DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE
|DATE:||May 13, 1998|
|TO:||DOJ File No.: 137420.XCP0095-97 (THE FORCE)|
|FROM:||Robert T. Roth|
|SUBJECT:||Substantiation ("Vol. 3")|
Attorney Work Product
Prepared in Contemplation of Litigation:
In a previous memorandum dated December 2, 1997, I reviewed materials received to that point from American Technologies Group, Inc.("ATG") purporting to substantiate advertising claims for "The Force." This memorandum reviews additional material ATG submitted in booklet form ("ATG Vo1.3") under cover of an "Intraoffice memorandum" on ATG letterhead addressed to Harold Rapp from Dr. Olga Berson and dated 11/23/97 ("Berson memo I"), and certain abstracts of presentations said to have been made at an ATG sponsored contractors' meeting.
ATG Vol. 3:
Berson memo I (copy attached) begins by quoting, under the heading, "Communications," the statement of Dr. Andrew Blackwood, Vice President - Technical, Structure Probe, Inc., that in his view
"...the structures displayed in photographs of the literature Ehe] reviewed in connection with the [ATG] report depict microorganisms. These structures may spontaneously appear after exposure of water to ambient laboratory conditions, and they can be caused to disappear by ultra-filtration or by the application of ozone and uv radiation as prescribed in the EPA Method we used." (Emphasis added by Berson.)
Dr. Berson, self-described in the memo as an ATG research scientist, states that she has compiled results of both ATG's and outside research that "refute" Dr. Blackwood's statement that the structures are microorganisms.
Berson memo I fails to "refute" Dr. Blackwood's statement. Nevertheless, it should be borne in mind that the Structure Probe report which formed the basis for Dr. Blackwood's view relied on a variety of test results including photographs showing that "structures" similar to "IE" appeared spontaneously in West Chester, Pennsylvania tap water.
Berson memo I continues with nine statements or phrases numbered consecutively 1 through 9. These statements are followed by nine somewhat longer statements, under the heading "RESULTS," also numbered 1 through 9. The fourth page of the memo contains two paragraphs under the heading "CONCLUSIONS" and concludes: "By Dr. Olga Berson, research scientist. Approved by Dr. Shui-Yin Lo, Director of R & D"
Berson memo I is followed in ATG Vol. 3 by groups or sections of pages separated by blue sheets. The first group of pages contains depictions it refers to as "Figures" numbered 1 through 9. Subsequent sections of the booklet consist of documents labeled as Exhibits A through F. A final section consists of a second memo, dated 11/19/97, from Dr. Berson to Mr. Rapp (Berson memo II), with attached Figures described as UV spectra of Monrovia tap water and IE solution.
I have described the memo sections and attachments in detail because the labeling and numbering of the various items does not make clear the relationships between the memo and the accompanying figures and exhibits. Apparently, item or statement "1" Of Berson memo I refers to some of the attachments labeled "Figures." Items "2" to "5" of the memo refer to Exhibits "A" through "D," respectively. Item "6" then refers back to Figures "3" through "7" (though Figure "6" is missing). Item "7" refers to Exhibit "E." Item "8" discusses Figures "8" and "9." And, item "9" refers to Exhibit "F." Berson memo II discusses several additional documents attached to that memo and labeled "Figures." For ease of reference, copies of each "Figure" and "Exhibit" are attached hereto (but without accompanying Vitae, which are lengthy in some Exhibits) in the order in which they are attached to Berson Memo I.
On February 20, 1998, I met with University of Oregon chemistry professor Paul Engelking, to discuss ATG Vol. 3 and also certain abstracts of presentations said to have been made at a recent ATG-sponsored conference. The following analysis reflects that discussion with Dr. Engelking. The purpose of this summary is to memorialize my understanding of those comments for possible future reference. However, I have not confirmed that understanding in detail in every case, and Professor Engelking's comments are not intended to be exhaustive.
The items or statements in Berson memo I, under the heading "Communication," are said to refute Dr. Blackwood's statement. Under Item "1," Berson memo I refers to "TEM photographs of a sample of IE solution prior to and after sterilization by boiling for 20 min." (Emphasis in original.) This description apparently refers to depictions characterized as "Figures" 1 and 2 and placed in the first section of the booklet following the memo.
