Archive-name: microcontroller-faq/8051
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: Feb. 26, 1994

This article is a collection of information sources on the Intel 8051
family of microcontrollers (and variants).

The following topics are addressed:

      0)  Rantings and ravings (to make the FAQ zero-based)

      1)  ABOUT THIS FAQ
    1.1)  Who put this FAQ together?
    1.2)  How can I contribute to this FAQ?
    1.3)  What newsgroups will this FAQ be posted to?
    1.4)  May I distribute this FAQ or post it somewhere else?
    1.5)  How about FAQs on other microcontrollers?

      2)  ABOUT THE 8051
    2.1)  The 8051 microcontroller
    2.2)  8051 Flavors
    2.3)  8051 representatives and approximate prices
    2.4)  Advantages realized in implementing control applications on
          this family of microcontrollers

    3.1)  FTP sites
    3.2)  BBSs
    3.3)  Help available!

      4)  8051 PRODUCTS
    4.1)  Free languages and development tools
    4.2)  Free C compilers
    4.3)  Commercially available products

      5)  8051 DOCUMENTATION
    5.1)  Periodicals
    5.2)  Books
    5.3)  Miscellaneous documentation

0)  Rantings and ravings

    Disclaimer:  Just so it is understood, the "rantings and ravings" are
    my rantings and raving.  My readers are refined and sophisticated and
    would never rant or rave.  I, on the other hand, sit in front of the
    TV in torn underwear and drink beer out of the bottle.

    As far as whether this FAQ gets split or not, please send me your
    suggestions and opinions.  Spare time is a rare commodity, and it
    would be ashame for me to go to all the effort of splitting this FAQ,
    only to find out that everyone starts to complain about the
    multi-part format.  So what'll it be - one part or multi-part?

    I recently received a note from Peter J. Kerrigan that I thought
    might be of interest to many of you:


       Again, thanks so much for your tip on using the DS5K and the
       Dunfield development system.   The savings in time & energy have
       been astounding....

       If I had gone with the 'HC705 as I had planned to, I would still
       be in the starting phase, not almost done!

       The DS5K is without a doubt, THE setup for uC development.  REALLY
       wish I had one of these a few years ago!

    It is not my intention to slight other chips or software packages by
    including the above letter.  It just so happens that the
    Dunfield/Dallas combination works well for me, and I recommend it
    without hesitation.  Many other good products exist, and I hope to
    give more coverage to them in the near future.

    Call for Articles - 8051 Related Newsletter

       Philips Semiconductors just issued their first 8051
       microcontroller related e-mailed newsletter, and are looking for
       8051 architecture engineering application stories.  If you want to
       share your application stories with your peers or just want to
       keep up with the latest trends in microcontroller design
       engineering, send e-mail to:

            and put "subscribe" in the subject field.

       You'll receive their latest issue and information by return

    Take care,

              Uncle Russ


1.1)  Who put this FAQ together?

    I was prompted to put this FAQ together in response to my own
    frustration in searching for information, and to the constant
    occurrence of requests for information on this subject in various
    newsgroups.  Hopefully others won't need to go through what I did.

    Normally, I spend all day programming in assembler on an IBM PC.
    With my hobbyist hat on I decided to try my hand at a little
    microcontroller project design.  When it came time to start, I had no
    idea what to do.  I had nothing to start with - no assembler, no
    programming language, no simulator.  I cobbled together a simulator
    to help me learn about the workings of the chip.  It's not being made
    available to the public since I'm afraid the simulator isn't very
    good.  It was for my own use, so the user interface (there is none)
    really sucks eggs.

    I decided to search the net for information on the 8051.  This list
    was compiled the hard way, logging onto every anonymous ftp site I
    could find and looking around.  I also used Archie, other FAQs and
    lists, and every reference to the 8051 that appeared in the various
    news groups.  It took a long time till stuff finally started popping
    up.  I saved all of my notes and the result was the first version of
    this FAQ.  Responses have been poured in, and the result is a much
    more complete and thorough FAQ.

1.2)  How can I contribute to this list?

    I please ask that if you have any suggestions or additions, or you
    would like to correct any of the information contained herein, please
    send me a note.
         My Email address is:
         My Snail-Mail address is:
               Russ Hersch
               HaVradim 11
               Ginot Shomron

    The list of individuals who have sent suggestions and encouragement
    has finally overflowed.  I hope it suffices to say "Thank you to all
    who have contributed to this FAQ - we all appreciate it."

    Special thanks to:
            Cecil A. Moore (Intel)
            Carl Wall
            Dave Dunfield (Dunfield Development Systems)
            Mark Hopkins
            Olaf Pfeiffer
            Dave Heller
            Kevin Gardner (Philips Semiconductor)

    I hope that those of you who know of interesting items for the 8051
    will share with everyone by contributing to this list.  A good amount
    of stuff is turning up thanks to everyone's help.

    If you are a manufacturer and have an anonymous ftp site or BBS
    available that supports the 8051, please let me know by EMail so that
    I can add it to this FAQ.  Also, please feel free to update me on new

1.3)  What newsgroups will this FAQ be posted to?

    This FAQ will be posted to the following newsgroups:

    These newsgroups often contain discussions, announcements, or
    information on the 8051.  Check them out from time to time.

