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The Emacs Editor
****************

   Emacs is the extensible, customizable, self-documenting real-time
display editor.  This Info file describes how to edit with Emacs and
some of how to customize it, but not how to extend it.  It corresponds
to GNU Emacs version 19.22.

* Distrib
How to get the latest Emacs distribution.
* Copying
The GNU General Public License gives you permission to redistribute GNU Emacs on certain terms; it also explains that there is no warranty.
* Intro
An introduction to Emacs concepts.
* Glossary
The glossary.
* Manifesto
What's GNU? Gnu's Not Unix!
* Antinews
Information about Emacs version 18.
Indexes, nodes containing large menus
* Key Index
An item for each standard Emacs key sequence.
* Command Index
An item for each command name.
* Variable Index
An item for each documented variable.
* Concept Index
An item for each concept.
Important General Concepts
* Screen
How to interpret what you see on the screen.
* User Input
Kinds of input events (characters, buttons, function keys).
* Keys
Key sequences: what you type to request one editing action.
* Commands
Commands: named functions run by key sequences to do editing.
* Text Characters
Character set for text (the contents of buffers and strings).
* Entering Emacs
Starting Emacs from the shell.
* Exiting
Stopping or killing Emacs.
* Command Arguments
Hairy startup options.
Fundamental Editing Commands
* Basic
The most basic editing commands.
* Undo
Undoing recently made changes in the text.
* Minibuffer
Entering arguments that are prompted for.
* M-x
Invoking commands by their names.
* Help
Commands for asking Emacs about its commands.
Important Text-Changing Commands
* Mark
The mark: how to delimit a "region" of text.
* Killing
Killing text.
* Yanking
Recovering killed text. Moving text.
* Accumulating Text
Other ways of copying text.
* Rectangles
Operating on the text inside a rectangle on the screen.
* Registers
Saving a text string or a location in the buffer.
* Display
Controlling what text is displayed.
* Search
Finding or replacing occurrences of a string.
* Fixit
Commands especially useful for fixing typos.
Larger Units of Text
* Files
All about handling files.
* Buffers
Multiple buffers; editing several files at once.
* Windows
Viewing two pieces of text at once.
* Frames
Running the same Emacs session in multiple X windows.
Advanced Features
* Major Modes
Text mode vs. Lisp mode vs. C mode ...
* Indentation
Editing the white space at the beginnings of lines.
* Text
Commands and modes for editing English.
* Programs
Commands and modes for editing programs.
* Building
Compiling, running and debugging programs.
* Abbrevs
How to define text abbreviations to reduce the number of characters you must type.
* Picture
Editing pictures made up of characters using the quarter-plane screen model.
* Sending Mail
Sending mail in Emacs.
* Rmail
Reading mail in Emacs.
* Dired
You can "edit" a directory to manage files in it.
* Calendar/Diary
The calendar and diary facilities.
* GNUS
How to read netnews with Emacs.
* Sorting
Sorting lines, paragraphs or pages within Emacs.
* Shell
Executing shell commands from Emacs.
* Narrowing
Restricting display and editing to a portion of the buffer.
* Hardcopy
Printing buffers or regions.
* Two-Column
Splitting apart columns to edit them in side-by-side windows.
* Editing Binary Files
Using Hexl mode to edit binary files.
* Emacs Server
Using Emacs as an editing server for `mail', etc.
* Recursive Edit
A command can allow you to do editing "within the command". This is called a `recursive editing level'.
* Dissociated Press
Dissociating text for fun.
* Amusements
Various games and hacks.
* Emulation
Emulating some other editors with Emacs.
* Customization
Modifying the behavior of Emacs.
Recovery from Problems.
* Quitting
Quitting and aborting.
* Lossage
What to do if Emacs is hung or malfunctioning.
* Bugs
How and when to report a bug.
* Service
How to get help for your own Emacs needs.
Here are some other nodes which are really inferiors of the ones
already listed, mentioned here so you can get to them in one step:

 -- The Detailed Node Listing --

The Organization of the Screen

* Point
The place in the text where editing commands operate.
* Echo Area
Short messages appear at the bottom of the screen.
* Mode Line
Interpreting the mode line.
Basic Editing Commands