The apparent claim is that since some of the structures have not disappeared, they can't be microorganisms. It is therefore noteworthy that Berson does not claim the structures were subjected to ultra-filtration, ozone or UV radiation, the EPA-prescribed procedures Dr. Blackwood mentions. Instead, they were boiled. The UV/ozone combination would destroy microorganisms: the combination "lyses" the cells, that is, ruptures cell walls. However, "sterile" doesn't mean "clean" and boiling does not necessarily make microorganisms disappear or destroy their cell structures. (Telephone conversation with Dr. Andrew Blackwood, April 4, 1998.) The photographs are consistent with cell structures. In the "before" and "after boiling" photographs, denominated as "Figure 1" and "Figure 2," respectively, some structures apparently disappear, but some remain. The dots shown in Figure 2 could be cell parts. Some are holes in the membrane support of whatever it is that was photographed. The larger structures could be cell envelopes.
The corresponding item "1" under "RESULTS" states:
"1. Even though single IE structures do look like bacteria containing gas vesicles, the clusters that they form are too regular in shape to be described as microorganisms (Figure 1). Moreover, when a solution is sterilized by boiling for 20 min., all ambient microbial cells are killed and can not be seen in TEM photographs. However, TEM of boiled IE solutions still reveal clusters, piles and chains of structures of lm m in length by 0.5m m in width (Figure 2). Therefore, the clusters observed are not of microbial nature.
Figure 3, which follows Figures 1 and 2, is not apparently referred to in Berson memo I until Item "6." Item "6" is described as:
6. The results of Atomic Force Microscopy of IE samples conducted at ATG.
Under "RESULTS," Berson's item "6" states:
6. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a modern tool that compliments [sic: complements] 2-D transmission electronic microscopy by providing additional information about height of structures studied.
An IE structure similar in shape and size to ones observed by TEM was studied with AFM to obtain a height profile (Figure 3, top section). The section analysis revealed granular-like organization of the observed structure. The height of the granules measured was 26.4 nm, 49.8 nm, and 89.1 nm. Bacterial cell membrane normally does not display such height variation.
Another IE cluster of several microns in size identified with AFM is shown. This cluster is made of smaller structures measuring hundreds to tens of nanometers in length (Figure 4). The structures of tens of nanometers in size are the most numerous in the IE solution. They are easily observed with AFM (Figures 5-7), but are lost during the filtration step (filter used in IE sample preparation has a port diameter of 100 nm) and thus the 10-50 nm sized IE can not be seen with TEM. No microorganism has this type of morphology.
Figure 3 is titled "Section Analysis," and apparently graphs or reflects the elevation along the line of structures in the section depicted at the lower left portion of the page. Presumably this is an atomic force image. An atomic force microscope ("AFM") acts like a "phonograph needle" which is passed along a plane and measures the force with which atoms attract the "needle" as it passes over the plane. Section analysis tries to convert the force factors to height; however, the numbers need correction according to the surface of the bottom. The process may be compared to attempting to plumb the depths of a body of water; if the bottom is soft, some allowance must be made for that degree of softness in order to adjust a resulting measurement. The measurements are in the range of 200 Nanometers, which is smaller than visible light waves, which are 400 to 700 nm. The line shown in the Section Analysis may be viewed as the side view or cross-section of spheres (that is, the presumed IE structures) strung together.
Figure 4 contains a depiction which is not described.
Figure 5, titled "Grain Size Analysis," may depict a crosssection of Figure 4; however, there is no explanatory narrative to confirm that.
Figure 6 is missing.
Figure 7 purports to show the top view of a surface with a dried drop of IE-containing water.
Professor Engelking observed that if the structures are water, they should evaporate when placed in a vacuum. In his MPLB article "Anomalous State of Ice," Dr. Lo states:
The direct evidence for existence of these stable [IE] structures comes from pictures taken with the electron microscope. The very dilute solution with [IE] structures is filtered through a 0.1 [micrometer] filter paper and then is sputter coated with carbon. The carbon coated filter paper is dissolved in boiling chloroform for twenty minutes. Water and [IE] structure will be dissolved away and only carbon skeletons remain. Hitachi transmission microscope H600A is used to take the pictures.
