School of Computer Science

Carol Frieze, Ph.D.

Office: Gates 4115
Phone: 412-268-9071

email: cfrieze @

Online Links Library: 

For Women and Minorities in Computer Science, Computing Related Disciplines, and Information Technology, and miscellaneous links of interest...
(A Work in Progress)
Sources Of Statistics, Data, etc. (e.g. NSF sites):

Americans in the Information Age Falling Through the Net. 2000 Reports, Information, Data on the Digital divide from the National Telecommunications and Information Administration.

CRA Taulbee Survey 2001: Current and Future Ph.D Output Will Not Satisfy Demand For Faculty.  Bryant, R. and Irwin, M.J. Computing Research News, 13 (2): 5 11.

CRA Taulbee Survey 2002-2003: Stats from PhD granting departments of computer science and computer engineering Report suggests that enrollment in undergraduate computer science programs has dropped by more than a quarter since 2001. What was a cause forconcern for women’s enrollment is now an overall concern.

Division of Science Resources Studies DATA BRIEF 1999 National Science Foundation NSF 99-320, January 15.
Facts and figures, charts and graphs, addressing this issueDespite Increases, Women and Minorities Still Underrepresented in Undergraduate and Graduate S&E Education"

The Early Release Tables (Doctorates). 2000 The data presented in this report show trends in doctorate awards by science and engineering (S&E) field and recipient characteristics, institutions awarding doctorates, and postgraduation plans of recipients. The source of the data is the Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED).

Enhancing the Diversity of the Science and Engineering Workforce to Sustain Americas Leadership in the 21st Century. 2000 NSF biennial Report from CEOSE Committee on Equal Opportunities in Science and Engineering.

Gaining a Foothold: Women's Transitions Through Work and College (1999) " this report examines how and why women make changes in  their lives through education. Gaining a Foothold probes the decision making of three groups -- women who go directly from high school to college; women who go directly from high school to full-time work; and women who go from work back to postsecondary education. "

MIT Faculty Newsletter March 1999 Report on Faculty and Gender This report on the work of the Committees on Women Faculty in the School of Science and the response of the Dean to their findings, describes a model that can be used by the Institute as a whole to decrease the inequities that still exist, both in terms of numbers and in treatment. And though these data refer to women, the methods used and recommendations made can and should be adapted to faculty from underrepresented minorities.

MIT 1995 Report from Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science  Women Undergraduate Enrollment in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT: The report looks at the imbalance in male and female undergraduate enrollment at MIT, to get some sense of the reasons for this (in particular whether these factors are internal to MIT), and to suggest stepsthat might be taken to improve the balance.

National Council for Research on Women BALANCING THE EQUATION: Where Are Women & Girls in Science, Engineering & Technology? 2001

NCES (National Center for Education Statistics)

NSF Data Brief REPORT1997 Science and Engineering Bachelor's Degrees Awarded to Women Increase Overall, but Decline in Several Fields  Bachelor's degrees awarded in mathematics and computer science declined among both men and women from 1985 to 1995; in computer science, the percent decline in degrees to women was twice that of men.

NSF Report on Women, Minorities and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering 2000 Biennial report on the status of women and minorities in science and engineering. Its primary purpose is as an information source on the participation of women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering.

NSF Report on Women, Minorities and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering 2005 Newly designed site provides data on the participation of women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering education and employment.

NSF Publications and Data Lists most NSF publications and data with URLs

Science and Engineering Indicators, 1998 National Science Board.  A very broad ranging look at historical indicators for the future of Information Technologies.Goes through childhood to adulthood, looks at gender and minority factors, social and economic, and gives findings and projections.

Technology Administration: IT WORK FORCE The Office of Technology Policy is currently pursuing several key initiatives on IT education and training issues

Where Have Women Gone and Will They Be Returning: Predictions of Female Involvement in Computing? 2000
Volume 18, Number 1The CPSR NewsletterWinter  Gives current graduation and undergraduate enrollment statistics, providing an updated view of the situation as well as a prediction of future trends.