* Inserting Text
Inserting text by simply typing it.
* Moving Point
How to move the cursor to the place where you want to change something.
* Erasing
Deleting and killing text.
* Files
Basic FilesVisiting, creating, and saving files.
* Help
Basic HelpAsking what a character does.
* Blank Lines
Commands to make or delete blank lines.
* Continuation Lines
Lines too wide for the screen.
* Position Info
What page, line, row, or column is point on?
* Arguments
Numeric arguments for repeating a command.
The Minibuffer

* File
Minibuffer FileEntering file names with the minibuffer.
* Edit
Minibuffer EditHow to edit in the minibuffer.
* Completion
An abbreviation facility for minibuffer input.
* Minibuffer History
Reusing recent minibuffer arguments.
* Repetition
Re-executing commands that used the minibuffer.
Help

* Help Summary
Brief list of all Help commands.
* Key Help
Asking what a key does in Emacs.
* Name Help
Asking about a command, variable or function name.
* Apropos
Asking what pertains to a given topic.
* Library Keywords
Finding Lisp libraries by keywords (topics).
* Misc Help
Other help commands.
The Mark and the Region

* Setting Mark
Commands to set the mark.
* Transient Mark
How to make Emacs highlight the region- when there is one.
* Using Region
Summary of ways to operate on contents of the region.
* Marking Objects
Commands to put region around textual units.
* Mark Ring
Previous mark positions saved so you can go back there.
Deletion and Killing

* Deletion
Commands for deleting small amounts of text and blank areas.
* Killing by Lines
How to kill entire lines of text at one time.
* Other Kill Commands
Commands to kill large regions of text and syntactic units such as words and sentences.
Yanking

* Kill Ring
Where killed text is stored. Basic yanking.
* Appending Kills
Several kills in a row all yank together.
* Earlier Kills
Yanking something killed some time ago.
Registers

* Position
RegPosSaving positions in registers.
* Text
RegTextSaving text in registers.
* Rectangle
RegRectSaving rectangles in registers.
* Configurations
RegConfigSaving window configurations in registers.
* Files
RegFilesFile names in registers.
Controlling the Display

* Scrolling
Moving text up and down in a window.
* Horizontal Scrolling
Moving text left and right in a window.
* Selective Display
Hiding lines with lots of indentation.
* Optional Display
Optional display features.
* European Display
Displaying (and inputting) European characters.
* Display Vars
Information on variables for customizing display.
Searching and Replacement

* Incremental Search
Search happens as you type the string.
* Nonincremental Search
Specify entire string and then search.
* Word Search
Search for sequence of words.
* Regexp Search
Search for match for a regexp.
* Regexps
Syntax of regular expressions.
* Search Case
To ignore case while searching, or not.
* Replace
Search, and replace some or all matches.
* Other Repeating Search
Operating on all matches for some regexp.
Replacement Commands

* Unconditional Replace
Replacing all matches for a string.
* Regexp Replace
Replacing all matches for a regexp.
* Replacement and Case
How replacements preserve case of letters.
* Query Replace
How to use querying.
Commands for Fixing Typos

* Kill Errors
Commands to kill a batch of recently entered text.
* Transpose
Exchanging two characters, words, lines, lists...
* Fixing Case
Correcting case of last word entered.
* Spelling
Apply spelling checker to a word, or a whole file.
File Handling

* File Names
How to type and edit file name arguments.
* Visiting
Visiting a file prepares Emacs to edit the file.
* Saving
Saving makes your changes permanent.
* Reverting
Reverting cancels all the changes not saved.
* Auto Save
Auto Save periodically protects against loss of data.
* File Aliases
Handling multiple names for one file.
* Version Control
Version control systems (RCS and SCCS).
* ListDir
Listing the contents of a file directory.
* Comparing Files
Finding where two files differ.
* Misc File Ops
Other things you can do on files.
Saving Files

* Backup
How Emacs saves the old version of your file.
* Interlocking
How Emacs protects against simultaneous editing of one file by two users.
Backup Files