The procedure for sputter coating a sample involves placing the sample in a vacuum. (Dr. Blackwood, in a June 10, 1998 telephone conversation, added that the vacuum must be at least good enough to avoid two problems: that carbon will readily combine with oxygen to form carbon dioxide; and that any gas located between the carbon source and the sample will interfere with deposition of the carbon.) The vapor pressure of water and IE should be the same or very similar. (Vapor pressure is a quality of vapor above a liquid; it results from the thermodynamics of the liquid, that is, the free energy or chemical potential of the liquid. For example, under certain conditions, one may observe a layer of steam rising or hovering above a body of water such as a pond or lake; this is due to the vapor pressure of the water.) Since what ATG calls "IE" is still supposed to be a form of water, the IE structures should, when placed in a vacuum, evaporate along with the "matrix" of surrounding water in which they lie. It should therefore be thermodynamically impossible to catch "IE" for carbon coating. Drying should evaporate the structures. Since they do not evaporate, it would seem that they cannot be water. Alternatively, if IE has a lower vapor pressure than the surrounding water, then the surrounding water should turn into IE; this would be the "Ice-9" effect fictionally described in the novel Cat's Cradle, by author Kurt Vonnegut. (Because a liquid such as water will evaporate when placed into a vacuum, the carbon coating procedure which permits TEM photography is generally used for solids or low-vapor pressure liquids, not water.)
Based on the foregoing analysis, it might be argued that Dr. Lo and ATG have effectively subjected Lo's theory to a test which falsifies it, because the purported results of the test violate the laws of thermodynamics. If the occasion to pursue this line of analysis should arise, it would be useful to bear in mind that the proponents of "IE" appear to be precluded from arguing that a higher molecular weight accounts for the fact that the structures do not evaporate, for the IE structures are said to have a molecular weight of 17.5, "which is consistent with that of water (=18)." Lo, et al., "Physical Properties of Water With IE Structures," MPLB, Vol. 10, No. 19 (1996)921-930, p. 928.
Figures 8 and 9 are discussed in Berson memo I at Item 8, which states, "Laser auto correlation measurement of IE samples carried out at ATG." Under "RESULTS," Berson memo I states:
8. The set up for laser autocorrelation experiment is shown in Figure 8. Three sizes of structures with diameters of about 50 nm, 300 nm, and 1 m m were identified (Figure 9). The observed size distribution of structures is consistent with observations made by AFM and TEM. Shaking IE solution, causes a break down of larger, micron size structures, into smaller ones. There are no micron structures seen immediately after shaking. However, 15 minutes later, micron size clusters are reassembled from the smaller structures.
Only non-microbial self-assembling structures, like IE, can be broken in pieces by shaking and then self-reassemble later.
Figures 8 and 9, labeled, respectively, "Autocorrelation Experiment" and "Size distribution of IE Clusters from laser autocorrelation in site measurement," are also in Vol. 2. Prof. Engelking explained that a liquid should allow some light to pass through it; however, light passing through a liquid may be scattered. Autocorrelation is a way of measuring the size of molecules from the characteristics of the scattered light. "Intensity" referred to and graphed in Figure 9 is that of light; the "size" is that of the structures. The middle distribution of each of the graphs is what shows up in TEM. The structures graphed in Figure 9(a) as being in 1000 nm range are shown in 9(b) to disappear with stirring. The other two clusters in the 50's and 1000's are probably bubbles. The graphs measure relative, not absolute, populations.
Professor Engelking observes that in Figures 1 to 9, there is no way to tell what it is that is being measured. The various figures and measurements indicate there's something there, but none of the figures show what it is, that is, the composition of what's being depicted and measured. It would have been possible, but ATG did not, determine the elemental chemical composition of the substance ATG claims is "IE" and purports to depict and measure in the above-described figures. The elemental chemical composition should be just H2O. Elemental chemical composition of a substance can be determined using techniques of electron impact mass spectrometry or ion impact mass spectrometry. In this connection see, Lidstrom e-mail, discussed infra, under "Exhibit C."
Note: The graphs included in Structure Probe's report using X-ray fluorescence shows the presence of heavy elements, which is consistent with cell structures, or ions.
Exhibit A: In Berson memo I, Exhibit "A" is mentioned under item 2, which Dr. Berson refers to as "Abstract of a presentation on THE INDUCTION AND REGULATION OF HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD TH1-TH2 DERIVED CYTOKYNES BY IE WATER PREPARATIONS AND SYNERGY WITH MITOGENS at a 1997 workshop on the physical, chemical and biological properties of stable water (IE) clusters by Dr. Benjamin Bonavida, Professor of Department of Microbiology and Immunology, UCLA." The document labeled "Exhibit A" is a proposal titled "1997 WORKSHOP ON THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF STABLE WATER CLUSTERS (IE CLUSTERS)." Exhibit "A" states, "We have initiated studies to investigate the effect of IE water in a biological system in order to establish a physiological role for IE water." The document states further, "We demonstrate with one IE water preparation provided by ATG that it possesses potent immunomodulatory activities in the absence and presence of suboptimal concentrations of T and B cell mitogens." Berson states:
2. The research work conducted by Dr. Bonavida (Department of Microbiology and Immunology, UCLA) have [sic] shown that "IE-water preparations exert potent and selective immunomodulatory activities on human peripheral blood" [This is a claim that the preparation modifies the immune response of the blood.] This work has been carried out with IE solutions sterilized by boiling, which excludes a possibility of bioactivity of IE water due to the presence of microorganisms.