    The schedule for posting will be once a month.  I can't promise that
    it will be on time, but I hope to post it on the 26th of each month.

    You might also want to check out the following newsgroups, since they
    occasionally have items of interest for you 8051 fans.

    A bit farther afield, but still of possible interest:


1.4)  May I post this FAQ to my local BBS?

    I am putting no restrictions on the use of this FAQ except - It must
    be distributed in its entirety with the copyright notice, and no
    financial gain may be realized from it.  After all, I have spent, and
    continue to spend, a lot of time on this.  The only thing that I
    intend to gain from it is more information on the 8051, and getting
    to know my fellow 8051 groupies better.

    For this reason I have appended a copyright statement to the end of
    this FAQ.  I feel pretty silly doing this, but I just want to protect
    myself.  The copyright does not limit the use of this list for
    noncommercial purposes.  I hereby give my permission to one and all
    to pass this list around and post it wherever you want - as long as
    it is not for financial gain.

        Thank you.

1.5)  How about FAQs on other microcontrollers?

    If anyone wishes to start a FAQ on another microcontroller, please
    feel free to copy the format of this FAQ - I don't intend on
    copyrighting the look and feel ;-).  With a common format, we will
    all benefit when trying to find information on a particular

    Other Microcontroller FAQs

      Subject:  PIC microcontrollers
      Newsgroups:  comp.realtime
      Maintainer:  Tom Kellett

      Subject:  68hc11 microcontrollers
      Newsgroups:  comp.realtime
      Archive: :  <plus all mirror sites>
      Maintainer:  Russ Hersch

      Subject:  Microcontroller primer and FAQ
      Archive: :  <plus all mirror sites>
      Maintainer:  Russ Hersch

    Additional FAQs of interest

      Subject:  Robotics
      Newsgroups:  comp.robotics
      Maintainer:  Kevin Dowling
                   Smail:  Carnegie Mellon University
                           The Robotics Institute
                           Pittsburgh, PA 15213

      Subject:  Electronics
      Newsgroups:  sci.electronics
      Comments:  There are a number of FAQs available in this newsgroup
                 on various subjects.  Among some of the subjects covered
                 are:  LCDs, stepper motors, etc.

      FAQ subject:  Real-time
      Newsgroups:  comp.realtime, comp.answers, news.answers
      Archive: : pub/usenet/comp.realtime
      Maintainer:  Mark Linimon
                       Lonesome Dove Computing Services
                       Roanoke, Virginia

      Subject:  Motorola 68K microprocessor line
      Newsgroups:  comp.sys.m68k
      Archive: : pub/motorola/general
       : /pub/misc/motorola/faq
                file name of archive is m68kfaq?.zip (? is version)
      Maintainer:  Robert Boys - Ontario, Canada

    For more detailed information on various 8051 microcontroller parts,
    see the article posted to comp.robotics and sci.electronics which
    provides a tabular cross reference of features and pin counts on a
    wide range of microcontrollers (including the 8051 family).  This
    list was compiled and is being maintained by Roger Nelson

    For more information on various microcontrollers and their features,
    refer to the Microcontroller primer and FAQ listed above.

2)  ABOUT THE 8051

2.1)  The 8051 microcontroller

    The 8051 is an 8 bit microcontroller originally developed by Intel in
    1980.  It is the world's most popular microcontroller core, made by
    many independent manufacturers (truly multi-sourced).  There were 126
    million 8051s (and variants) shipped in 1993!!

    A typical 8051 contains:
       - CPU with boolean processor
       - 5 or 6 interrupts: 2 are external
                            2 priority levels
       - 2 or 3 16-bit timer/counters
       - programmable full-duplex serial port
         (baud rate provided by one of the timers)
       - 32 I/O lines (four 8-bit ports)
       - RAM
       - ROM/EPROM in some models

    The 8051 architecture is a tad bizarre, but then so are the
    architectures of most microcontrollers due to their specialization
    (check out the PIC for creativity).  One vexing problem with the 8051
    is its very non-orthogonal instruction set - especially the
    restrictions on accessing the different address spaces.  However,
    after some time programming the chip, you can get used to it - maybe
    even appreciate it.

    One strong point of the 8051 is the way it handles interrupts.
    Vectoring to fixed 8-byte areas is convenient and efficient.  Most
    interrupt routines are very short (or at least they should be), and
    generally can fit into the 8-byte area.  Of course if your interrupt
    routine is longer, you can still jump to the appropriate routine from
    within the 8 byte interrupt region.

    The 8051 instruction set is optimized for the one-bit operations so
    often desired in real-world, real-time control applications.  The
    boolean processor provides direct support for bit manipulation.  This
    leads to more efficient programs that need to deal with binary input
    and output conditions inherent in digital-control problems.  Bit
    addressing can be used for test pin monitoring or program control

2.2)  8051 Flavors

    The 8051 has the widest range of variants of any embedded controller
    on the market.  The smallest device is the Atmel 89c1051, a 20 Pin
    FLASH variant with 2 timers, UART, 20mA.  The fastest parts are from
    Dallas, with performance close to 10 MIPS!  The most powerful chip is
    the Siemens 80C517A, with 32 Bit ALU, 2 UARTS, 2K RAM, PLCC84
    package, 8 x 16 Bit PWMs, and other features.