* Names
Backup NamesHow backup files are named; choosing single or numbered backup files.
* Deletion
Backup DeletionEmacs deletes excess numbered backups.
* Copying
Backup CopyingBackups can be made by copying or renaming.
Auto-Saving: Protection Against Disasters

* Files
Auto Save FilesThe file where auto-saved changes are actually made until you save the file.
* Control
Auto Save ControlControlling when and how often to auto-save.
* Recover
Recovering text from auto-save files.
Version Control

* Concepts of VC
Basic version control information; checking files in and out.
* Editing with VC
Commands for editing a file maintained with version control.
* Variables for Check-in/out
Variables that affect the commands used to check files in or out.
* Log Entries
Logging your changes.
* Change Logs and VC
Generating a change log file from log entries.
* Old Versions
Examining and comparing old versions.
* VC Status
Commands to view the VC status of files and look at log entries.
* Renaming and VC
A command to rename both the source and master file correctly.
* Snapshots
How to make and use snapshots, a set of file versions that can be treated as a unit.
* Version Headers
Inserting version control headers into working files.
Snapshots

* Making Snapshots
The snapshot facilities.
* Snapshot Caveats
Things to be careful of when using snapshots.
Using Multiple Buffers

* Select Buffer
Creating a new buffer or reselecting an old one.
* List Buffers
Getting a list of buffers that exist.
* Misc Buffer
Renaming; changing read-onliness; copying text.
* Kill Buffer
Killing buffers you no longer need.
* Several Buffers
How to go through the list of all buffers and operate variously on several of them.
Multiple Windows

* Basic Window
Introduction to Emacs windows.
* Split Window
New windows are made by splitting existing windows.
* Other Window
Moving to another window or doing something to it.
* Pop Up Window
Finding a file or buffer in another window.
* Change Window
Deleting windows and changing their sizes.
Frames and X Windows

* Mouse Commands
Moving, cutting, and pasting, with the mouse.
* Creating Frames
Creating additional Emacs frames with various contents.
* Frame Parameters
Changing the colors and other modes of frames.
* Scroll Bars
How to enable and disable scroll bars; how to use them.
* Menu Bars
Enabling and disabling the menu bar.
* Faces
How to change the display style using faces.
* Misc X
Iconifying and deleting frames. Region highlighting.
Major Modes

* Choosing Modes
How major modes are specified or chosen.
Indentation

* Indentation Commands
Various commands and techniques for indentation.
* Tab Stops
You can set arbitrary "tab stops" and then indent to the next tab stop when you want to.
* Just Spaces
You can request indentation using just spaces.
Commands for Human Languages

* Words
Moving over and killing words.
* Sentences
Moving over and killing sentences.
* Paragraphs
Moving over paragraphs.
* Pages
Moving over pages.
* Filling
Filling or justifying text.
* Case
Changing the case of text.
* Text Mode
The major modes for editing text files.
* Outline Mode
The major mode for editing outlines.
* TeX Mode
The major modes for editing input to the formatter TeX.
* Nroff Mode
The major mode for editing input to the formatter nroff.
Filling Text

* Auto Fill
Auto Fill mode breaks long lines automatically.
* Fill Commands
Commands to refill paragraphs and center lines.
* Fill Prefix
Filling when every line is indented or in a comment, etc.
Commands for Human Languages

* Nroff Mode
The major mode for editing input to the formatter nroff.
* TeX Mode
The major modes for editing input to the formatter TeX.
  Another similar mode is used for editing outlines.  It allows you
to view the text at various levels of detail.  You can view either
the outline headings alone or both headings and text; you can also
hide some of the headings at lower levels from view to make the high
level structure more visible.

