FUDG Framework for Syntactic Annotation

This page links to FUDG resources, including annotation guidelines, an annotation interface, annotated data, and software to parse GFL annotations and compute inter-annotator agreement.

FUDG was created by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Texas at Austin.


Two simple dependency trees in GFL notation:

But FUDG can express more than just attachments. The tweet

Found the scarriest mystery door in my school . I'M SO CURIOUS D:

might be annotated in GFL notation as:

Found** < (the scarriest mystery door*) 
(Found* door in < (my > school))
I'M** < (SO > CURIOUS)
my = I'M

** denotes the root of each utterance within the input; * denotes the head within a fudge expression, whose contents must form a connected subgraph in any compatible full tree. For instance, the second line is a fudge expression with Found as its head; the attachment of in is underspecified (may be either Found or door). The = operator indicates a coreference link.


Further Reading

Please cite the following if you write any papers involving the GFL/FUDG framework or data:

In addition, please cite the following if you write any papers involving annotation with the GFL-Web interface:


This research was supported in part by the U. S. Army Research Laboratory and the U. S. Army Research Office under contract/grant number W911NF-10-1-0533 and by NSF grant IIS-1054319.


Please e-mail nschneid [strudel] cs.cmu.edu with questions.