    Among the major manufacturers are:
        AMD      Enhanced 8051 parts
        Atmel    FLASH and semi-custom parts
        Dallas   Battery backed, program download, and fastest variants
        Intel    8051 through 80c51gb / 80c51sl
        Matra    80c154, low voltage static variants
        OKI      80c154, mask parts
        Philips  87c748 thru 89c588 - more variants than anyone else
        Siemens  80c501 through 80c517a, and SIECO cores
        SSI      80x52, 2 x HDLC variant for MODEM use

    Advanced Micro Devices (AMD)

       AMD has a number of enhanced variants including such features as:
       dual data pointers, slave interface with arbitration unit, dual
       port RAM, FIFO buffers, and others.


       The smallest current device is the ATMEL 89c1051, a 20 Pin FLASH
       variant with 2 timers, UART, 20mA.  ATMEL was the first with
       standard pinout FLASH, and with more program cycles than other
       custom pinout FLASH.  These parts compete with OTP and MASK
       product on price, but eliminate inventory problems and the hidden
       costs of OTP development.  This will put real pressure on
       "vanilla" micros like PIC and ST6.

    Dallas Soft Microcontrollers - DS5000(T), DS5001(T), DS2250(T)

       The Dallas Soft Microcontrollers have standard 8051 cores with
       on-chip non-volatile RAM instead of ROM.  This gives the user the
       ability to easily alter the system and is perfect for data
       logging.  These processors are available in both chip and module
       solutions.  Among the features included in this family of
          - on-chip non-volatile RAM
          - loader in ROM for downloading programs (eliminates the hassle
            of EPROM erase/program/install cycle)
          - built in real time clock option
          - watchdog timer
          - software security (program and data encryption)

       The DS500x is a standard 40 pin DIP package (well, mostly
       standard, it is really a BOX which is about double the height of a
       normal chip).  The DS225x is a SIP version which is functionally
       identical to the DS5000 but usually a bit less expensive.

       The nice thing about having the RAM on-chip, is that the I/O ports
       are unaffected.  When the RAM is configured as CODE memory, the
       DS5000 behaves exactly as a single-chip 8051.  The NV-RAM is
       static with a built-in lithium battery, and has no limitations on
       the number of writes.  You can download your code as many times as
       you like without damaging the device.  The DS5000 also includes a
       loader in ROM, which permits you to bootstrap code into the RAM to
       get underway.  The loader and on-chip RAM have an encryption
       feature with which you can protect your code from being read back
       from the device if you wish.

    Dallas High-Speed Micros - DS80c320, DS87c520, DS87c530

       Real barn-burners - performance up to 10 MIPS!  Dallas was the
       first to speed up the core.  Wasted clock and memory cycles have
       been removed using a redesigned processor core.  As a result,
       every 8051 instruction is executed up to 3 times faster than the
       original for the same crystal speed.  Clock speeds from DC to

       High performance doesn't just mean speed.  High integration gives
       the user 2 full-duplex hardware serial ports, 13 total interrupt
       sources (6 external), watchdog timer, power management, power-fail
       reset, and other features.

    Intel MCS-51

       Introduced in 1980, it has become the industry standard for
       embedded control.  Intel offers a wide variety of 8051 versions
       with different configurations of on-board EPROM/ROM.  Also low
       power, high integration, and specialized parts are also offered.

    Intel MCS-251

       Intel has announced the MCS-251, which is 100% binary and pin
       compatible with the 8051, but with a 5-15 times boost in
       horsepower.  This is achieved by a six fold gain in bus cycles,
       and further hardware improvements to avoid wasted bus cycles.
       Delivery early 1995.

       Further performance gains are possible by recoding critical
       sections to use the extended features of 16 and 32 bit data
       transfers, arithmetic and logical instructions, register to
       register operations, enhanced BIT manipulations and improved
       control instructions.  In addition to extra 16/32 bit
       instructions, the 251 includes 40 register with Accumulator and
       Index functions overlayed as 16x8, 16x16, 10x32.

       Pin compatible parts allow instant performance upgrades, and the
       binary compatibility truly preserves users investment in code and
       tools.  By staying firmly in the 80x51 camp, Intel allows users
       transparent access to an enormous horsepower range.  To further
       improve throughput in numerically intensive areas, users can use
       INTEGER, LONGINT and FLOAT libraries written for the MCS-251.


       Philips has more 8051 variants than anyone else.  Among the
       derivatives that they have:  40MHz, 24 pin skinny DIP, low
       voltage, quad flat pack (QFP) versions for saving board space,
       OTP, I2C bus, and so on.

       The c5xx line features high integration, with many built-in
       features including built-in EMI/RFI suppression.

       The c7xx series are very low-end, inexpensive micros.  They are
       offered with less memory (1k, 2k, etc.) and fewer features.  In
       fact the 83c750 sells for only $1 in very high OEM volumes.

    Siemens sab80c517a

       The 80c517a is one of the most powerful 8051 variants available.
       It features high clock speed (40 MHz), and high integration with
       32 Bit ALU, 2 UARTS, 2K RAM, PLCC84 package, 8x16 bit PWMs, and

2.3)  8051 representatives and approximate prices (in USD $)

    There are many, many varieties of 8051 out there.  This is only a
    small sampling of typical prices on Intel chips.