Women in Computer Science: the College Experience Useful compilation of gender and computer science statistics done by Stanford University


AAUW (American Association of University Women) Educational Foundation Study Illustrates a "Spiral" of Learning and Earning Throughout Womens Lives 
Age, Kids, Lack of Information, Debt, and Economic Projections Significantly Influence Womens Transitions from School to Work and College
Gender, race, education and the workforcenot particularly about Computing or science

ACM: Association for Computing Machinery
Founded in 1947, ACM is a major force in advancing the skills of information technology professionals and students worldwide.

ACM-- report from 1998: Computer Science Graduate Rate for Women Drops 23% in Past Decade at the Bachelor's Level 
The Association for Computing Machinery's Committee on Women in Computing (ACM-W) announced today that it applauds the United States government's recent concern about the low numbers of computer scientists. 1998

ACM-W: ACMs Committee on Women and Computing 
The mission of ACM-W is to engage in activities and projects that aim to improve the working and learning environments for women in computing.

Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology

CAARMS (the Council for African Americans in the Mathematical Sciences)
Great resourceCatalyst is the nonprofit research and advisory organization working to advance women in business and the professions.

CPST: Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology.
Sloan sponsored report: Scientists and Engineers for the New Millenium:  Renewing the Human Work Force, 2001

CRA (The Computing Research Association)
"(A)n association of more than 200 North American academic departments of computer science, computer engineering, and related fields; laboratories and centers in industry, government, and academia engaging in basic computing research; and affiliated professional societies."

CRA-W Committee on the Status of Women in Computing research (CRA-W) is to take positive action to increase the number of women participating in Computer Science and Engineering (CSE) research and education at all levels.

CREU Collaborative Research Experience for Undergraduates in Computer Science and Engineering is designed to provide positive research experiences for teams of undergraduates who will work during the academic year at their home institutions. The goal of this initiative is to increase the numbers of women and minorities who continue on to graduate school in computer science and engineering.

CWIT (The Center for Women and Information Technology)
"(E)stablished at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) in July 1998, is dedicated to providing global leadership in achieving women's full participation in all aspects of information technology (IT). Women's participation in IT will strengthen the workforce, raise the standard of living for many women, and help to assure that information technology addresses women's needs and expands the possibilities for their lives."

ERIC:Educational Resources Information Center. 2001. Digest No. 226 
Women and Minorities in High-Tech Careers
Women and minorities are underrepresented in technology-related careers. Lackof access, level of math and science achievement, and emotional and social attitudes about computer capabilities may be some of the factors that cause women and minorities to avoid high-tech careers.

GEM: The National Consortium for Graduate Degrees for Minorities in Engineering and Science, Inc. The GEM Fellowship programs are designed to offer opportunities for underrepresented minority students to obtain MS degrees in engineering and Ph.D. degrees in engineering and the natural and physical sciences through a program of paid summer internships and graduate financial assistance.

ITAA: Information Technology Association of America 
Committed to Building a larger, more diverse IT workforce

NACME: The National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering: 
Conducts research and analyzes trends in education, engineering enrollment, degreecompletion, and workforce participation. Advances policies and practices that support the development of a diverse corps of world-class technology professionals. Uses the Internet and a variety of communication tools to share vital information with over one million children, parents, educators and policymakers annually Develops and operates a rich portfolio of education and scholarship programs, informing and supporting nearly 1,500 high school and undergraduate students each year Delivers a range of professional development programs to educators and practitioners toensure that students receive the quality learning and work experiences they need.

The National Academies
Four organizations comprise the Academies: the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council. The organization performs an unparalleled public service by bringing together committees of experts in all areas of scientific and technological endeavor. These experts serve pro bono to address critical national issues and give advice to the federal government and the public.

NCWIT (National Center for Women & Information Technology)
"NCWIT's overarching goal is parity in the professional information technology (IT) workforce, and our fundamental strategy is to educate, disseminate,and advocate a national, multi-year implementation plan that generates tangible progress within 20 years."
General Minority Issues in Mathematics, Science, and Engineering

SACNAS (the Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science)

SHPE: The Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers is a national, leading social-technical organization whose primary function is to enhance and achieve the potential of Hispanics in engineering, math and science. SHPE promotes the development of Hispanics in engineering, science and other technical professions to achieve educational excellence, economic opportunity and social equity.

SWIFT site: Supporting Women in Information Technology, is a five year research, action and implementation project to increase the participation of women in Information Technology Looks at strategies for women/girls of all ages and is led by Dr. Maria Klawe at UBC.

