AAUW (American Association of
University Women) Educational Foundation Study Illustrates
a "Spiral" of Learning and Earning Throughout Womens Lives
Age, Kids, Lack of Information, Debt, and Economic Projections
Significantly Influence Womens Transitions from School to
Work and College
Gender, race, education and the workforcenot particularly
about Computing or science
ACM: Association for Computing
Founded in 1947, ACM is a major force in advancing the skills
of information technology professionals and students worldwide.
ACM-- report from 1998: Computer
Science Graduate Rate for Women Drops 23% in Past Decade at
the Bachelor's Level
The Association for Computing Machinery's Committee on Women
in Computing (ACM-W) announced today that it applauds the
United States government's recent concern about the low numbers
of computer scientists. 1998
ACM-W: ACMs Committee on Women
The mission of ACM-W is to engage in activities and projects
that aim to improve the working and learning environments
for women in computing.
Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology
CAARMS (the Council for African
Americans in the Mathematical Sciences)
Great resourceCatalyst is the nonprofit research and advisory
organization working to advance women in business and the
CPST: Commission on Professionals
in Science and Technology.
Sloan sponsored report: Scientists and Engineers for
the New Millenium: Renewing the Human Work Force, 2001
CRA (The Computing Research Association)
"(A)n association of more than 200 North American academic
departments of computer science, computer engineering, and
related fields; laboratories and centers in industry, government,
and academia engaging in basic computing research; and affiliated
CRA-W Committee on the Status
of Women in Computing research (CRA-W) is to take positive
action to increase the number of women participating in Computer
Science and Engineering (CSE) research and education at all
CREU Collaborative Research Experience
for Undergraduates in Computer Science and Engineering is
designed to provide positive research experiences for teams
of undergraduates who will work during the academic year at
their home institutions. The goal of this initiative is to
increase the numbers of women and minorities who continue
on to graduate school in computer science and engineering.
CWIT (The Center for Women and
"(E)stablished at the University of Maryland Baltimore
County (UMBC) in July 1998, is dedicated to providing global
leadership in achieving women's full participation in all
aspects of information technology (IT). Women's participation
in IT will strengthen the workforce, raise the standard of
living for many women, and help to assure that information
technology addresses women's needs and expands the possibilities
for their lives."
ERIC:Educational Resources Information
Center. 2001. Digest No. 226
Women and Minorities in High-Tech Careers
Women and minorities are underrepresented in technology-related
careers. Lackof access, level of math and science achievement,
and emotional and social attitudes about computer capabilities
may be some of the factors that cause women and minorities
to avoid high-tech careers.
GEM: The National Consortium for
Graduate Degrees for Minorities in Engineering and Science,
Inc. The GEM Fellowship programs are designed to offer opportunities
for underrepresented minority students to obtain MS degrees
in engineering and Ph.D. degrees in engineering and the natural
and physical sciences through a program of paid summer internships
and graduate financial assistance.
ITAA: Information Technology Association
DIGITAL OPPORTUNITY INITIATIVE
Committed to Building a larger, more diverse IT workforce
NACME: The National Action Council
for Minorities in Engineering:
Conducts research and analyzes trends in education, engineering
enrollment, degreecompletion, and workforce participation.
Advances policies and practices that support the development
of a diverse corps of world-class technology professionals.
Uses the Internet and a variety of communication tools to
share vital information with over one million children, parents,
educators and policymakers annually Develops and operates
a rich portfolio of education and scholarship programs, informing
and supporting nearly 1,500 high school and undergraduate
students each year Delivers a range of professional development
programs to educators and practitioners toensure that students
receive the quality learning and work experiences they need.
The National Academies
Four organizations comprise the Academies: the National Academy
of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute
of Medicine and the National Research Council. The organization
performs an unparalleled public service by bringing together
committees of experts in all areas of scientific and technological
endeavor. These experts serve pro bono to address critical
national issues and give advice to the federal government
and the public.
NCWIT (National Center for Women
& Information Technology)
"NCWIT's overarching goal is parity in the professional
information technology (IT) workforce, and our fundamental
strategy is to educate, disseminate,and advocate a national,
multi-year implementation plan that generates tangible progress
within 20 years."
General Minority Issues in Mathematics, Science, and Engineering
SACNAS (the Society for the Advancement
of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science)
SHPE: The Society of Hispanic
Professional Engineers is a national, leading social-technical
organization whose primary function is to enhance and achieve
the potential of Hispanics in engineering, math and science.
SHPE promotes the development of Hispanics in engineering,
science and other technical professions to achieve educational
excellence, economic opportunity and social equity.