* Outline Mode
The major mode for editing outlines.
Outline Mode

* Format
Outline FormatWhat the text of an outline looks like.
* Motion
Outline MotionSpecial commands for moving through outlines.
* Visibility
Outline VisibilityCommands to control what is visible.
TeX Mode

* Editing
TeX EditingSpecial commands for editing in TeX mode.
* LaTeX
LaTeX EditingAdditional commands for LaTeX input files.
* Printing
TeX PrintCommands for printing part of a file with TeX.
* Getting
TeX DistribGetting the latest Unix TeX distribution.
Editing Programs

* Program Modes
Major modes for editing programs.
* Lists
Expressions with balanced parentheses.
* List Commands
The commands for working with list and sexps.
* Defuns
Each program is made up of separate functions. There are editing commands to operate on them.
* Program Indent
Adjusting indentation to show the nesting.
* Matching
Insertion of a close-delimiter flashes matching open.
* Comments
Inserting, killing, and aligning comments.
* Balanced Editing
Inserting two matching parentheses at once, etc.
* Symbol Completion
Completion on symbol names of your program or language.
* Documentation
Getting documentation of functions you plan to call.
* Change Log
Maintaining a change history for your program.
* Tags
Go direct to any function in your program in one command. Tags remembers which file it is in.
* Emerge
A convenient way of merging two versions of a program.
* C Mode
Special commands of C mode (and C++ mode).
* Fortran
Fortran mode and its special features.
* Asm Mode
Asm mode and its special features.
Indentation for Programs

* Basic Indent
Indenting a single line.
* Multi-line Indent
Commands to reindent many lines at once.
* Lisp Indent
Specifying how each Lisp function should be indented.
* C Indent
Choosing an indentation style for C code.
Tag Tables

* Tag Syntax
Tag syntax for various types of code and text files.
* Create Tag Table
Creating a tag table with `etags'.
* Select Tag Table
How to visit a tag table.
* Find Tag
Commands to find the definition of a specific tag.
* Tags Search
Using a tag table for searching and replacing.
* Tags Stepping
Visiting files in a tag table, one by one.
* List Tags
Listing and finding tags defined in a file.
Merging Files with Emerge

* Overview of Emerge
How to start Emerge. Basic concepts.
* Submodes of Emerge
Fast mode vs. Edit mode. Skip Prefers mode and Auto Advance mode.
* State of Difference
You do the merge by specifying state A or B for each difference.
* Merge Commands
Commands for selecting a difference, changing states of differences, etc.
* Exiting Emerge
What to do when you've finished the merge.
* Combining in Emerge
How to keep both alternatives for a difference.
* Fine Points of Emerge
Misc.
Fortran Mode

* Motion
Fortran MotionMoving point by statements or subprograms.
* Indent
Fortran IndentIndentation commands for Fortran.
* Comments
Fortran CommentsInserting and aligning comments.
* Autofill
Fortran AutofillAuto fill minor mode for Fortran.
* Columns
Fortran ColumnsMeasuring columns for valid Fortran.
* Abbrev
Fortran AbbrevBuilt-in abbrevs for Fortran keywords.
Fortran Indentation

* Commands
ForIndent CommandsCommands for indenting Fortran.
* Contline
ForIndent ContHow continuation lines indent.
* Numbers
ForIndent NumHow line numbers auto-indent.
* Conv
ForIndent ConvConventions you must obey to avoid trouble.
* Vars
ForIndent VarsVariables controlling Fortran indent style.
Compiling and Testing Programs

* Compilation
Compiling programs in languages other than Lisp (C, Pascal, etc.)
* Debuggers
Running symbolic debuggers for non-Lisp programs.
* Executing Lisp
Various modes for editing Lisp programs, with different facilities for running the Lisp programs.
* Libraries
Lisp LibrariesCreating Lisp programs to run in Emacs.
* Interaction
Lisp InteractionExecuting Lisp in an Emacs buffer.
* Eval
Lisp EvalExecuting a single Lisp expression in Emacs.
* External Lisp
Communicating through Emacs with a separate Lisp.
Running Debuggers Under Emacs

* Starting GUD
How to start a debugger subprocess.
* Debugger Operation
Connection between the debugger and source buffers.
* Commands of GUD
Keybindings for common commands.
* GUD Customization
Defining your own commands for GUD.
Compiling and Testing Programs

* Lists
Expressions with balanced parentheses.
* List Commands
The commands for working with list and sexps.
* Defuns
Each program is made up of separate functions. There are editing commands to operate on them.
* Program Indent
Adjusting indentation to show the nesting.
* Matching
Insertion of a close-delimiter flashes matching open.
* Comments
Inserting, killing, and aligning comments.
Abbrevs