        8031 (128 bytes RAM)...................................3.59
        80C31 (CMOS version of previous).......................6.95
        8051AH (256 bytes RAM).................................6.95
        8051AHBASIC (w/Basic interpreter built in)............29.95
        8751 (4K EPROM, 128 bytes RAM)........................26.95
        87C51 (CMOS version of previous)......................39.95

2.4)  Advantages realized in implementing control applications on this
      family of microcontrollers

    Popular - readily available and widely supported, a full range of
    free and commercial support products is available

    Fast and effective - the architecture correlates closely with the
    problem being solved (control systems), specialized instructions mean
    that fewer bytes of code need to be fetched and fewer conditional
    jumps are processed

    Low cost - high level of system integration within one component,
    only a handful of components needed to create a working system

    Wide range -  ONE set of tools covers the greatest horsepower range
    of any microcontroller family, other suppliers handle a number of
    DIFFERENT and INCOMPATIBLE (and often single-sourced) cores to cover
    the same power range as the 80x51, the 8051 provides a real cost
    savings in tools, training, and software support

    Compatibility - opcodes and binaries are the SAME for all 80x51
    variants (unlike most other microcontroller families)

    Multi-sourced - over 12 manufacturers, hundreds of varieties,
    something for everyone with the security of ready availability

    Constant improvements - improvements in silicon/design increase speed
    and power annually, 16 Bit models coming from several manufacturers,
    low cost skinny DIP models now available


3.1)  FTP sites

    The following is a list of the various anonymous ftp sites that have
    8051 source code and programming languages.  There are many others
    that  are not listed here that contains bits and pieces.  Usually you
    can find them using Archie and searching for "8051", "AS31", "ASM51",
    "MCS-51", "MCS51", and stuff like that. (formerly
        - this is a great source of 8051 stuff
        /pub/incoming - check this out for new untested/unsorted items (
        - this is a great one, too
        /pub/microprocs/MCS-51   <mirror of>
        other subdirectories in /pub/microprocs include:
          1802, 6805, 6811, 8048, 8096 and many other microprocessors
        - this ftp site is pretty good now, and getting better all the
        - send comments to:
        /pub/mcs51/tools - contains various development tools
        - mirror of
        - /vendors/Intel - Email (not ftp)
        - send Email with "subscribe" in the subject field to be put
          on list for newsletter - Email (not ftp)
        - send Email message with the word "help" in the subject line to
          learn how to access the archive  - Email (not ftp)
        - send an Email message with the word "subscribe" in the subject
          line to participate in the forum, and receive usage
          instructions and guidelines - Email (not ftp)
        - send Email message to get information on all of Philips Email
        - this is a new 8051 ftp site - Email (not ftp)
        - send Email to get information file on services available
        - all Circuit Cellar INK and BYTE related files available
        - circuits of all types
        - is a programmer for the ATMEL 89C51 flash part
          by Werner Terreblanche
        /pub/languages/assembler - FORTH archive
        /mirrors/.hpib0/forth/eForth (Steve Walz)
        - has information and software for a wide range of
          microprocessors and microcontrollers, you may have to look
          around a bit
        - stuff on the Philips 87C750/1/2 microcontrollers
        - assembler, an update for the software in the DS-750 kit,
          notebook of some early experiences and code
        - responses welcome, Michael A. Covington ( - no longer supports 8051, don't even try

    awaiting final corporate approval... Philips Semiconductor ftp site

3.2)  Web pages

    S. Joel Katz's web page
        - address is
        - information about 8051 and related microcontrollers
        - not much information yet, but it is increasing rapidly

    Automation and Process Control (Olaf Pfeiffer)

3.3)  BBSs

    The following BBSs have 8051 information:

    AM Research
        - (916)652-7117

    Blue Earth Research
        - support for their line of microcontroller boards
        - (507)387-4007

    Circuit Cellar, Inc.
        - contains code from their magazine articles and from the
          original Circuit Cellar articles in Byte magazine, also
          contains many other interesting items
        - GOOD STUFF HERE!
        - The BBS is mentioned in the masthead of each issue (on the
          table of contents page).  Excerpts from the BBS appear in Ken
          Davidson's ConnecTime column in every issue with a description
          of how to access the system at the end of every column.
        - (203)871-1988
        - Voice: (203)875-2751
        - Fax: (203)872-2204

    Crossware Products
        - +44 763 261716

    Dallas Semiconductor
        - Support for their line of innovative products

    Dunfield Development Systems
        - support for their Micro-C compiler and development tools
        - includes a lot of nice goodies - CHECK THIS OUT!
        - (613) 256-6289

    Electronics Now
        - contains code from their magazine articles
        - (516)293-2283
        - 1200/2400, 8N1

    Intel American Marketing Applications Support Bulletin Board System
        - 16 lines, hi-speed modems (14.4K)
        - Lots of useful info and files (including design examples)!
        - Full ANSI-BBS with color is recommended, but support for just
          about all terminal types is provided
        - (916)356-3600 (24 hours)
          Auto config: 1200 thru 14.4K Baud
          8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop

    Iota Systems, Inc.
        - Support for their line of hardware and software products
        - 15 application notes which show how to hook up such things as
          clocks, A/D, D/A, and special chips to the 8051
        - (702)831-4732

