15-451 Algorithms 03/16/04
- max flow
- bipartite matching
- Edmonds-Karp #1 (if time)
Reading: Chapter 26.
Notes from Spring 2002 GLM
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Today and next time we are going to talk about an important
algorithmic problem called the Network Flow problem. It's important
because it can be used to express and solve a lot of different things.
In O.R. they have entire courses devoted to the topic.
NETWORK FLOW
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- directed graph. Source node. Sink node. Each (directed) edge has a
capacity. (Let's say these are integers.) Goal is to flow as much as
possible from source to sink.
E.g.,
s-->a, cap = 4. a-->c, cap=3. c-->t, cap = 2.
s-->b, cap = 2. b-->d, cap=3. d-->t, cap = 4.
c-->b, cap = 1. b-->c, cap=2.
E.g., want to route message traffic from source to sink, and the
capacities tell us how much bandwidth we're allowed on each edge.
Formally, rules are:
Capacity constraint: on any edge, f(u,v) <= c(u,v)
Flow conservation: for any vertex except s and t, flow in = flow out.
What is the max flow here? Answer: 5.
How can you see that above max flow was really maximum? Notice, this
flow saturates the a-->c and s-->b edges. And, if you remove these,
you disconnect s from t. In other words, the graph has a "s-t cut" of
size 5. (a set of edges of total capacity 5 that if you remove
disconnects the source from the sink). So, the point is that any
unit of stuff going from s to t must take up at least 1 unit of
capacity in these pipes. So, we know we're optimal.
We just argued that in general, max flow <= min cut.
DEFINITION: an s-t cut is a set of edges whose removal disconnects s from t.
Or, formally, a cut is a partition of vertex set into A and B where s
is in A and t is in B. (The edges of the cut are then all edges going
from A to B).
DEFINITION: the capacity of cut is the sum of capacities of edges in
the cut. Or, in the formal viewpoint, it is the sum of capacities of
all edges going from A to B.
Easy fact we showed above: max s-t flow <= min s-t cut.
How to find a maximum flow and prove it's correct? Here's a very
natural strategy: find a path from s to t and push as much flow on it
as possible. Then look at the leftover graph and repeat until there
is no longer any path with capacity left to push any more flow on.
This is called the Ford-Fulkerson algorithm.
Basic Ford-Fulkerson algorithm
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While there exists an s-->t path P of positive residual (leftover) capacity:
push maximum possible flow along P (saturating at least one edge on it)
[These are called "augmenting paths"]
Definition: "Residual capacity" c_f(u,v) = c(u,v) - f(u,v)
where we make the convention that f(v,u) = -f(u,v).
--> Example on above graph: start with path s-->b-->c-->t. Use
"[flow/capacity]" notation.
Note: residual capacity can be *larger* than original capacity if we
had flow going in opposite direction. E.g., residual capacity on the
c-->b edge is now 3.
To keep track of what's going on, it helps to write the "RESIDUAL
GRAPH". This graph shows the residual capacities: it has all edges of
positive residual capacity, each one labeled by its residual capacity.
Other good reason to write down residual graph? If we have a black
box path-finding routine, this is what we want to feed into it at each
iteration of the Ford-Fulkerson algorithm.
--> Note: running time is not necessarily so great - it depends on the
choices we make. E.g., standard bad-choice graph. After we prove
correctness, we'll worry about about algorithms to fix this problem
(later today or next time).
Algorithm by design finds a legal flow. Why is it maximum?
Proof: Let's look at the final residual graph. This graph must have s
and t disconnected by definition of the algorithm. Let A be
component containing s and B = rest. Now, let C = capacity of the (A,B)
cut in the *original* graph --- so we know we can't do better than C.
The claim is that we in fact *did* find a flow of value C (which
therefore implies it is maximum). Here's why: let's look at what
happens to the residual capacity of the cut after each iteration of
the algorithm. Say in some iteration we found a path with k units of
flow. Then, even if the path zig-zagged between A and B, every time
we went A-->B we added k to flow from A to B (and subtracted k from
the residual capacity) and every time we went B-->A we took away k
from this flow (and added k to the residual capacity). And, we went
from A-->B exactly one more time than we went from B-->A. So, the
residual capacity went down by exactly k. So, the drop in capacity is
equal to the increase in flow. Since at the end the residual capacity
is zero (remember how we defined A and B) this means the total flow is
equal to C.
