8V (+/-1.2V) at +/-50g Uncommitted amp output range........... +0.25V to +4.75V Overall Accuracy....................... 5% of Full Scale Linearity.............................. 0.5% of Full Scale Bandwidth.............................. DC to 1kHz Voltage Noise (p-p) at BW = 0.3kHz..................... +/-0.24% of Full Scale at BW = 1.0kHz..................... +/-0.48% of Full Scale Transverse Sensitivity................. 2% Unpowered Shock Survival............... 2000gDistributed by Newark, Hamilton-Hallmark and Active.
Fiber-optic gyro. 77mm diameter by 88mm high. Analog out porportional to rotation rate. Also digital version available. Rate +/- 100 degrees/sec. Stable over -40C to +85C. Power 8-13.5VDC at 250mA. Bias drift 0.005 deg/sec (18 deg/hr). 0.63kg $1100.00 for digital version, $950 for analog.
Piezo Film Accelerometer Sensors
AHC-04-08 accelerometer/shock sensor contains three sensing elements oriented to measure acceleration in two linear axes and one angular axis. Each sensor has a dedicated channel with adjustable gain, an adjustable comparator, and selectable output control to provide either a digital or analog signal. It is a low profile surface mount chip with 14 pins. It has internal eeprom for programming the adjustable gains, and output modes.
Lower limit on the frequency response is typically about 7-13 Hz. This means if it were subjected to a steady 10 G acceleration for example, the output would rise to 10 G's then decay down to zero even though it were still at 10 G's. This is good for measuring shocks but not steady accelerations. About $30 for a single unit.
GyroChip - a very small solid state angular rate sensor. Based a quartz tuning fork device - all support electronics are included. Max range available: +/-10 deg/sec to +/-1000 deg/sec. Input +/- 5VDC Output scale +/- 2.5VDC. Systron Donner also makes a variety of linear accelerometers and inertial measurement products.
Solid state six axis inertial sensor. It provides analog signals for 3 axis acceleration and 3 axis rate. The package is 7.5cmx7.5cmx8cm, weighs ~600grams and takes +-15V unreg in (7W). Bias drift is on the order of 0.005 deg/sec short term (0.1deg/sec long term).
Cost is $12,000 for one or $10,000 for 2-9 (a good single axis rate gyro usually costs $6K+). Various acceleration and rate range combinations are available (up to +- 20g). Delivery is about 6wks. A new Gyrochip two is available as well. Specs aren't quite as good but it is cheaper.
Variable Capacitance and Piezoresistive Accelerometers. Many models, contact Endevco for literature.
Sells small vertical and directional gyros for ~$500. These are standard gimballed gyros, but the drift specs probaly aren't as good as aircraft-quality gyros. Now also sell innovative computer pointers and devices termed 'Gyroengines' that provide quadrature outputs from heading devices. Gyroengines are $3.5K
Honeywll manufactures the modular azimuth and postioning system (MAPS) and utilizes ring-laser gyros. (RLG). The RLG uses two beams of laser light rotating in opposite directions along a path within a sealed and enclosed cavity. As the unit changes heading, the distances the beams travel differ. This difference is can be measured and is directly related to heading. When combined with linear accelerometers the unit provides position and orientation. MAPS has an RS-422 interface, is approx 22x27x38cm and is 20kg. 100W power draw. [Rad hard and rated for howitzer gunfire!]
Wide variety of gyros, north seekers, vertical indicators, position transducers, pendulums, magnetometers, dynamic stabilization systems, and accelerometer devices.
Model 3145. Signal Conditioned Temperature Compensated 0.5 to 4.5 Vdc Output. 2g, 5g, 10g, 20g, 50g, 100g, 200g ranges. $230 for 1.
Model 3140: Instrumentation grade Signal Conditioned Temperature Compensated 0.5 to 4.5 Vdc Output. 2g, 5g, 10g, 20g, 50g, 100g, 200g ranges. $295 for 1.
Model 3031: OEM Accelerometer Piezoresistive low cost Surface mount package. 2g, 5g, 10g, 20g, 50g, 100g, 200g, 500g ranges. $74 for 1.
Model 3021 and 3026: OEM Accelerometer Piezoresistive low cost. 2g, 5g, 10g, 20g, 50g, 100g, 200g, 500g ranges. Price ranges from $98-141 for 1, depending on g range.
also in Europe:
Nice small well-designed units that provide heading data. About $1K w/ RS232 adapter.
Schaevitz Sensors, a division of Lucas, makes a variety of inclinometers and accelerometers. the S05E is a compact, lightweight, solid state accelerometer. NEMA 4 housing. DC -1KHz freq response, +/-5vdc output, vibration to 20grms, less than 500mW power.
Other linear servo inclinometers and accelerometers: acceleration ranges: +/-0.5g to +/-20g, inclinometer ranges +/-1 deg to +/- 90 deg. Operating temperatures -55C to 95C.
Lucas makes a 2.5cmx2.5cmx1cm (approx) accelerometer for about $200. Good noise immunity but fragile.
