Yanxi Liu and Robert T. Collins,
"Skewed Symmetry Groups,"
IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 
Kauai, Hawaii, December 2001, pp.872-879.


We introduce the term skewed symmetry groups and provide a complete theoretical treatment for 2D wallpaper groups under affine transformations. For the first time, a given periodic pattern can be classified not simply by its Euclidean symmetry group but by its highest "potential" symmetry group under affine deformation. A concise wallpaper group migration map is constructed that separates the 17 affinely deformed wallpaper groups into small, distinct orbits. The practical value of this result includes a novel indexing and retrieval scheme for regular patterns, and a maximal-symmetry-based method for estimating shape and orientation from texture under unknown views.

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