15110 Fall 2012 [Touretzky/Kaynar]

Programming Assignment 11 - due Tuesday, November 13

Note: You are responsible for protecting your solutions to these problems from being seen by other students either physically (e.g., by looking over your shoulder) or electronically. (More information can be found in the instructions for Programming Assignment 2.)

    Setup: We will be using the same Canvas module as in Lab 9. This module is provided by RubyLabs. You will also need the file pa11.rb that contains some utility functions.

  1. (1 pt) Write a method tester(width,height) in the file tester.rb that creates a canvas with the specified dimensions and draws a rectangle covering the entire canvas. The rectangle should be filled with a random color. The method random_color from the pa11.rb file will return a random color name that can be used with the :fill keyword when you make the rectangle.

  2. (1 pt) Write method divide_vertically(xmin,ymin,xmax,ymax) that takes the coordinates of the bottom left and top right corners of a rectangle as input. This method will divide the rectangle into two pieces by selecting a random percentage p of the width, between 20% and 80%, for the first rectangle. The remainder of the width will be allocated to the second rectangle. Use the following algorithm to calculate the coordinates of these rectangles:
    1. Set xrange to (xmax-xmin).
    2. Set p to 0.2 + rand*0.6
    3. Set xmid to xmin + p*xrange
    4. Draw the two rectanges, each with a random color:
      1. Draw the left rectangle from (xmin,ymin) to (xmid,ymax).
      2. Draw the right rectangle from (xmid+1,ymin) to (xmax,ymax).
    Modify the tester(width,height) method you wrote previously. Instead of creating a rectangle, it should call divide_vertically, passing it the coordinates of the top left and bottom right corners of the canvas. Writing tester(300,400) should prodce a result like the one shown at right.

  3. (1 pt) Write a divide_horizontally(xmin,ymin,xmax,ymax) method that works similarly to divide_vertically, but splits the rectangle along the y-axis instead of the x-axis. You can test your method by modifying tester again.

  4. (2 pts) Copy the file divide_vertically.rb to a new file recurse_vertically.rb. Edit this file, changing the function name to recurse_vertically. After the function draws each sub-rectangle, it should divide it horizontally by calling divide_horizontally on the rectangle's coordinates. (Notice that there isn't any actual recursion going on yet, since no function is calling itself. We'll fix that soon.)

    Create a file mondrian.rb containing a method mondrian(width,height) that is similar to tester except it should call recurse_vertically instead of divide_vertically. When you evaluate mondrian(300,400) you should end up with four rectangles, as shown in the figure at right, because recurse_vertically calls divide_horizontally.

    If you're unfamiliar with the Dutch artist Piet Mondrian, click here.

  5. (2 pts) Now copy the file divide_horizontally.rb to a new file recurse_horizontally.rb, and edit that file. Rename the function to recurse_horizontally and modify it so that it calls recurse_vertically on the two sub-rectangles. Now the computation is truly recursive and there is the potential for an infinite loop. To prevent that, your function should immediately return whenever yrange is less than 100.

    (corrected) Make the same modification to your recurse_vertically function, so that it returns immediately when xrange is less than 100. Also, change it to call recurse_horizontally instead of divide_horizontally. Now the result of calling mondrian(300,400) should look like the figure shown at right.

    Note how easily we produced this complex pattern with just a few recursive calls. It is possible to produce the same result using a while loop, but only by simulating the recursion stack ourselves using a list, because the Mondrian decomposition is fundamentally recursive.

  6. (2 pts) The graph below is an example of an unweighted directed graph. It can be represented using a connection matrix whose elements are true and false. The function dag1 in pa11.rb returns the connection matrix for this graph.

    This graph has a special property: it is acyclic, meaning it contains no loops, including no self-links. The term DAG stands for directed acyclic graph. Because the graph is acyclic, we can write a recursive function to search for paths in the graph without having to worry about getting caught in an infinite loop.

    In the file has_path.rb, write a function has_path?(graph,from,to) that returns true if there is a path in the graph from node from to node to. Examples:

    >> has_path?(dag1, 0, 8)
    => true
    >> has_path?(dag1, 1, 6)
    => false

    Use the following algorithm for has_path?:

    1. If from equals to return true.
    2. Set row equal to the row of the graph given by from.
    3. For each position i from 0 to row.length-1 do:
      1. If row[i] is true, then...
      2. If has_path?(graph,i,to) is true, then ...
      3. Return true.
    4. If we reach this step, no value of i led to a path, so return false.

  7. (1 pt) We can display the path our algorithm found by adding print statements before the return statements. If a path has been found, we should print the from node. Because of the recursive calls, this will end up printing the entire path, in reverse order. Example:
    >> show_path(dag1, 1, 9)
    9 7 3 1 => true
    >> show_path(dag1, 4, 9)
    => false

    Copy the file has_path.rb to a new file show_path.rb and edit the file. Your show_path method should print the path as shown above, as well as returning true or false.


You should have a pa11 directory, containing:

  1. tester.rb
  2. divide_vertically.rb
  3. divide_horizontally.rb
  4. mondrian.rb
  5. recurse_vertically.rb
  6. recurse_horizontally.rb
  7. has_path.rb
  8. show_path.rb

Zip up your directory and upload it using the autolab system. (The autolab system will accept submissions beginning on Friday until the deadline Tuesday night.)