Note, we've actually proven the nonobvious MAXFLOW-MINCUT theorem:
In any graph, max flow from s to t = capacity of minimum (s,t)-cut.
We started with saying max flow <= min cut. But now we've argued that
this algorithm finds a flow of value equal to SOME cut, so it can't be
less than the MINIMUM.
(This is actually very similar to min/max theorem for 2-player zero
sum games.)
We have also proven the INTEGRAL-FLOW THEOREM: if all capacities are
integers, then there is a max flow in which all flows are integers.
Bipartite Maximum matching problem
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Say we are in charge of assigning dorm rooms to incoming freshmen.
Let's say freshmen are allowed to scout out rooms and list as
acceptable or unacceptable. Eg., small school with 3 freshmen and 3
available slots:
student slot
------- ----
Dan A
Sue B
Pat C
Edge if acceptable: e.g, (Dan A), (Dan B), (Sue A), (Sue C), (Pat B), (Pat C)
This is a BIPARTITE GRAPH: a graph with two sides L and R, and all
edges go between L and R.
A MATCHING is a set of edges with no endpoints in common. What we want
here is a PERFECT MATCHING - a matching that connects every point on
the left hand side with some point on the right hand side. What's a
perfect matching here? More generally (say there is no perfect
matching) we want a MAXIMUM MATCHING - a matching with maximum
possible number of edges.
Algorithm to solve:
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1. Set up fake "start" node S connected to all in L. Connect all in R to
a fake "end" node T. Orient all edges left-to-right and give each a
capacity of 1.
2. Find a max flow from S to T using Ford-Fulkerson.
3. Output matching corresponding to flow.
This finds a legal matching because edges between R to T have capacity
1 (so can't have two edges into same node), and similarly can't have
two edges leaving same node in L. It's maximum because any matching
gives you a flow of the same value. (So if there was a better
matching, we wouldn't be at a maximum flow).
What about the number of iterations of path-finding? This is at most
the #edges in the matching since each new augmenting path gives us 1
new edge.
Matchings come up as subroutines in a lot of problems. Another
example: matching up suppliers to customers. Put customers on RHS.
For each supplier, put k nodes on LHS if it can supply k customers.
Then link up based on which customers are near to which suppliers
(some may be near to multiple supplierss, which is what makes it
interesting).
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EDMONDS-KARP #1 [not described in book, but variation below is problem 26-5]
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One problem with Ford-Fulkerson is that running time can be large if
capacities are large. Number of iterations is O(F), where F is the
max flow. This might not be polynomial in the description length of
the problem instance (e.g., if the capacities are large numbers given
to us in binary).
Edmonds-Karp give two natural heuristics that solve the problem.
Edmonds-Karp #1: Always pick the maximum bottleneck augmenting
path. (The path of maximum minimum residual capacity)
Claim: This causes FF to make at most O(m log(F)) iterations.
First: how can we *find* the maximum bottleneck path in a graph?
Answer: do a greedy algorithm like Prim. Starting from U = {s}, always
put in the widest (highest capacity) edge leaving the set U. How to
see that it works:
- suppose that the maximum bottleneck path has capacity c.
- then, we are guaranteed that at each step we will always have at
least one edge of capacity >= c to choose from. This means we will
never choose an edge of lower capacity, so our path found will have
capacity >= c.
Proof of claim: If the current residual graph has max flow f, we will
show that the maximum bottleneck path has capacity at least f/m. Why
is this? Let's try running the above algorithm: if we ever get to a
point where all edges leaving U have capacity < f/m, this means we
have a cut of < f, which is a contradiction.
So, after every iteration, the max flow in the residual graph is
multiplied by at most (1 - 1/m). So, after m iterations, the flow has
gone down by factor of 1/e, and after m*log(F) iterations, it is < 1.
VARIATION: a crude approximation to the above is that instead of
asking for the "maximum bottleneck path", we just ask for a path in
which every edge has (residual) capacity >= k. We start with a large
value of k (e.g., the maximum capacity over all edges) and then if
there is no path we cut k by a factor of 2. This makes things
slightly worse because the "ln" becomes a "lg". But it helps a little
in that we can replace the "Prim-like algorithm" with DFS, which is O(m).
So the overall running time is O(m) per iteration, times O(m log F)
iterations, which is O(m^2 log F).