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   This manual documents version 1.20 of Bison.

* Introduction
* Conditions
* Copying
The GNU General Public License says how you can copy and share Bison
Tutorial sections:
* Concepts
Basic concepts for understanding Bison.
* Examples
Three simple explained examples of using Bison.
Reference sections:
* Grammar File
Writing Bison declarations and rules.
* Interface
C-language interface to the parser function `yyparse'.
* Algorithm
How the Bison parser works at run-time.
* Error Recovery
Writing rules for error recovery.
* Context Dependency
What to do if your language syntax is too messy for Bison to handle straightforwardly.
* Debugging
Debugging Bison parsers that parse wrong.
* Invocation
How to run Bison (to produce the parser source file).
* Table of Symbols
All the keywords of the Bison language are explained.
* Glossary
Basic concepts are explained.
* Index
Cross-references to the text.
 -- The Detailed Node Listing --

The Concepts of Bison

* Language and Grammar
Languages and context-free grammars, as mathematical ideas.
* Grammar in Bison
How we represent grammars for Bison's sake.
* Semantic Values
Each token or syntactic grouping can have a semantic value (the value of an integer, the name of an identifier, etc.).
* Semantic Actions
Each rule can have an action containing C code.
* Bison Parser
What are Bison's input and output, how is the output used?
* Stages
Stages in writing and running Bison grammars.
* Grammar Layout
Overall structure of a Bison grammar file.
Examples

* RPN Calc
Reverse polish notation calculator; a first example with no operator precedence.
* Infix Calc
Infix (algebraic) notation calculator. Operator precedence is introduced.
* Simple Error Recovery
Continuing after syntax errors.
* Multi-function Calc
Calculator with memory and trig functions. It uses multiple data-types for semantic values.
* Exercises
Ideas for improving the multi-function calculator.
Reverse Polish Notation Calculator

* Decls
Rpcalc DeclsBison and C declarations for rpcalc.
* Rules
Rpcalc RulesGrammar Rules for rpcalc, with explanation.
* Lexer
Rpcalc LexerThe lexical analyzer.
* Main
Rpcalc MainThe controlling function.
* Error
Rpcalc ErrorThe error reporting function.
* Gen
Rpcalc GenRunning Bison on the grammar file.
* Comp
Rpcalc CompileRun the C compiler on the output code.
Grammar Rules for `rpcalc'

* Rpcalc Input
* Rpcalc Line
* Rpcalc Expr
Multi-Function Calculator: `mfcalc'

* Decl
Mfcalc DeclBison declarations for multi-function calculator.
* Rules
Mfcalc RulesGrammar rules for the calculator.
* Symtab
Mfcalc SymtabSymbol table management subroutines.
Bison Grammar Files

* Grammar Outline
Overall layout of the grammar file.
* Symbols
Terminal and nonterminal symbols.
* Rules
How to write grammar rules.
* Recursion
Writing recursive rules.
* Semantics
Semantic values and actions.
* Declarations
All kinds of Bison declarations are described here.
* Multiple Parsers
Putting more than one Bison parser in one program.
Outline of a Bison Grammar

* C Declarations
Syntax and usage of the C declarations section.
* Bison Declarations
Syntax and usage of the Bison declarations section.
* Grammar Rules
Syntax and usage of the grammar rules section.
* C Code
Syntax and usage of the additional C code section.
Defining Language Semantics

* Value Type
Specifying one data type for all semantic values.
* Multiple Types
Specifying several alternative data types.
* Actions
An action is the semantic definition of a grammar rule.
* Action Types
Specifying data types for actions to operate on.
* Mid-Rule Actions
Most actions go at the end of a rule. This says when, why and how to use the exceptional action in the middle of a rule.
Bison Declarations

* Token Decl
Declaring terminal symbols.
* Precedence Decl
Declaring terminals with precedence and associativity.
* Union Decl
Declaring the set of all semantic value types.
* Type Decl
Declaring the choice of type for a nonterminal symbol.
* Expect Decl
Suppressing warnings about shift/reduce conflicts.
* Start Decl
Specifying the start symbol.
* Pure Decl
Requesting a reentrant parser.
* Decl Summary
Table of all Bison declarations.
Parser C-Language Interface

* Parser Function
How to call `yyparse' and what it returns.
* Lexical
You must supply a function `yylex' which reads tokens.
* Error Reporting
You must supply a function `yyerror'.
* Action Features
Special features for use in actions.
The Lexical Analyzer Function `yylex'

* Calling Convention
How `yyparse' calls `yylex'.
* Token Values
How `yylex' must return the semantic value of the token it has read.
* Token Positions
How `yylex' must return the text position (line number, etc.) of the token, if the actions want that.
* Pure Calling
How the calling convention differs in a pure parser (Note: A Pure (Reentrant) Parser.).
The Bison Parser Algorithm

* Look-Ahead
Parser looks one token ahead when deciding what to do.
* Shift/Reduce
Conflicts: when either shifting or reduction is valid.
* Precedence
Operator precedence works by resolving conflicts.
* Contextual Precedence
When an operator's precedence depends on context.
* Parser States
The parser is a finite-state-machine with stack.
* Reduce/Reduce
When two rules are applicable in the same situation.
* Mystery Conflicts
Reduce/reduce conflicts that look unjustified.
* Stack Overflow
What happens when stack gets full. How to avoid it.
Operator Precedence

* Why Precedence
An example showing why precedence is needed.
* Using Precedence
How to specify precedence in Bison grammars.
* Precedence Examples
How these features are used in the previous example.
* How Precedence
How they work.
Handling Context Dependencies

* Semantic Tokens
Token parsing can depend on the semantic context.
* Lexical Tie-ins
Token parsing can depend on the syntactic context.
* Tie-in Recovery
Lexical tie-ins have implications for how error recovery rules must be written.
Invoking Bison

* Bison Options
All the options described in detail, in alphabetical order by short options.
* Option Cross Key
Alphabetical list of long options.
* VMS Invocation
Bison command syntax on VMS.

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