SWIFT site: Supporting Women in
Information Technology, is a five year research, action and
implementation project to increase the participation of women
in Information Technology Looks at strategies for women/girls
of all ages and is led by Dr. Maria Klawe at UBC.
WICSE is an organization for all
women graduate students in Computer Science and Electrical
Engineering at the University of California in Berkeley. A
variety of good links to useful sites on gender and computing.
WITI: Women in Technology International
- Women Shaping Technology
International organization dedicated to advancing women through
Women's Studies Librarian
Computer Science and Education Section INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
AND WOMEN'S LIVES: A BIBLIOGRAPHY,
WRI: The Washington Research Institute:
Data and Resources
Of particular interest are the sections providing useful links
to: Teaching Gender Equity, Women in Math & Science, Race,
Ethnicity & Equity, and Women in Computing .
Books, Book Reviews, and Online Publications:
Almstrum, V. What Is the Attraction to
Computing? Communications of the ACm, Sept. 2003/vol.
46. No. 9 pp. 51-55
Ambrose S. Journeys of Women in Science
and Engineering Temple University Press, 1997
Babcock, L. and Laschever, S. Women Don’t
Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide, Princeton Univ
Pr; October, 2003
Bana, Soheila and Hassoun, Soha.
Improving the Graduate School Environment
for Women in Computer Science.
A list of the programs/practices that can enhance the graduate
school environment for female graduate students in Computer
Barnett, R. and Caryl Rivers. Same Difference:
How Gender Myths Are Hurting Our Relationships, Our Children,
and Our Jobs, Basic Books, 2004
Baase, Sara. A Gift of Fire: Social,
Legal, and Ethical Issues for Computers and the Internet
(Prentice Hall, 2nd ed., 2003).
This text explores social, legal, philosophical, ethical,
political, constitutional and economic implications of computing
from a computer scientist's point of view.
Blum, L. Transforming the Culture
of Computing at Carnegie Mellon,
Computing ResearchNews, vol. 13, No.5, November 2001. p.2.
Blum, L. Women in Computer Science:The
Carnegie Mellon Experience.
In Resnick D.P.and Scott , D., eds., The University of the
Future: The Future of the University. 2001.
Blum, L. and Frieze, C. In a More Balanced
Computer Science Environment, Similarity is the Difference
and Computer Science is the Winner, May 2005 edition
of Computing Research News, Vol. 17/No. 3
Blum, L. and Frieze, C.
the Culture of Computing Evolves, Similarity can be the Difference
Gender and IT issue of Frontiers, 26:1 2005
Borg, Anita. What draws Women to
and Keeps Women in Computing at Institute for Women
and Technology, May 1999, and in Computing at Institute for
Women and Technology, Women in Science and Engineering: Choices
for Success, The Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,
Camp, T. The Incredible Shrinking
Communications of the ACM, 40 (10): 103-110, 1997.
Camp, T. The Incredible Shrinking
Pipeline Unlikely to Reverse, ACM-W, January, 2000.
Camp, T. Women in Computer Science:
Reversing the Trend CRA-W August, 2001
Cassell J. and Jenkins H. eds. From Barbie
to Mortal Kombat MIT press, 1999
Cherny, L. and Reba Weise, E. eds. Wired_Women:
Gender and New Realities in Cyberspace, Seal Press,
Clewell, Beatriz Chu, and Campbell, Patricia B. Taking
Stock: Where we’ve been, Where we are, Where we’re
going. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and
Engineering, vol. 8, pp. 255-284, 2002
Clingingsmith, Debra. Engendering
Equity: Fostering Computer Science Success Among Women and
Cohoon, J. McGraph and William Asprey (editors) Women
and Information Technology : Research on Underrepresentation,
The MIT Press, March 10, 2006
Book Description: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262033453/002-7722860-9684832?v=glance&n=283155
Cohoon, J. McGraph. “Toward Improving Female Retention
in the Computer Science Major” May, 2001. Communications
of the ACM.
Cohoon, J. McGrath. “Departmental Differences Can Point
the Way to Improving Female Retention in Computer Science,”
SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education,
pp 198-202, March 1999, New Orleans, LA.
Cohoon, J. McGrath. “Women in CS and Biology”
SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education,
March 2002, Northern Kentucky.
Cottrell, Janet. I'm a Stranger Here
Myself: A Consideration of Women in Computing.
Stepping into the Future, Learning from the PastACM SIGUCCS
XX: 71-76. 1992.