WICSE is an organization for all women graduate students in Computer Science and Electrical Engineering at the University of California in Berkeley. A variety of good links to useful sites on gender and computing.

WITI: Women in Technology International - Women Shaping Technology 
International organization dedicated to advancing women through technology.

Women's Studies Librarian

WRI: The Washington Research Institute: Data and Resources
Of particular interest are the sections providing useful links to: Teaching Gender Equity, Women in Math & Science, Race, Ethnicity & Equity, and Women in Computing .

Gender/Minority Sites: 

ADA: The Ada Project (TAP) - named in honor of Ada Lovelace - is a clearinghouse for information and resources related to women in computing.
under new construction

Advancing Women is a site focusing on women in the IT workforce. 
This page gives a short news report about Kelly Carnes (Deputy Assistant Secretary, U.S. Department of Commerce) talk. Expanding Women's Role in High Tech Economyat the Women in Technology International (WITI) Conference
Great resourceCatalyst is the nonprofit research and advisory organization working to advance women in business and the professions.

Contributions of African-Americans and other Minorty Groups to MAthematics and Science
Site consists of links to sites providing information on contributions by African Americans and other ethnic and minority groups to mathematics and science.

CPSR: Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility Gender Page:  Women and Computer Science.

Gender Watchers All sorts of useful gender related site links especially useful for educational materials including lesson plans and video recommendations.

Girl Tech -- Getting Girls Interested in Computer Science 
Interesting article from Cythia Lanius, Executive Director, Center for Excellence and Equity in Education (CEEE), Rice University. Information relates to young people and math/science/computing

Cynthia's links some interesting Sites for Girls an interesting Overview: Diversity In Information Technology from Harris N. Miller, president of the Information Technology Association of America before the U.S. House Committee in March of 2000. The statistics he cited were alarming: African Americans represented 5.4 percent of all computer programmers and 7.1 percent of computer systems analyststwo of the core jobs in the industry. Hispanic Americans held 4.6 and 2.5 percent of these jobs, respectively. Native Americans represented only .2 percent of the total science and engineering labor force, yet they represent .7 percent of the total U.S. population.

MentorNet: An online mentoring network for women in Engineering and Science MentorNet pairs community college, undergraduate and graduate women in engineering, related sciences and technologies, and math with mentors who are working in industry.

Systers: Founded by Anita Borg this is an informal organization for technical women in computing.

The African-American Mosaic
A Library of Congress Resource Guide for the Study of Black History and Culture

The African-American Women On-Line Archival Collections
In Duke University's Special Collections Libraryrare letters and manuscripts.

The Black Collegian Online career site for students of color has an interesting article by Herman D. Hughes, Ph.D. 2001 Opportunities and Challenges Await Computer Science Graduates. More aggressive efforts are needed to attract a higher percentage of minorities and women to the field of computer science.In 1997, only about 26% of the undergraduate computer science degrees were awarded to women. This represents a drop from a high of 34% in 1984, and computer science was the only science that experienced such a drop.For African Americans, both women and men, the situation is even worse. In 1998, 4% of the B.S. degrees in computer science went to African Americans.

The Center for Women and Information Technology
Based at the University of Maryland Baltimore County 
A truly wonderful resource for everything relating to women and information technology.

The Faces of Science: African Americans in the Sciences.
Profiles of African American scientists including Computer Scientists such as Annie Easley. 
Site also has data, bibliographies, and useful links.

Women in Science is a newly organized site from Carnegie Mellon's Mellon College of Science which includes biology, chemistry, math, and physics.

Carnegie Mellons School of Computer Science Advisory Committee consists of women undergraduate students, graduate students, and faculty within the School of Computer Science.  Has several useful downloadable resources.

Yahoo's Index of African American Studies

Yahoo's Index of Women's Studies

Papers, Books, Book Reviews, and Online Publications:

Almstrum, V. What Is the Attraction to Computing? Communications of the ACm, Sept. 2003/vol. 46. No. 9 pp. 51-55

Ambrose S. Journeys of Women in Science and Engineering Temple University Press, 1997

Babcock, L. and Laschever, S. Women Don’t Ask: Negotiation and the Gender Divide, Princeton Univ Pr; October, 2003

Bana, Soheila and Hassoun, Soha. 
Improving the Graduate School Environment for Women in Computer Science.
A list of the programs/practices that can enhance the graduate school environment for female graduate students in Computer Science departments.