Gyrostar piezoelectric vibrating gyroscope. Uses equilateral triangular prism with PE elements attached to faces of prism. High precision compared to other vibration gyroscopes. Measures augular velocity with good linearity. Max augular vel +/- 90 deg/sec, No hysteresis, 58x25x25mm, 45g, output is DC voltage porportional to angular rate. 22.2mV/deg/sec scale factor.
Gerhard Weiss has provided some results of experiments with the unit at [220.127.116.11]: Gyrostar.ps.Z
Two-axis Inclinometer. Weight: 2.3gr, voltage: 5V, current: 20mA, dimension: 12 x 12 x 7 mm, Output: 2 analog output. Sine and cosine for 360 degree, voltage swing: +/- 0.4V, Price: about $100. Rumored to have a US distributor: Dinsmore.
Dinsmore Instrument Company
Precision's Vector-2X electronic compass module is about $50 and provides 2 deg accuracy, 1 deg resolution, 10Hz smapling, serial ouput. Another product the Wayfinder is targeted for VR tracking applications.
Model 1010, Digital output:
Produces Digital pulse train in which the density of pulses (number of pulses a second) is proprtional to applied acceleration. It operates with a single +5 volt power supply and requires a clock of 100kHz - 1MHz. The output is ratiometric to the clock frequency and independent of the power supply voltage. Two forms of digital signals are provided for direct interfacing to a microprocessor or counter. This devices comes in a PLCC package that is smaller than a penny.
Model 1210, Analog output:
Provides two analog outputs, 1-4 volts, or 4-1 volt, with O g's at 2.5 volts. The outputs can be used either differentially or single ended referenced to 2.5 volts. Two reference voltages, +5.0 and +2.5 volts (nominal), are required; the output scale factor is ratiometric to the +5 volt reference voltage.
Model 7170 series and 7130 series capacitive accelerometers. These are relatively large devices with built in ASIC signal processing.They have very good accuracy specs and are pre-calibrated. They also make pressure sensors.
Three-axis accelerometer. A tiny cube just under 2.5cm on a side. Approx $1K
Lists a solid state gyro for model helicopters. The SSG/1 is 38mm x 38mm x 13mm and weighs 43g. Completely solid state with no motor or moving parts. Claims to draw 10% of the power of a gyro with moving parts. No drift specs.
The smallest, cheapest model is 5x5x2 cm and about $250. It has a 5-terminal electrolytic cell that can measure tilt in two axes to +-20 degrees (optional +-45 degrees). The characteristic "slosh" frequency is about 10 Hz, and it exhibits sub-second settling times and a resolution of 0.01 degrees. The output is two analog signals (X and Y, or Roll and Pitch, if you prefer). It runs off of a 9-volt battery.
Pulse timing, as the name suggests, involves measuring the round time for a signal to be transmitted to a reflective surface and return.
This is the principle used in Radar, DME for aircraft, LORAN, Satellite Altimetry, Airborne RADAR Altimetry, Lunar Laser Ranging etc. Some of the newer EDM instruments used by surveyor are also using pulse timing and accuracies of +/- 5mm are possible. Most of the military range finders also use pulse timing. The GPS system uses pulse timing for coarse distance measurement. Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) is also a pulse timing technique where signals >from pulsars are timed from two or more radio telescopes and the difference in times of arrival are converted to intercontinental distances with a precision of a few centimetres.
Phase difference involves the use of a carrier wave which may be modulated at different wavelengths. By measuring the difference in phase between the transmitted signal and the received signal after it has been reflected from the other end of the target, the distance can be determined as an integer number (unknown) of wavelengths plus a fraction of a wavelength which is known from the phase comparison. By using a range of modulation frequencies the ambiguity can be resolved. There are many applications of this technique. A wide range of carrier frequencies are used ranging from visible through infra red to microwave and right down to VLF. Typical instruments used by surveyors have accuracies of +/-(1to2 mm +1to3 parts per million) and use infra red as the carrier. Precise positioning using GPS can be achieved by phase comparison of the carrier wave signals of the various satellites. Accuracies in position of better than 1 part per million can be achieved.
Doppler techniques were used in the earlier satellite positioning systems. The received frequency of a low orbit satellite is compared with the actual transmitted signal as a function of time. The rate of change of frequency gives the slant range between the satellite and the observer while the instant when the two freqencies are the same gives the point of closest approach. By knowing the orbital parameters of the satellite which are transmitted, the observers position can be determined.
Interferometric methods are the same as those used in the original Michelson Interferometer. It is used for metrology, high precision distance measurement over short distances (up to 60 metres) and in the definition of the metre.