Dr. Bonavida himself was "concerned about the possibility that IE water was contaminated with bacterial products, like the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)". However, after he has "...examined the effect of a specific inhibitor of LPS... in the cytokine response by human peripheral blood to both IE water and LPS", he states that his "...findings rule out LPS as a potential contaminant in the IE water preparation" (Exhibit A).
However, as the abstract indicates, the samples were "IE water preparation(s) provided by ATG" and we do not know what is in the sample. (Emphasis added) Therefore, we cannot say that IE is producing the observed effect. "IE water preparations" consist of whatever ATG gave Bonavida; they could contain, for example, alcohol. And alcohol content would be consistent with the observed effects. (The Material Safety Data Sheet ("MSDS") ATG provided for "The Force," by the way, indicates propyl alcohol (10% solution) as a component.)
Exhibit B: Dr. Berson describes Exhibit B under Item "3" as "Abstract of a presentation on INFLUENCE OF IE ON ENZYMES AND MICROBIAL CELLS at a 1997 Workshop on the physical, chemical and biological properties of stable water (IE) clusters by Dr. Arkady P. Sinitsyn, Chair of Chemical Enzymology Department, Moscow State University, Russia." The abstract states, "The influence of different types of IE waters on different aerobic fungi and aerobic bacteria was investigated in vivo using fermentation experiments in shaking flasks." Abstract refers to the "bioeffect" of "most of tested types" of IE waters. Under "RESULTS," Berson states:
3. The study carried out by Dr. Arkady P. Sinitsyn (Chemical Enzymology Department, Moscow State University, Russia) have [sic] demonstrated bioactivity of sterilized by steam (30 min., 1 atm) IE solutions in both bacterial and fungal strains (Exhibit B). Since the bioactivity of IE is not affected by sterilization, the bioactivity of IE can not be attributed to the presence of microorganisms.
Again, it is unclear from the Abstract precisely what has the observed effects. There is no description of the nature or source of the "IE" apparently tested. Also, Exhibit B identifies itself by referring to a "proposal title." I believe this indicates that this is one of a series of reports which was produced in response to a request for proposals from ATG, or in any event, a proposal to ATG for a mechanism or a project to test the characteristics of "IE" in various ways. The resulting research projects were apparently conducted with funding from ATG .
Exhibit C: Item 4 Berson memo I describes Exhibit C as an e-mail comment on TEM photographs by Dr. Mary Lidstom [sic: Lidstrom], Professor of the Department of Microbiology, University of Washington. Under "RESULTS," Dr. Berson states:
"4. In her comment on TEM photographs of IE samples Dr. Mary E. Lidstrom, (Department of Microbiology, University of Washington) writes, 'Clearly the effects of IE water are not due to microbial action, because boiled/autoclaved [IE] solutions work. The question is whether the structures themselves are microbial in origin. I agree that they do not look like microorganisms, but TEM data alone are not sufficient to rule this out" (Exhibit C). [Emphases added by Berson.] The specific LPS inhibitor experiments conducted by Dr. Bonavida (Exhibit A) is one of many ways to show that microbial contamination can not account for bioactivity of IE. ATG is also currently submitting our IE samples for protein concentration analysis to an outside laboratory to show once more that the above-quoted statement of Mr. Blackwood is not correct.
Exhibit C consists of 13 pages, 12 pages of which consist of the Vitae of Mary E. Lidstrom, Ph.D. ATG goes to such lengths to demonstrate Dr. Lidstrom's credentials, her actual comments are doubly interesting. The Lidstrom e-mail appears at first glance to contradict Dr. Blackwood's assessment and Berson gives it this interpretation. However, a careful reading makes it clear that the e-mail does not draw a conclusion; Dr. Lidstrom is telling Dr. Berson what she needs to show. Dr. Lidstrom writes: "I can't really say much based upon the pictures alone-- especially since I am not an expert at EM. Clearly the effects of IE water are not due to microbial ACTION, because boiled/autoclaved solutions work. The question is whether the structures are microbial in origin. I agree that they do not look like microorganisms, but TEM data alone are not sufficient to rule this out. You need data on organic compounds to rule it out." (Emphasis added.)
