Many theories that address how attentional state should be modeled have the goal of performing intention recognition as well. We investigate performing temporal reference resolution directly, without also attempting to recognize discourse structure or intentions. We assess the challenges the data present to our model when only this task is attempted.
The total number of Temporal Units and the number of them specified by anaphoric noun phrases in the two training data sets are given in Figure 7.4 There are different units that could be counted, from the number of temporal noun phrases to the number of distinct times referred to in the dialog. Here, we count the entities that must be resolved by a temporal reference resolution algorithm, i.e., the number of distinct temporal units specified in each sentence, summed over all sentences. Operationally, this is a count of Temporal Units after the normalization phase, i.e., after Step 1 in Section 5.2. This is the unit considered in the remainder of this paper.
To support the evaluation presented in this section, antecedent information was manually annotated in the training data. For each Temporal Unit specified by an anaphoric noun phrase, all of the antecedents that yield the correct interpretation under one of the anaphoric relations were identified, except that, if both TUi and TUj are appropriate antecedents, and one is an antecedent of the other, only the more recent one is included. Thus, only the heads of the anaphoric chains existing at that point in the dialog are included. In addition, competitor discourse entities were also identified, i.e., previously mentioned Temporal Units for which some relation could be established, but the resulting interpretation would be incorrect. Again, only Temporal Units at the head of an anaphoric chain were considered. To illustrate these annotations, Figure 8 shows a graph depicting anaphoric chain annotations of an NMSU dialog (dialog 9). In the figure, solid lines link the correct antecedents, dotted lines show competitors, and edges to nowhere indicate deictics.