Barnett, R. and Caryl Rivers. Same Difference: How Gender Myths Are Hurting Our Relationships, Our Children, and Our Jobs, Basic Books, 2004

Baase, Sara. A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues for Computers and the Internet (Prentice Hall, 2nd ed., 2003).
This text explores social, legal, philosophical, ethical, political, constitutional and economic implications of computing from a computer scientist's point of view.,1144,0130082155,00.html

Blum, L. Transforming the Culture of Computing at Carnegie Mellon, 
Computing ResearchNews, vol. 13, No.5, November 2001. p.2.

Blum, L. Women in Computer Science:The Carnegie Mellon Experience. 
In Resnick D.P.and Scott , D., eds., The University of the Future: The Future of the University. 2001.

Blum, L. and Frieze, C. In a More Balanced Computer Science Environment, Similarity is the Difference and Computer Science is the Winner, May 2005 edition of Computing Research News, Vol. 17/No. 3

Blum, L. and Frieze, C. As the Culture of Computing Evolves, Similarity can be the Difference
Gender and IT issue of Frontiers, 26:1 2005

Borg, Anita. What draws Women to and Keeps Women in Computing at Institute for Women and Technology, May 1999, and in Computing at Institute for Women and Technology, Women in Science and Engineering: Choices for Success, The Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol 869.

Camp, T. The Incredible Shrinking Pipeline.
Communications of the ACM, 40 (10): 103-110, 1997.

Camp, T. The Incredible Shrinking Pipeline Unlikely to Reverse, ACM-W, January, 2000.

Camp, T. Women in Computer Science: Reversing the Trend CRA-W August, 2001

Cassell J. and Jenkins H. eds. From Barbie to Mortal Kombat MIT press, 1999

Cherny, L. and Reba Weise, E. eds. Wired_Women: Gender and New Realities in Cyberspace, Seal Press, 1996

Clewell, Beatriz Chu, and Campbell, Patricia B. Taking Stock: Where we’ve been, Where we are, Where we’re going. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, vol. 8, pp. 255-284, 2002

Clingingsmith, Debra. Engendering Equity: Fostering Computer Science Success Among Women and Minorities

Cohoon, J. McGraph and William Asprey (editors) Women and Information Technology : Research on Underrepresentation, The MIT Press, March 10, 2006
Book Description:

Cohoon, J. McGraph. “Toward Improving Female Retention in the Computer Science Major” May, 2001. Communications of the ACM.

Cohoon, J. McGrath. “Departmental Differences Can Point the Way to Improving Female Retention in Computer Science,” SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, pp 198-202, March 1999, New Orleans, LA.

Cohoon, J. McGrath. “Women in CS and Biology” SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, March 2002, Northern Kentucky.

Cottrell, Janet. I'm a Stranger Here Myself: A Consideration of Women in Computing.
Stepping into the Future, Learning from the PastACM SIGUCCS XX: 71-76. 1992.

Cuny, J., Asprey, W. Recruitment and Retention of Women Graduate Students in Computer Science and Engineering: Results of a Workshop Organized by the Computing Research Association, San Francisco, June 21-22, 2000

Davis, C. et al The Equity equation: Fostering the advancement of women in the sciences, mathematics and engineering Jossey-Bass 1996

Eglash, R. Race, Sex and Nerds: from Black Geeks to Asian-American Hipsters Social Text, 20:2, pp. 49-64, Summer 2002

Epstein F. Cynthia. Deceptive Distinctions: Sex, Gender, and the Social Order, Yale University Press, 1988

Etzkowitz, Henry., Kemelgor, Carol., Neuschatz, Michael., Uzzi, Brian. 1994 Barriers to Women in Academic Science and Engineering
(In Willie Pearson Jr. and Irwin Fechter eds. Who Will Do Science? Educating the Next Generation, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press,) Paper focuses on the experiences of women in Ph.D. programs and as faculty members and investigates the conditions under which women are at a disadvantage during their doctoral training and early stages of their academic careers.

