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Profiling a Program: Where Does It Spend Its Time?

   This manual describes the GNU profiler, `gprof', and how you can use
it to determine which parts of a program are taking most of the
execution time.  We assume that you know how to write, compile, and
execute programs.  GNU `gprof' was written by Jay Fenlason.

   This manual was updated January 1993.

* Why
What profiling means, and why it is useful.
* Compiling
How to compile your program for profiling.
* Executing
How to execute your program to generate the profile data file `gmon.out'.
* Invoking
How to run `gprof', and how to specify options for it.
* Flat Profile
The flat profile shows how much time was spent executing directly in each function.
* Call Graph
The call graph shows which functions called which others, and how much time each function used when its subroutine calls are included.
* Implementation
How the profile data is recorded and written.
* Sampling Error
Statistical margins of error. How to accumulate data from several runs to make it more accurate.
* Assumptions
Some of `gprof''s measurements are based on assumptions about your program that could be very wrong.
* Incompatibilities
(between GNU `gprof' and Unix `gprof'.)

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