Dr. Lidstrom recommends that ATG gather data on the number of structures per ml in original IE water. Based on the information she heard when she visited ATG, she assumes this will be very small, "but it is important for people to know this number. If you are talking about a cell density of only a few/ml, it's hard to argue that the effects are due to this." Dr. Lidstrom then goes on to describe how the concentration of cells might be determined if the number has not already been calculated.
Dr. Lidstrom makes a second recommendation, that based on the number of structures per ml of concentrated solution used for the TEM pictures (from recommendation number 1 above), "figure out how much protein you would expect if these structures were bacteria (15% protein wet wt.; 50% protein dry wt.). Mass E. coli cell is about 2.8 x 10-13 g (dry wt.) or 9.5 x 10-13 g (wet wt) [.]" Dr. Lidstrom states that based on the PPB (parts per billion) numbers she "vaguely remembers" from her visit, she thinks "you will be about an order of magnitude too low to account for these structures as cells. However, if not, you will have to do either proteins or thin sections to prove these are not cells."
Dr. Lidstrom concludes: "This is the information that will convince people: a) the structures don't really look like microorganisms AND b) there is not enough organic carbon or protein in the samples to make this many cells." She concludes the e-mail, "Good luck, Mary".
It seems noteworthy in this context that ATG has failed to conduct the experiments and to take the measurements specifically recommended by Dr. Lidstrom; and that, as noted above, it is continuing to submit "our" [that is, ATG's] IE samples for further experiments. As noted above, the report by Dr. Bonavida describes an experiment which was flawed with respect to ATG's purpose here, in that ATG itself was the source of the otherwise unidentified and unanalyzed "IE" sample.
Exhibit D: Item "5" in Berson's memo I refers to Exhibit D, which is a research paper on coke suppression in the steam cracking of alkanes by Dr. Selim Senkan, discussed as Exhibit 10 in my December 2, 1997, memorandum. Dr. Berson states that the study was carried out at 820-845 degrees Centigrade, and that no microorganism would survive at such temperatures. Dr. Berson asserts that the observed significant reduction in coke formation in the presence of "IE solution," is therefore due to factors other than microbial contamination. That may well be true, but as discussed in my December 2nd memo, the substance that produced the observed effects is inadequately described for the experiment to serve as confirmation of any property of "IE crystals."
Berson's item "6", which refers to Figures 3 through 7, is discussed above.
Exhibit E: Item "7" refers to Exhibit E, which consists entirely of a one-paragraph abstract entitled "ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY OF ADSORBATES FROM IE SOLUTIONS," and several pages of vitae of Dr. Sergei Magonov, staff scientist at Digital Instruments, Inc., in Santa Barbara, California. Berson states:
7. All of our AFM work is being carried out in collaboration with Dr. Sergei Magonov, an applications scientist of Digital Instruments, one of the largest manufacturers of AFM. Dr. Magonov, who has several publications on self-assembling structures, will present his work on IE at 1997 Workshop on the physical, chemical and biological properties of stable water (IE) clusters (Exhibit E).
The abstract indicates that, "in recent attempts to apply AFM to study IE clusters, the traces of solid material found in IE solutions have been recorded in AFM images." However, nothing in the abstract discusses what was found. Exhibit E thus adds nothing to the evidence one way or another. It may be that this exhibit is intended to refer back to Figures 3 through 7, discussed above under Item "6." If that is the case, it must be noted again that the substance purportedly measured and graphed in the figures was not identified. If the reference to Exhibit E is not back to the figures discussed earlier, then Exhibit E appears to contain essentially no relevant information at all.
Under "RESULT" Number 7, Dr. Berson refers to the work of Dr. Magonov, discussed immediately above in this memorandum. "RESULT" Number 7 contains no information, but discusses what Dr. Magonov will present at an upcoming workshop.
Berson's item "8" refers to Figures 8 and 9, discussed above.