Fisher, A., Margolis, J., Miller, F. Anatomy of Interest: Women in Undergraduate Computer Science. 28  (1 & 2): 104-126, 2000.

Fisher, A., Margolis, J., Miller, F. Caring About Connections: Gender and Computing
Technology and Society, 13-20, 2000.

Fisher, A., Margolis, J. Women in Computer Sciences: Closing the Gender Gap in Higher Education. Final Report to the Alfred B. Sloan Foundation. September 2000.

Fox, M. F. Organizational Environments and Doctoral Degrees Awarded to Women in Science and Engineering Departments.Women's Studies Quarterly, 28(1 & 2), 47-51.,2000

Frenkel, Karen A. 1990. Women and Computing.
Communications of the ACM. 33: 11: 34-47.

Frieze, Carol, and Blum, Lenore. Building an Effective Computer Science Student Organization: The Carnegie Mellon Women@SCS Action Plan
Inroads SIGCSE Bulletin Women in Computing;, 2002, June, p. 74-78

Frieze, Carol. Diversifying the Images of Computer Science: Undergraduate Women take on the Challenge! Proceedings of the Thirty-Sixth SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, 2005, p. 397-400 (presented at SIGCSE conference 2005)

Frieze, C., Hazzan, O., Blum, L., and Dias, M.B. Culture and Environment as Determinants of Women’s Participation in Computing: Revealing the ‘Women-CS Fit’” to be presented at SIGCSE 2006

Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies Special Gender and IT issue of Frontiers, 26:1 2005

Furger, R. Does Jane compute? Preserving our daughters' place in the cyber revolution New York: Warner Books, 1998

Harrelson, Sharon. Women and Computer Science
Paper presents the broad picture of Women and Computer Sciencelooks at culture, shrinking pipeline, academia, industry, self-esteem, recommendations.

Hewitt, Nancy and Seymore, Elaine. The Problems of Minority Group Students  in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering.

Hudgings, Janice., Humphreys, Sheila.,Hernan, Patrick. 
A Six-Year Picture of Women Graduate Students in EECS July 1999 
The number of women graduate students enrolled in the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS) Department at UC Berkeley dropped by 33% between 1993 and 1998. This trend is paralleled by a substantial reduction in the fraction of incoming women enrolled for the Ph.D. as opposed to the Masters degree. In order to investigate the origins of this trend, we examine admission, enrollment, and retention of women graduate students admitted during the six years from 1993-1998.

Humphreys, Sheila. The Role of Women Graduate Students 
Conference Proceedings from Bridging the Gender Gap, Carnegie Mellon University, 1996
Professor Humphreys provides some observations about the contributions of women graduate students to positive changes in the climate at Berkeley. Women students, in my experience, (as compared with faculty or administration) have provided dynamic force and idealism to stimulate change within the University. The factors which enable student groups to effect change are external financial resources, recognition by the departmental infrastructure of the value and power of student initiatives, and use of the Internet to build community. 

Kanter, Rosabeth M. Men and Women of the Corporation, New York: Basic Books, 1977
A classic and a must-read for anyone looking at gender relations outside the confines of "gender differences debates". Kanter says differences are opportunity-related and systems are in place that determine (limit or promote) people’s responses to the jobs/situations they are in.
Examines 3 primary variables: power, opportunities, numbers –these are the variables that determine social dynamics not gender gender differences.

Kiesler and Sproull. eds. Computing and Change on Campus Cambridge University Press. 1987

Kramarae, C. Technology and Women's Voices: Keeping in Touch, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1988

Leveson, N. Women in Computer Science. A Report for the NSF CISE 
Cross Disciplinary Activities Advisory Committee, December 1989.

Leveson, Nancy G.Educational Pipeline Issues for Women, 1991
Looks at factors affecting women in computer science in undergraduate, graduate and faculty situations along with suggestions for change. Scientific and technological progress will reach its fullest potential only when those with the most ability, regardless of gender or race, havean equal opportunity to participate and contribute.