* Defining Abbrevs
Defining an abbrev, so it will expand when typed.
* Expanding Abbrevs
Controlling expansion: prefixes, canceling expansion.
* Editing Abbrevs
Viewing or editing the entire list of defined abbrevs.
* Saving Abbrevs
Saving the entire list of abbrevs for another session.
* Dynamic Abbrevs
Abbreviations for words already in the buffer.
Editing Pictures

* Basic Picture
Basic concepts and simple commands of Picture Mode.
* Insert in Picture
Controlling direction of cursor motion after "self-inserting" characters.
* Tabs in Picture
Various features for tab stops and indentation.
* Rectangles in Picture
Clearing and superimposing rectangles.
Sending Mail

* Format
Mail FormatFormat of the mail being composed.
* Headers
Mail HeadersDetails of permitted mail header fields.
* Aliases
Mail AliasesAbbreviating and grouping mail addresses.
* Mode
Mail ModeSpecial commands for editing mail being composed.
* Spook
Distracting NSAHow to distract the NSA's attention.
Reading Mail with Rmail

* Scroll
Rmail ScrollingScrolling through a message.
* Motion
Rmail MotionMoving to another message.
* Deletion
Rmail DeletionDeleting and expunging messages.
* Inbox
Rmail InboxHow mail gets into the Rmail file.
* Files
Rmail FilesUsing multiple Rmail files.
* Output
Rmail OutputCopying message out to files.
* Labels
Rmail LabelsClassifying messages by labeling them.
* Reply
Rmail ReplySending replies to messages you are viewing.
* Summary
Rmail SummarySummaries show brief info on many messages.
* Editing
Rmail EditingEditing message text and headers in Rmail.
* Digest
Rmail DigestExtracting the messages from a digest message.
* Out of Rmail
Converting an Rmail file to mailbox format.
* Rot13
Rmail Rot13Reading messages encoded in the rot13 code.
Summaries

* Rmail Make Summary
Making various sorts of summaries.
* Rmail Summary Edit
Manipulating messages from the summary.
Dired, the Directory Editor

* Enter
Dired EnterHow to invoke Dired.
* Commands
Dired CommandsCommands in the Dired buffer.
* Deletion
Dired DeletionDeleting files with Dired.
* Visit
Dired VisitingOther file operations through Dired.
* Marks vs Flags
Flagging for deletion vs marking.
* Operating on Files
How to copy, rename, print, compress, etc. either one file or several files.
* Shell Commands in Dired
Running a shell command on the marked files.
* Transforming File Names
Using patterns to rename multiple files.
* Comparison in Dired
Running `diff' by way of Dired.
* Subdirectories in Dired
Adding subdirectories to the Dired buffer.
* Subdirectory Motion
Moving across subdirectories, and up and down.
* Hiding Subdirectories
Making subdirectories visible or invisible.
* Updating
Dired UpdatingDiscarding lines for files of no interest.
* Find
Dired and FindUsing `find' to choose the files for Dired.
The Calendar and the Diary

* Calendar Motion
Moving through the calendar; selecting a date.
* Scroll Calendar
Bringing earlier or later months onto the screen.
* Counting Days
How many days are there between two dates?
* General Calendar
Exiting or recomputing the calendar.
* Holidays
Displaying dates of holidays.
* Sunrise/Sunset
Displaying local times of sunrise and sunset.
* Lunar Phases
Displaying phases of the moon.
* Other Calendars
Converting dates to other calendar systems.
* Diary
Displaying events from your diary.
* Appointments
Reminders when it's time to do something.
* Daylight Savings
How to specify when daylight savings time is active.
Movement in the Calendar

* Calendar Unit Motion
Moving by days, weeks, months, and years.
* Move to Beginning or End
Moving to start/end of weeks, months, and years.
* Specified Dates
Moving to the current date or another specific date.
Conversion To and From Other Calendars

* Calendar Systems
The calendars Emacs understands (aside from Gregorian).
* To Other Calendar
Converting the selected date to various calendars.
* From Other Calendar
Moving to a date specified in another calendar.
* Mayan Calendar
Moving to a date specified in a Mayan calendar.
The Diary