    Micro Computer Control Corporation
        - (609)466-4117

    Philips Semiconductor - Europe
        - support for: standard logic, programmable logic,
          in-car electronics (now open), 8 and 16 bit microcontrollers,
          I2C software, third party software, discrete semiconductors,
          cross assemblers (general), RF (planned)
        - PHIBBS is located in the Netherlands: +31-40-721102
        - maximum 21600 baud / V42bis / HST/Vterbo
        - 24 hours a day available
        - Help desk: +31-40-722749  (9.00 AM - 16.00 PM CET)

    Philips Semiconductor - North America
        - support for their 8051 variants
        - contains many good source code items
        - partially mirrored on and
        - (800)451-6644 or (408)991-2406

        - support for their line of simulators and assemblers
        - (804)873-4838

    Realtime Control & Forth Board (RCFB)
        - Forth and assembly for the 8051
        - 300 through 14.4 baud
        - (303)278-0364 (24 hours)

    Systronix Inc.
        - support for their line of development tools
        - (801)487-2778

3.4)  Help available!

    This is a new feature in the FAQ.  Listed here are individuals who
    have expressed interest in helping others with hardware and software
    problems for 8051 systems.

    Does any one else out there think that they can help?  Just let me
    know what your areas of specialization are and I'll add your name to
    the list.  Thanks!

    Dick Barnett <>
       Specializes in 8051 (core processors), 80C552, and 87C751

    Daniel Drennan <> or <>
       He claims his electronics knowledge is very rudimentary and
       self-taught (what a modest guy!).  He'll probably be able to point
       you in the right direction.

    Mark Hopkins <>
       Mark is the author of the CAS assembler and of the 8051.ZIP
       programs.  He's now working on JOLT, a code generator with a
       C-like syntax.  His areas of specialization include:
       multitasking, interrupts, basic stuff (like addressing, memory
       spaces), the 8052 BASIC chip, interfacing the chip with external
       inputs and outputs

4)  8051 PRODUCTS

    This section includes descriptions and references to free and
    commercial software for the 8051.  FTP sites and BBSs contain many
    quality packages and code samples for free.  For heavy duty use, you
    might prefer the many commercial packages that are available.  With
    the public domain (or free) stuff, you're usually on your own.  The
    commercial packages usually provide extensive documentation and

4.1)  Free languages and development tools

    The following is a list of the languages and development tools that I
    could find on the net.  Nearly all of them include source code,
    however not all are public domain.


      Program: ML-ASM51.ZIP
      Description: MetaLink's 8051 family macro assembler
      Location: : /pub/8051/signetics-bbs
        : /pub/microprocs/MCS-51/signetics-bbs

      Program: A51.ZIP
      Description: PseudoSam 8051 Cross Assembler
      Location: : /pub/8051/signetics-bbs
        : /pub/microprocs/MCS-51/signetics-bbs

      Program: AS31.ZIP
      Description:  C source for an 8051 assembler, and a simple monitor
      Author:  Ken Stauffer
      Location: : /pub/8051/signetics-bbs
        : /pub/microprocs/MCS-51/signetics-bbs
        : /pub/msdos/crossasm/
                 many other locations (use Archie to find)

      Program: CUG292WK.ZIP
      Description:  C source for a cross assembler, includes 8051
      Author:  Alan R. Baldwin
      Location: : /pub/msdos/crossasm
        : /pub/msdos/systools
                 many other locations (use Archie to find)

      Program: Frankenstein
      Description:  C source for a cross assembler, includes 8051
      Author:  Mark Zenier
      Location: : /pub/msdos/frankasm/FRANKASM.ZOO
        : /pub/netnews/alt.sources/volume90/dec
        : /pub1/unix/languages/frankenstein.tar.Z
                 many other locations (use Archie to find)

      Program:  CAS 8051 assembler
      Description:  Experimental one-pass assembler for the 8051
                    with C-like syntax.  Includes assembler, linker
                    and disassembler.
      Author:  Mark Hopkins
      Location: : /pub/8051/assem
        : /pub/microprocs/MCS-51/csd4-archive/assem

      Program:  a51
      Description:  Portable cross assembler (source in C), other
                    processors available
      Author:  William C. Colley, III
      Location: : /misc/ns32k/beowulf/a-8051


      Program:  BASIC52.ZIP
      Description:  Source files for original BASIC 52 interpreter
      Author:  Intel Corporation, Embedded Controller Operations
      Location: : /pub/mcs51

      Program:  BAS051.ZIP
      Description:  Converts IBM BASIC to 8051 assembly (compiler)
      Author:  Winefred Washington
      Location: : /pub/8051/signetics-bbs
        : /pub/8051/signetics-bbs

      Program:  BASIC-52.ZIP
      Description:  Source files for BASIC-52 interpreter
      Author:  Intel Corporation, Embedded Controller Operations
      Location: : /pub/8051/signetics-bbs
        : /pub/microprocs/MCS-51/signetics-bbs

      Program:  BASIC31.ZIP
      Description:  BASIC-52 interpreter for 8031/8051 in external EPROM
      Author:  Intel w/ changes by Dan Karmann
      Location: : /pub/8051/signetics-bbs
        : /pub/microprocs/MCS-51/signetics-bbs