Lovitts, B.E. Leaving the Ivory Tower, Rowman & Littlefield, 2001

Margolis, J. and Fisher, Allan. 2002 
Unlocking the Clubhouse: Women in Computing (MIT Press). 
A must read new book. Read Amazon.coms review:

Margolis,J., Fisher, A. and Miller, F. Geek Mythology

Margolis,J., Fisher, A. and Miller, F. Computing for a Purpose: Gender and Attachment to Computer Science

Margolis,J., Fisher, A. and Miller, F. Failure Is Not an Option: International Women in Computer Science

McCarthy, Helen. Girlfriends in High PlacesHow women’s networks are changing the workplace, London: Demos, 2004
The book "argues that professional networks can enhance individual career prospects while enabling women to work together to tackle workplace inequality. Women’s professional networks can provide the kind of confidence-building support which men are good at providing for each other through their informal networks."

Ogle, Ginger. The Student Parents Room in Soda Hall, Berkeley, 
gives ideas for improving the situation for computer science graduates who are parents. 
While I was a CS graduate student, I had two children in grade school.

Plant, S. Zeros + Ones: Digital Women + the New Technoculture, Doubleday, 1964

Rosser S. Teaching the Majority: Breaking the Gender Barrier in Science, Mathematics and Engineering, New York: Teachers College Press, 1995

Schofield, Janet Ward. Computers and Classroom Culture
New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Review:

Schn, Donald A., Sanyal, Bish and Mitchell, William J. (eds). 1998. High Technology and Low-Income Communities: Prospects for the Positive Use of Advanced InformationTechnology. MIT Press

Scragg, Greg & Smith, Jesse. A Study of Barriers to Women in Undergraduate Computer Science 1999

Seymour E. and Hewitt N. Talking about Leaving: Why undergraduates leave the Sciences Boulder:Westview Press, 1997

Shackner, B. Women Compute: CMU's recruiting of females in computerscience adds up to change. Pittsburgh Post Gazette, Wednesday, April 18, 2001.

Shih, Ting-Chih. Redesigning an Introductory Java Course to Bridge the Gender Gap in Computer Science Education Senior Thesis, 2001

Spertus, Ellen. Why are There so Few Female Computer Scientists?  1991
In this report Spertus addresses the problem-- In 1990, only 13% of PhDs in computer science went to women, and only 7.8% of computer science professors were female. Additionally, the percentage of female compute science students appears to be increasing at only a slow rate or even decreasing. She examines a range of influences against a woman's pursuing a career in a technical field, particularly computer science, from childhood to sterotypes, to subtle biases that females face. She discusses some effective and ineffective ways to encourage women. A theme of the report is that women's underrepresentation is not primarily due to direct discrimination but to subconscious behavior that tends to perpetuate the status quo.

Spertus, Ellen. Panel Presentation, Computing an Empowering Environment  for the Success of Women Students in Undergraduate, Co-ed Computer Science Programs.
Twenty-Forth SIGSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, 1993

Spertus, Ellen. Gender Benders 1993

Spertus, Ellen. Wit Helps Women in Computer Science Combat Ignorance 2002

Tapia, Richard A., Lanius, Cynthia. Underrepresented Minority Achievement and Course Taking: The Kindergarten-Graduate Contiuum 2000

Tech-Savvy: Educating Girls in the New Computer Age Tech-Savvy is the culmination of two years of work by the AAUW Educational Foundation Commission on Technology, Gender, and Teacher Education.

Thorne, Barrie. Gender Play: Girls and Boys in School, New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1993
“Thorne criticizes the “two worlds” model for studying segregation which assumes boys and girls are different. She conceptualizes gender as a system of relationships”

Tomayko, J. and Hazzan, O. Human Elements of Software Engineering, Charles River Media, 2004

Treisman, U. Studying students studying calculus: 
A look at the lives of minority mathematics students in college. The College Mathematics Journal, 23 (362 372) 1992. Treisman's Model:

Turkle S., as quoted in: Gill Kirkup, "The Social Construction of Computers: Hammers or Harpsichords?" Inventing Women; Science, Technology and Gender. Gill Kirkup and Laurie Smith Keller (eds.) Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1992: 267-282

Turkle, S. Life on the Screen. Identity in the age of the internet Phoenix 1995

Turkle, S. The Second Self. Computers and the human spirit, London, Granada, 1984

Valian V. Why so slow? The advancement of women MIT Press 1999

This collection is far from complete.
If you would like to add to this listing please forward info to
cfrieze at


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