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Single-agent Behaviors


In order to be able to successfully collaborate, agents require robust basic skills. These skills include the ability to go to a given place on the field, the ability to direct the ball in a given direction, and the ability to intercept a moving ball. All of these skills must be executed while avoiding obstacles such as the walls and other robots.

The navigational movement control is done via closed-loop reactive control. The control strategy follows a modified version of a simple Braitenburg vehicle [4]. The Braitenburg love vehicle defines a reactive control mechanism that directs a differentially driven robot to a certain destination point (goal). A similar behavior is required in the system; however, the love vehicle's control mechanism is too simplistic and, in some start configurations, tends to converge to the goal very slowly. We devised a modified set of reactive control formulae that allows for effective adjustment of the control trajectory:


where tex2html_wrap_inline652 is the direction of the target relative to the robot, tex2html_wrap_inline654 and tex2html_wrap_inline656 are the base translational and rotational velocities, respectively. This set of control formulae differs from the love vehicle in that it takes into account the orientation of the robot with respect to the goal and explicitly adds rotational control.

Peter Stone
Tue Sep 30 19:12:38 EDT 1997