      Program:  TB-51.ZIP
      Description:  TinyBASIC for 8031
      Author:  JHW (from Intel InSite library) w/ fixes by Tom Schotland
      Location: : /pub/8051/signetics-bbs
        : /pub/microprocs/MCS-51/signetics-bbs

      Program:  TB51ML23.ZIP
      Description:  MetaLink ASM compatible tiny BASIC
      Author:  adapted for MetaLink assembler by Jim Lum
      Location: : /pub/8051/signetics-bbs
        : /pub/microprocs/MCS-51/signetics-bbs


      Program:  EFORTH51.ZIP
      Description:  eFORTH environment for the 8051
      Author:  C. H. Ting
      Location: : /pub/8051/signetics-bbs
        : /pub/microprocs/MCS-51/signetics-bbs
        : /pub/forth/8051
        : /mirrors/.hpib0/forth/eForth

      Program:  FORTH51.ZIP (FORTH86.ZIP used as host)
      Description:  FORTH development system for 8051 with PC host
      Author:  William H. Payne, the author of "Embedded Controller
               Forth for the 8051 Family"
      Location: : /pub/8051/signetics-bbs
        : /pub/microprocs/MCS-51/signetics-bbs
        : /pub/forth/8051
        : /mirrors/.hpib0/forth/8051

      Program:  XD8051.ZIP
      Description:  Development environment for use with F-PC Forth
      Author:  Paulo A.D. Ferreira
      Location: : /pub/8051/signetics-bbs
        : /pub/microprocs/MCS-51/signetics-bbs

      Program:  51FORTH.ZIP
      Description:  Subroutine threaded Forth
      Author:  Scott Gehmlich
      Location: : /mirrors/.hpib0/forth/8051
        : /giovanni/

      Program:  FORTH552.ZIP
      Description:  A Non-Standard Forth System for the Signetics 80C552
      Author:  Alberto Pasquale
      Location: : /mirrors/.hpib0/forth/8051

    Development systems

      Description:  Many development tools including: debugger, monitor,
                    LCD and stepper moter driver, communications, host
                    client, and much more.  This is a great collection of
      Author:  Mark Hopkins
      Location: : /pub/8051
        : /pub/microprocs/MCS-51/csd4-archive

      Program:  RISM and IECM51.EXE compatible host system
      Description:  RISM is a reduced instruction set monitor and
                    IECM51.EXE is its compatible host system for a PC
      Comments:  These two programs together constitute a bare-bones
                 method of developing 80C51 system code without an
                 emulator.  RISM51X is installed in the target system
                 and connected to a host PC system through a serial port.
                 The host PC runs the debugger IECM51.EXE.  Once the
                 system has been debugged, RISM can be removed and the
                 target can be run in stand-alone mode.
      Author:  Intel
      Location: : /pub/mcs51/tools

      Program:  ApBUILDER 2.0
      Description:  Development system for the Intel MCS-51(R) family
                    (also for the MCS-96(R) family, 80x186, and 80x386
                    embedded microcontrollers).
      Comments:  Requires Windows 3.1
                 APBUILDR.TXT - description in ASCII
                 APBDISK1.EXE - binary self-extracting file for disk 1
                 APBDISK2.EXE - binary self-extracting file for disk 2
      Author:  Intel
      Location: : /pub/mcs51 and /pub/mcs96

      Program:  FXDSMAN.EXE
      Description:  8xC51Fx data sheets and manual in Windows 3.1
                    hypertext style
      Comments:  binary self-extracting file for one diskette
      Author:  Intel
      Location: : /pub/mcs51/80c51

      Program: sim51d
      Description:  Shareware Simulator in German
                    DM 50 to register for full version
      Author:  Werner Hennig-Roleff
      Location: : /pub/8051/hannover

      Description:  80C552 simulator (Freeware)
      Comments:  Program is capable of reading .HEX and .S19 records, or
                 saving memory to a file.  It supports both code and
                 data.  Written in Turbo Pascal for XT and upwards.
      Author:  Brian Brown
      Location: : /pub/msdos/

4.2)  Free C compilers

    Several commercial C compilers have evaluation versions available.
    These are not too useful (even for hobbyist projects) since they
    usually don't include libraries.  However, they do afford the user
    the chance to inspect the quality of the code generated.  Among those
    currently available:

        An evaluation version of COMPASS is available from Production
        Language Systems.  This package includes a C compiler, assembler,
        debugger, simulator, etc. and runs under Windows 3.1.  This
        package can be downloaded from the IntelC Compuserve forum or
        from their BBS:
              Enter YY8051 as password for first-time login
              (In case of difficulty, contact

        The Keil C compiler evaluation package is available as a freeware
        C compiler.  It can be downloaded from:
        : /pub/MCS-51/keil-demo
        Thanks to Christofe Huygens for setting this up.

        A freeware version of the Hi-Tech C compiler used to be available
        from various places.  It seems to have disappeared however.  It
        might still be available at:
     : /hitech

    Mark Hopkins has changed the goal of his compiler project.  Instead
    of implementing a C compiler, he is working on an implementation of
    JOLT for the '51.  Its main characteristic is the complete and
    seamless integration of functional and imperative programming into
    one language.  The language envisioned essentially has a C syntax and
    could probably be mistaken as being a dialect of C.  More on this as
    it develops.