* Diary Commands
Viewing diary entries and associated calendar dates.
* Format of Diary File
Entering events in your diary.
* Date Formats
Various ways you can specify dates.
* Adding to Diary
Commands to create diary entries.
* Special Diary Entries
Anniversaries, blocks of dates, cyclic entries, etc.
GNUS

* Buffers of GNUS
The Newsgroups, Summary and Article buffers.
* GNUS Startup
What you should know about starting GNUS.
* Summary of GNUS
A short description of the basic GNUS commands.
Running Shell Commands from Emacs

* Single Shell
How to run one shell command and return.
* Interactive Shell
Permanent shell taking input via Emacs.
* Shell Mode
Special Emacs commands used with permanent shell.
* History
Shell HistoryRepeating previous commands in a shell buffer.
* Options
Shell OptionsOptions for customizing Shell mode.
Customization

* Minor Modes
Each minor mode is one feature you can turn on independently of any others.
* Variables
Many Emacs commands examine Emacs variables to decide what to do; by setting variables, you can control their functioning.
* Keyboard Macros
A keyboard macro records a sequence of keystrokes to be replayed with a single command.
* Key Bindings
The keymaps say what command each key runs. By changing them, you can "redefine keys".
* Keyboard Translations
If your keyboard passes an undesired code for a key, you can tell Emacs to substitute another code.
* Syntax
The syntax table controls how words and expressions are parsed.
* Init File
How to write common customizations in the `.emacs' file.
Variables

* Examining
Examining or setting one variable's value.
* Edit Options
Examining or editing list of all variables' values.
* Hooks
Hook variables let you specify programs for parts of Emacs to run on particular occasions.
* Locals
Per-buffer values of variables.
* File Variables
How files can specify variable values.
Keyboard Macros

* Basic Kbd Macro
Defining and running keyboard macros.
* Save Kbd Macro
Giving keyboard macros names; saving them in files.
* Kbd Macro Query
Keyboard macros that do different things each use.
Customizing Key Bindings

* Keymaps
Generalities. The global keymap.
* Prefix Keymaps
Keymaps for prefix keys.
* Local Keymaps
Major and minor modes have their own keymaps.
* Minibuffer Maps
The minibuffer uses its own local keymaps.
* Rebinding
How to redefine one key's meaning conveniently.
* Init Rebinding
Rebinding keys with your init file, `.emacs'.
* Function Keys
Rebinding terminal function keys.
* Mouse Buttons
Rebinding mouse buttons in Emacs.
* Disabling
Disabling a command means confirmation is required before it can be executed. This is done to protect beginners from surprises.
The Init File, `~/.emacs'

* Init Syntax
Syntax of constants in Emacs Lisp.
* Init Examples
How to do some things with an init file.
* Terminal Init
Each terminal type can have an init file.
* Find Init
How Emacs finds the init file.
Dealing with Emacs Trouble

* DEL Gets Help
What to do if DEL doesn't delete.
* Stuck Recursive
`[...]' in mode line around the parentheses.
* Screen Garbled
Garbage on the screen.
* Text Garbled
Garbage in the text.
* Unasked-for Search
Spontaneous entry to incremental search.
* Emergency Escape
Emergency escape-- What to do if Emacs stops responding.
* Total Frustration
When you are at your wits' end.
Reporting Bugs

* Criteria
Bug CriteriaHave you really found a bug?
* Understanding Bug Reporting
How to report a bug effectively.
* Checklist
Steps to follow for a good bug report.
* Sending Patches
How to send a patch for GNU Emacs.
Command Line Options and Arguments

* Ordinary Arguments
Arguments to visit files, load libraries, and call functions.
* Initial Options
Arguments that must come at the start of the command.
* Command Example
Examples of using command line arguments.
* Resume Arguments
Specifying arguments when you resume a running Emacs.
* Display X
Changing the default display and using remote login.
* Font X
Choosing a font for text, under X.
* Colors X
Choosing colors, under X.
* Window Size X
Start-up window size, under X.
* Borders X
Internal and external borders, under X.
* Icons X
Choosing what sort of icon to use, under X.
* Resources X
Advanced use of classes and resources, under X.

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