There are a variety of laser rangefinding devices that have been built and used over the past decade for robotics use. The 3D devices are still large, power hungry and heavy but give very nice images suitable for fast map building and navigation work. Expect to pay over $50K for these time-of-flight devices. Most AM Lidars measure phase shift between outgoing and reflected beams. A mirror system rasters the beam forming a video-camera-like image. Some devices supply the reflectance image as well as range which is nice for corresponding the two. Comprehensive references include:
The AccuRange 400 is an optical distance measurement sensor with a range of 0 to 16m for most diffuse reflective surfaces. It operates by emitting a collimated laser beam that is reflected from the target surface and collected by the sensor. 0.5mm short-term repeatability, RS-232 output and optional 4-20mA current loop. Also PW and analog indication of range available. Visible or IR output available. (670nm and 780nm respectively) Around $2500. 5VDC@300mA. 50KHz sampling rate.
Laser Eye ranging system. It consists of a robotic head with a combined vision / range sensor. The sensor provides colour images and distance to an object in the centre of the camera field of view. There is of course software to process images from the camera and detect a target, to control the head, communication, nice GUIs, etc. Is being used for vehicle navigation.
From the head position you get the bearing to the target and the rangefinder provides you with the distance. Angular resolution is better than 0.05 degree, the distance can be measured up to 100m with accuracy of ~5 cm. Note that the range measurement is 1D along the camera axis.
The cost of the vision system and complexity of the software depends on your specific application: how difficult is it to detect and track your vehicle, how fast is it moving, is it possible to use special markers, is illumination constant, etc.
BCT in Germany makes laser-3D-scanners with a CAD-interface
ERIM has built a number of custom AM laser rangefinders including those used in the ALV (Autonomous Land Vehicle) program. CMU and Martin Marietta have both used this systems in extensive work. Basic system was a 128x64 2fps 20m (ambiguity interval) system.
$15K LED based IR ranging system. 15cm diameter rotating scanning device with collimated LED light beam that uses phase differences to calculate distance. Range 0.6 to 6m. 2.5cm resolution, 15cm accuracy. 1Khz update rate
Hamamatsu S4282 Light Modulation Photo IC The size of a normal transistor (approx 1/4" square). It has 4 leads, Vcc, Gnd, Vout, LED. All you do is attach an IR LED to the LED lead to give you an instant IR proximity detector (the photo diode detector is built into the part). Two can be aimed at each other and they won't interfere since they'll be out of phase. They have another model with a lens over the photo diode that is claimed could be used up to 30 feet! Hammamatsu also sells a number of photo sensors like color sensors, position sensitive detectors, pyroelectric sensors.
Hyscan laser digitizing systems. High speed 3D surface
mapping. Hyscan probe retrofits to any CMM, CNC, or any other
translation device. 10,000 points/sec.
Model 25 Model 50 Accuracy +/-0.025mm +/-0.050mm Resolution (Z) 0.003mm 0.003mm Depth of field 40mm 80mm Scan width 70mm 80mm Stand-off 100mm 100mm Size 260x110x65mm Weight 2.2kg
2D and 3D laser scanners. 8frame/sec, 220 degree view, 4600 points/sec. Accuracy +/- 20mm (1 sigma) from 0.5 - 500? 24W power. System specs can be configured for variety of applications
Manufactures semiconductor laser diode packages and cylindrical lenses. Packages and small and rugged.
Odetics has made a number of smaller laser scanners. That is, smaller than their larger ERIM and Perceptron brethren. I have not heard any independent reviews of the product however.
The Dynasight sensor is a 3-D optical radar that provides real-time 3-D measurements of passive targets with sub-millimeter resolution. Automatic search and track is provided, eye-safe operation and no adjustments or alignment required. Original application was head tracking of computer users but end- effector tracking is also viable. Operatin range depends on target size 0.1-1.5m for 7mm target, 0.3-4m for 25mm target and 1 to 6m for 75mm targets. RS-232 interface. Accuracies 1mm cross range and 4mm down range, resolutions 0.1mm cross range and 0.4mm down range.
A number of labs have built light stripe devices using projected light LCD shutters and laser line projectors determine distance through geometry (as opposed to directly measuring distance through time-of-flight means) One common need is that of generating the laser line.
A spin-off of ERIM, Perceptron has also built a number of AM laser rangefinders. CMU and Caterpillar have used these for map building and obstacle avoidance work in rough terrain navigation.
LASAR product - provides range and reflectance. Programmable field of view (15 to 60 deg) Vertical viewing angle from 3 to 72 degrees. Depth of field from 2 to 40 meters. Up to 1024 x 2048 pixels per image (programmable) and 360,000 pixels/second data acquisition. VME and PC-compatible interface cards available. Windows software provides starting point for custom applications. Less than $50K with a variety of performance and interface options.
[company HQ is Dr. Johannes Riegl GmbH, 85 km, NW of Vienna, Austria]
Laser range finders, laser speed sensors, laser distance meters, motor scanners, laser radar systems. Pulsed laser devices. One of the neatest is the Laser Scout, which gives range, azimuth and inclination to the target and can be used with GPS to give position coordinates of the device you are pointing at. $10K. Accuracy up to +/- 10cm (depending on model)
Laser Radar Scanner (LRS 90-3) is a 1D scanner with 36 deg field of view and a +/- 3cm accuracy. 2-80m distance, $10K. There are several other distance models as well.