    In most cases, it makes more sense to invest a bit, and get something
    serious.  I've been playing with the Dunfield Development System
    lately, and its really quite nice.  I've also heard many good things
    about it from others.  It includes a near ANSI-C compiler, run-time
    library with source, assembler, ROM debugger, integrated development
    environment, monitor with source, utilities, and other extras.  A
    high quality simulator is also available separately.  Although not
    freeware, the low price ($100), the features, all of the extra
    goodies, and the good reviews make this a package worth looking at.
    Also, if you're interested in working on more than one family of
    microcontroller, Dunfield supports a wide range.  This means only
    needing to learn one system, instead of many.

4.3)  Commercially available products

    Many firms (large and small) offer a variety of 8051 microcontroller
    variants, programming languages, support packages, and development

    No endorsement is implied by inclusion in this list.  I apologize to
    anyone I left out;  It's only because I didn't know about you.  If
    you want to be included in this list, just drop me a line - please.
    Any corrections and additions appreciated.

    C compilers ($$$ - high, $$ - medium, $ - low priced)
        - 2500 A.D.
        - Archimedes Software  $$$
             compiler, assembler, debugger, real-time kernel, ROM
             monitor, libraries for special 8051's to set SFR, embedded
             I/O devices, A/D, etc.
        - Avocet Systems  $$
             repackaging of the Hi-Tech Software C compiler
        - BSO/Tasking  $$
        - Crossware Products
        - Dunfield Development Systems  $
             Complete C compiler development system for MS-DOS
             includes: compiler, run-time library with source, assembler,
                ROM debugger, integrated development environment, monitor
                with source, utilities, and other extras
             low price:  $100
             good reputation and good support
             works well with the Dallas DS5000/DS2250
        - Franklin Software  $$$
             same as Keil Electronics C
             compiler, assembler, debugger, real-time kernel, ROM
                monitor, libraries for special 8051's to set SFR,
                embedded I/O devices, A/D, etc.
        - IAR Systems
             IAR tool kit comes with a C-Cross compiler, assembler,
                Xlink linker, Xlib librarian, C-SPY simulator, editor,
                make utility and a real-time kernel
             formerly licensed for distribution in the US and Canada
                under the Archimedes brand name
        - Hi-Tech Software  $$
             high compliance to ANSI C
             available for DOS and soon for SUN
        - Intermetrics Microsystems Software, Inc.
             Whitesmith's compiler, assembler, and C source level
        - Keil Electronics
        - Mandeno Granville Electronics, Ltd
             SYS51C - ANSI C Cross Compiler
        - Micro Computer Control  $
             Developer's kit includes "C"-like compiler, assembler,
                linker, librarian, extensive printed documentation
             low cost ($99.95)
        - Nohau Corporation
             sells and supports Franklin C
        - Okapi Systems
        - Production Languages Corporation
             DOS- and Windows- based compilers
             Integrated development environment includes ANSI C compiler,
                assembler, linker, librarian, debugger
        - Signum Systems

    Basic interpreters/compilers
        - Binary Technology, Inc.
        - Iota Systems, Inc.
             Basic-752 interpreter (simulator also available)
             Basic-52 Plus interpreter
        - Micro Future
             Basic-52 development system
        - Systronix Inc. (Basic compiler)

        - Mandeno Granville Electronics, Ltd
             PASCAL51 - Advanced Turbo PASCAL compliant cross compiler
        - Scientific Engineering Labs

        - Mandeno Granville Electronics, Ltd
             Mod51 - optimizing Modula-2 Compiler, smallest program is 14
             bytes, ideal for both very tight/fast projects and very
             large ones with multiple modules, produces smaller/tighter
             code than C, has extensive libraries and working examples
        - Vail Silicon Tools, Inc.

        - BSO/Tasking

    Board level products
        - Ackerman Computers Sciences (ACS)
        - AM Research
             complete FORTH based system with PC based host system
        - Binary Technology, Inc.
        - Blue Earth Research
        - Blue Ridge Micros (8031 and 8052-BASIC based boards)
        - Circuit Cellar Inc.
        - DataCraft International
        - Dunfield Development Systems
        - EE Systems
        - Forth, Inc.
        - HiTech Equipment Corp.
        - Iota Systems, Inc. (line of development packages, boards,
             peripherals, and components)
        - J & M Microtek, Inc.
        - L.S. Electronic Systems Design
        - Mandeno Granville Electronics, Ltd
        - Parallax, Inc.
        - Prologic Designs
        - Rigel Corporation
        - Software Science
        - Suncoast Technologies
        - URDA, Inc.

