- ...up
- Throughout this paper, I treat verb-particle
constructions, like
*pick up*, as atomic verbs, despite the fact that the verb and its associated particle may be discontinuous. Methods for deriving the semantics of a verb-particle construction compositionally from its (discontinuous) constituents are beyond the scope of this paper.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

- ...overlapped,
- I am using the term `overlap' here
in a different sense than the 43#43 relation from [4].
Here, I am using the term overlap in the sense that two intervals overlap if
they have a nonempty intersection.
This corresponds to the union of the 43#43, 44#44, 45#45,
46#46, 47#47, 48#48, 49#49, and 50#50
relations from [4].
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

- ...interval.
- To deal with noise, in the actual implementation, the
primitive event type 52#52 is derived from the predicate 51#51 by
first passing 51#51 through a low-pass filter that takes 53#53 to be the
majority vote of a five-frame window centered on
*t*.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

- ...to
*z*. - Originally, a two-interval definition was used, consisting of
only the first and third intervals.
Such a definition better reflects human intuition.
This requires that
*x*be unsupported,*y*not support either*x*or*z*,*x*and*z*not support each other, and*y*not be attached to*z*throughout the event. Unfortunately, however, the model-reconstruction process has some quirks. When the hand grasps the patient while the patient is still resting on the source it produces a most-preferred model where all three objects are attached and collectively supported by one of them being grounded. While such a model is consistent with the theory and is minimal, it does not match human intuition. Pending improvements in the model-reconstruction process to better reflect human intuition, the compound event-type definition for*pick up*was modified to reflect the force-dynamic interpretations produced by the current model-reconstruction process. Fortunately, the current model-reconstruction process is robust in reproducing this counterintuitive interpretation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

- ...respectively.
- Throughout this paper, I use lowercase
Greek letters, such as 150#150, 151#151, 152#152, 153#153, 154#154,
and 155#155, to denote Boolean values, lowercase Latin letters, such as
*p*,*q*,*r*,*i*,*j*,*k*, and*l*, to denote real numbers, lowercase bold Latin letters, such as 41#41, 69#69, and 107#107, to denote intervals or spanning intervals, and uppercase Latin letters, such as*I*,*J*, and*K*, to denote sets of intervals or sets of spanning intervals.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

- ...interval.
- The reason that 240#240 contains
*at most*one normalized spanning interval and not*exactly*one normalized spanning interval is that 41#41 may denote the empty set of intervals. For example, normalizing the (non-normalized) spanning interval [[10,10],[1,1]] yields the empty set. Many of the definitions in the coming sections compute sets of normalized spanning intervals as unions of one or more applications of the normalization operator 242#242. Each such application might yield either the empty set or a set containing a single normalized spanning interval. This leads to upper, but not lower, bounds on the size of the computed unions.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

- ...sequences.
- The code for LEONARD, the video input
sequences discussed in this paper, and the full frame-by-frame output of
LEONARD on those sequences is available as Online Appendix 1, as well as
from
ftp://ftp.nj.nec.com/pub/qobi/leonard.tar.Z.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

- ...size=-1>EONARD.
- The movies, as well as the
results produced by LEONARD when processing the movies, are available as
Online Appendix 1, as well as from
ftp://ftp.nj.nec.com/pub/qobi/leonard.tar.Z.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Wed Aug 1 19:08:09 EDT 2001