Cuny, J., Asprey, W. Recruitment
and Retention of Women Graduate Students in Computer Science
and Engineering: Results of a Workshop Organized by
the Computing Research Association, San Francisco, June 21-22,
Davis, C. et al The Equity equation: Fostering
the advancement of women in the sciences, mathematics and
engineering Jossey-Bass 1996
Eglash, R. Race, Sex and Nerds: from
Black Geeks to Asian-American Hipsters Social Text,
20:2, pp. 49-64, Summer 2002
Epstein F. Cynthia. Deceptive Distinctions:
Sex, Gender, and the Social Order, Yale University
Etzkowitz, Henry., Kemelgor, Carol., Neuschatz, Michael.,
Uzzi, Brian. 1994 Barriers to Women
in Academic Science and Engineering
(In Willie Pearson Jr. and Irwin Fechter eds. Who Will Do
Science? Educating the Next Generation, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
University Press,) Paper focuses on the experiences of women
in Ph.D. programs and as faculty members and investigates
the conditions under which women are at a disadvantage during
their doctoral training and early stages of their academic
Fisher, A., Margolis, J., Miller, F. Anatomy
of Interest: Women in Undergraduate Computer Science.
28 (1 & 2): 104-126, 2000.
Fisher, A., Margolis, J., Miller, F. Caring
About Connections: Gender and Computing.
Technology and Society, 13-20, 2000.
Fisher, A., Margolis, J. Women in Computer
Sciences: Closing the Gender Gap in Higher Education.
Final Report to the Alfred B. Sloan Foundation. September
Fox, M. F. Organizational Environments
and Doctoral Degrees Awarded to Women in Science and Engineering
Departments.Women's Studies Quarterly, 28(1 & 2),
Frenkel, Karen A. 1990. Women and
Communications of the ACM. 33: 11: 34-47.
Frieze, Carol, and Blum, Lenore. Building
an Effective Computer Science Student Organization: The Carnegie
Mellon Women@SCS Action Plan
Inroads SIGCSE Bulletin Women in Computing; vol.34.no.2, 2002,
June, p. 74-78
Carol. Diversifying the Images of Computer
Science: Undergraduate Women take on the Challenge!
Proceedings of the Thirty-Sixth SIGCSE Technical Symposium
on Computer Science Education, 2005, p. 397-400 (presented
at SIGCSE conference 2005)
Frieze, C., Hazzan, O., Blum, L., and Dias, M.B. Culture
and Environment as Determinants of Women’s Participation
in Computing: Revealing the ‘Women-CS Fit’”
to be presented at SIGCSE 2006
Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies
Special Gender and IT issue of Frontiers, 26:1 2005
Furger, R. Does Jane compute? Preserving
our daughters' place in the cyber revolution New York:
Warner Books, 1998
Harrelson, Sharon. Women and Computer
Paper presents the broad picture of Women and Computer Sciencelooks
at culture, shrinking pipeline, academia, industry, self-esteem,
Hewitt, Nancy and Seymore, Elaine. The
Problems of Minority Group Students in Science, Mathematics,
Hudgings, Janice., Humphreys, Sheila.,Hernan, Patrick.
A Six-Year Picture of Women Graduate Students
in EECS July 1999
The number of women graduate students enrolled in the Electrical
Engineering and Computer Science (EECS) Department at UC Berkeley
dropped by 33% between 1993 and 1998. This trend is paralleled
by a substantial reduction in the fraction of incoming women
enrolled for the Ph.D. as opposed to the Masters degree. In
order to investigate the origins of this trend, we examine
admission, enrollment, and retention of women graduate students
admitted during the six years from 1993-1998.
Humphreys, Sheila. The Role of Women
Conference Proceedings from Bridging the Gender Gap, Carnegie
Mellon University, 1996
Professor Humphreys provides some observations about the contributions
of women graduate students to positive changes in the climate
at Berkeley. Women students, in my experience, (as compared
with faculty or administration) have provided dynamic force
and idealism to stimulate change within the University. The
factors which enable student groups to effect change are external
financial resources, recognition by the departmental infrastructure
of the value and power of student initiatives, and use of
the Internet to build community.
Kanter, Rosabeth M. Men and Women of
the Corporation, New York: Basic Books, 1977
A classic and a must-read for anyone looking at gender relations
outside the confines of "gender differences debates".
Kanter says differences are opportunity-related and systems
are in place that determine (limit or promote) people’s
responses to the jobs/situations they are in.
Examines 3 primary variables: power, opportunities, numbers
–these are the variables that determine social dynamics
not gender gender differences.
Kiesler and Sproull. eds. Computing and
Change on Campus Cambridge University Press. 1987
Kramarae, C. Technology and Women's Voices:
Keeping in Touch, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1988
Leveson, N. Women in Computer Science.