Exhibit F: Item "9" refers to a statement "on FTIR [Fourier Transform Infra Red] analysis of IE samples from Dr. Natalya Afanasyeva, Senior Scientist, Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Science." Exhibit F is discussed under Dr. Berson's "RESULT" Number 9. Dr. Berson claims, with respect to Exhibit F, that Dr. Afanasyeva concludes: "... that there are no microorganisms present in IE samples, and that associations formed in IE solutions are due to presence of organic compounds" (Exhibit F). Professor Engelking indicates that Exhibit F shows graphs of an infra-red spectrum, and that the researcher appears to be finding carbon. The results of the spectrum, according to Professor Engelking, are consistent with plastic, or alcohol, or detergent. The results of this experiment should be viewed in connection with the comments by Dr. Lidstrom, who seems to assume that some carbon is present, but says, in essence, that ATG in its attempts to prove that IE is not a microorganism had better not find too much carbon. Exhibit F concludes that "associations formed in IE solutions are due to presence of organic compounds". Organic compounds are substances containing carbon. There is no carbon in water. If Dr. Afanasyeva really means to be saying that the associations formed in IE solutions are due to the presence of organic compounds, then she is contradicting ATG's position that IE is a form of water.
The final entry in the booklet I have been discussing as "Vol. 3" of ATG's substantiation documents consists of ultraviolet data and a cover memorandum by Dr. Berson dated 11/19/97 ("Berson memo II") (copy attached). Dr. Blackwood states that, using the laboratory techniques of transmission electron microscopy and ultraviolet spectroscopy, Structure Probe obtained similar results for water claimed to contain "IE" structures and for West Chester, Pennsylvania tap water. Berson memo II addresses only the use of UV spectroscopy. Berson states she conducted UV spectroscopy on "IE" and on Monrovia, California tap water, and found significant differences between the two.
Preliminarily, it should be noted that Dr. Blackwood's statement refers to tap water which had been allowed to stand for a period of time. Dr. Blackwood's affidavit and Structure Probe's report clearly indicate that the observed "structures" appeared when the tap water had been allowed to stand under ambient lab conditions. Berson states that she distilled the tap water she tested, but gives no indication that she then waited any length of time before conducting her tests. It would not be surprising to find an absence of the structures in water that had just been distilled.
Dr. Berson's UV data measured distilled water in comparison with "IE." In Figure 1, before distillation, there is not much difference between IE and the tap water. In Figure 2, after distillation, the difference is considerable. Figure 3 apparently purports to show ultraviolet readings of tap water from Figure 2 enlarged. Berson's findings are that IE has more of something than distilled tap water. However, the data do not answer the question, "More of what?"
Professor Engelking said the substance that causes the differences can't be water or heavy elements, like iron salts. Therefore, IE is not water, and is not heavy elements. It is most likely an organic material that contains a C-O bond (as in the above FTIR readings). It could be an organic substance such as alcohols, organic ester, an organic acid, or a detergent. This would be consistent with the Infrared readings shown in Exhibit F. The substance measured could be a plasticizer (i.e., a lubricant, an oily organic molecule such as butyl thalate) from the bottle.
[In a May 27, 1998 telephone conversation, Professor Engelking said he had heard reports that water in the Monrovia, California area had been found to contain perchlorate. Depending on precisely where Dr. Berson obtained her tap water, perhaps the presence of perchlorate accounts for her results.]
Abstracts of Presentations:
ATG also submitted the abstracts of a contractors' meeting, which it characterizes as a "conference." A contractors' meeting is usually put on by a funder to let fundees show what they've done with the funds provided; other funding sources may also be in attendance. By contrast, a conference is usually an event, put on by a scientific society, at which scientists working independently present the results of their work. The attendees of the event in question were staff of ATG, fundees, and funders. Half the attendees were financiers. The material is mostly documents previously reviewed.
Dr. Lo claims that the dipole reorganization keeps structures stable after the ion is removed. A document from "Wong/Oak Ridge" presents a new theory of why the structures are able to exist without the ion. Wong's idea is that by removing the ions quickly from IE solution, the water will be "stuck" structured. The question is, how to do that? Jerking the charge would destroy the field; this is implausible. Even if all the conditions could be met, IE would still have a higher vapor pressure than water. Therefore, the theory is not supported by the data, in view of the carbon coating problem discussed above. The general field that deals with these issues is the solvation effects of charges in water.
Dr. Lidstrom discusses different activities with different preparations. "IE" sometimes inhibits biological activity. This conflicts with the findings of Sinitsyn, who finds that the results are consistent: the same thing always happens. This suggests that the results in the two experiments, or in the two projects, depend upon different preparations. The different preparations are all presumed to contain "IE". But the biological activities are not due to IE alone; something else is in the solution that causes the results. In the case of Dr. Lidstrom's work, something else in the samples is causing the effects.
Ulman, a participant in the conference, is a homeopathic physician. Harold Rapp of ATG may have been an SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) proponent, associated with Kinetics Technology International, a Star Wars research think tank.