A Report for the NSF CISE
Cross Disciplinary Activities Advisory Committee, December
Leveson, Nancy G.Educational Pipeline
Issues for Women, 1991
Looks at factors affecting women in computer science in undergraduate,
graduate and faculty situations along with suggestions for
change. Scientific and technological progress will reach its
fullest potential only when those with the most ability, regardless
of gender or race, havean equal opportunity to participate
Lovitts, B.E. Leaving the Ivory Tower,
Rowman & Littlefield, 2001
Margolis, J. and Fisher, Allan. 2002
Unlocking the Clubhouse: Women in Computing
A must read new book. Read Amazon.coms review:
Margolis,J., Fisher, A. and Miller, F. Geek
Margolis,J., Fisher, A. and Miller, F. Computing
for a Purpose: Gender and Attachment to Computer Science
Margolis,J., Fisher, A. and Miller, F. Failure
Is Not an Option: International Women in Computer Science
McCarthy, Helen. Girlfriends in High
PlacesHow women’s networks are changing the workplace,
London: Demos, 2004
The book "argues that professional networks can enhance
individual career prospects while enabling women to work together
to tackle workplace inequality. Women’s professional
networks can provide the kind of confidence-building support
which men are good at providing for each other through their
Ogle, Ginger. The Student Parents
Room in Soda Hall, Berkeley,
gives ideas for improving the situation for computer science
graduates who are parents.
While I was a CS graduate student, I had two children in grade
Plant, S. Zeros + Ones: Digital Women
+ the New Technoculture, Doubleday, 1964
Rosser S. Teaching the Majority: Breaking
the Gender Barrier in Science, Mathematics and Engineering,
New York: Teachers College Press, 1995
Schofield, Janet Ward. Computers
and Classroom Culture
New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Review:
Schn, Donald A., Sanyal, Bish and Mitchell, William J. (eds).
1998. High Technology and Low-Income
Communities: Prospects for the Positive Use of Advanced InformationTechnology.
Scragg, Greg & Smith, Jesse. A Study
of Barriers to Women in Undergraduate Computer Science
Seymour E. and Hewitt N. Talking about
Leaving: Why undergraduates leave the Sciences Boulder:Westview
Shackner, B. Women Compute: CMU's recruiting
of females in computerscience adds up to change. Pittsburgh
Post Gazette, Wednesday, April 18, 2001.
Shih, Ting-Chih. Redesigning an Introductory
Java Course to Bridge the Gender Gap in Computer Science Education Senior
Spertus, Ellen. Why are There so Few
Female Computer Scientists? 1991
In this report Spertus addresses the problem-- In 1990, only
13% of PhDs in computer science went to women, and only 7.8%
of computer science professors were female. Additionally,
the percentage of female compute science students appears
to be increasing at only a slow rate or even decreasing. She
examines a range of influences against a woman's pursuing
a career in a technical field, particularly computer science,
from childhood to sterotypes, to subtle biases that females
face. She discusses some effective and ineffective ways to
encourage women. A theme of the report is that women's underrepresentation
is not primarily due to direct discrimination but to subconscious
behavior that tends to perpetuate the status quo.
Spertus, Ellen. Panel Presentation, Computing
an Empowering Environment for the Success of Women Students
in Undergraduate, Co-ed Computer Science Programs.
Twenty-Forth SIGSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science
Spertus, Ellen. Gender Benders
Spertus, Ellen. Wit Helps Women in Computer
Science Combat Ignorance 2002
Tapia, Richard A., Lanius, Cynthia. Underrepresented
Minority Achievement and Course Taking: The Kindergarten-Graduate
Tech-Savvy: Educating Girls in the New
Computer Age Tech-Savvy is the culmination of two years
of work by the AAUW Educational Foundation Commission on Technology,
Gender, and Teacher Education.
Thorne, Barrie. Gender Play: Girls and
Boys in School, New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1993
“Thorne criticizes the “two worlds” model
for studying segregation which assumes boys and girls are
different. She conceptualizes gender as a system of relationships”
Tomayko, J. and Hazzan, O. Human Elements
of Software Engineering, Charles River Media, 2004
Treisman, U. Studying students studying
A look at the lives of minority mathematics students in college.
The College Mathematics Journal, 23 (362 372) 1992. Treisman's
Turkle S., as quoted in: Gill Kirkup, "The
Social Construction of Computers: Hammers or Harpsichords?"
Inventing Women; Science, Technology and Gender. Gill
Kirkup and Laurie Smith Keller (eds.) Cambridge, MA: Basil
Blackwell, 1992: 267-282
Turkle, S. Life on the Screen. Identity
in the age of the internet Phoenix 1995
Turkle, S. The Second Self. Computers
and the human spirit, London, Granada, 1984
Valian V. Why so slow? The advancement
of women MIT Press 1999
This collection is far from complete.
If you would like to add to this listing please forward info
to cfrieze at cs.cmu.edu