        - 2500 A.D.
        - Archimedes Software
        - BSO/Tasking
        - Crossware Products
        - Custom Computer Consultants
        - Cybernetics Microsystems
        - Dunfield Development Systems
             Supports both Intel and Motorola style syntax
        - Intel Corporation
        - Keil Electronics
        - Lear Com Company
        - Metalink
        - Micro Computer Control
        - Microtek Research
        - Nohau Corporation
        - Okapi Systems
        - Onset Computer Corporation (8051 Assember for MAC)
        - Parallax, Inc.
        - PseudoCorp
        - Raven Computer Systems
        - Signum Systems
        - Speech Technology Inc.
        - Sysoft SA
        - Universal Cross Assemblers
             CROSS32 supports 40-50 different processors

        - AM Research
             Development system, features kernel of less than 700 bytes
        - Forth, Inc.
             A cross-development product for the 8051 family
                which includes a board and extensive documentation.
        - Forth Systeme
        - MPE: MicroProcessor Engineering Ltd.
             A cross-development system for the 8051 family
                extensive documentation
             interactive single chip development, multitasking,
                bank switching for more than 64k code
        - Offete Enterprises
             8051 eForth (C. H. Ting -- $25.00).  "A small ROM based
                Forth system ... Source code is in MASM IBM 5.25 disk
                with 8051 eForth Implementation Note."

    ROM Monitor-based Debuggers
        - ChipTools (ChipView-51 looks like turbo debugger)
        - Dunfield Development Systems
             Can be used with DS5000 for single-chip in-circuit

        - 2500 A.D.
        - Avocet Systems
        - ChipTools
             on a 33 MHz 486 matches the speed of a 12 MHz 8051
        - Cybernetic Micro Systems
        - Dunfield Development Systems
             Low cost $50.00
             500,000+ instructions/second on 486/33
             Can interface to target system for physical I/O
             Includes PC hosted "on chip" debugger with identical user
        - HiTech Equipment Corp.
        - Iota Systems, Inc.
        - J & M Microtek, Inc.
        - Keil Electronics
        - Lear Com Company
        - Mandeno Granville Electronics, Ltd
        - Micro Computer Control Corporation
             Simulator/source code debugger ($79.95)
        - Microtek Research
        - Production Languages Corp.
        - PseudoCorp

    Emulators ($$$ - high, $$ - medium, $ - low priced)
        - Advanced Micro Solutions  $$
        - Advanced Microcomputer Systems, Inc.  $
        - American Automation  $$$  $$
        - Applied Microsystems  $$
        - ChipTools (front end for Nohau's emulator)
        - Cybernetic Micro Systems  $
        - Dunfield Development Systems $
             plans for pseudo-ice using Dallas DS5000/DS2250
             used together with their resident monitor and host debugger
        - HBI Limited  $
        - Hewlett-Packard  $$$
        - HiTech Equipment Corp.
        - Huntsville Microsystems  $$
        - Intel Corporation  $$$
        - Kontron Electronics  $$$
        - Mandeno Granville Electronics, Ltd
             full line covering everything from the Atmel flash to the
                Siemens powerhouse 80c517a
        - MetaLink Corporation  $$  $
        - Nohau Corporation  $$
        - Orion Instruments  $$$
        - Philips $
             DS-750 pseudo-ICE developed by Philips and CEIBO
             real-time emulation and simulator debug mode
             source-level debugging for C, PL/M, and assembler
             programs 8xC75x parts
             low cost - only $100
             DOS and Windows versions available
        - Signum Systems  $$
        - Sophia Systems  $$$
        - Zax Corporation
        - Zitek Corporation  $$$

        - Byte-BOS Integrated Systems
             small, prioritized, preemptive real-time kernel
        - Embedded System Products (formerly A.T. Barrett and Associates)
             ROMable embedded-system kernel: source provided.  Provides
             programming interface identical on all target platforms.
             Basic, advanced, and extended library packages available.
        - Intellimap Engineering
             DCE51 real time operating system
        - JMI Software Systems, Inc.
             small, prioritized, preemptive real-time kernel
        - U S Software
             SuperTask! - multitasking executive

        - Advanced Educational Systems (AES)
             complete learning system (board, LCD, keypad, A/D, D/A, etc)
        - Sun Equipment Corp.

        - Creative Applications Engineering, Inc
             CheepTools (integrated environment)
        - Dallas Semiconductor
             evaluation/development kit for their DS5000 (very nice)
        - Data Sync Engineering (disassembler)
        - Educational Laboratories
             development courses:
               8051 Microcontroller Based Computer Design
               Programming 8051 Based Computers
             each course $19.95, both $29.95
        - Electronic Product Design, Inc.
             development system (integrated package with assembler,
             project manager, text editor, programmer)
        - Exor Inc. (ladder logic compiler)
        - Iota Systems, Inc.
             integrated environment system
        - Mandeno Granville Electronics, Ltd
             PIC to 8051 conversion program
        - Parallax, Inc.
        - Quantasm Corp.
             ASMFLOW - produces flowchart and tree diagrams from source
                code, register usage analysis, Xref, timing info
        - U S Software
             USNET - TCP/IP networking suite
             USFiles - file system
             GOFAST - floating point library

    2500 A.D.       109 Brookdale Ave., Box 480, Buena Vista, CO  81211

    Ackerman Computer Sciences (ACS)
                    4276 Lago Way, Sarasota, FL  34241
                    (813)377-5775   Fax: (813)378-4226

    Advanced Educational Systems (AES)
                    1407 North Batavia Street, Orange, CA  92677
                    (800)730-3232   (714)744-0981   Fax: (714)744-2693

    Advanced Micro Devices
                    901 Thompson Place, PO Box 3453
                    Sunnyvale, CA  94088-3000

    Advanced Microcomputer Systems, Inc.
                    1321 NW 65th Place, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33309
                    (305)975-9515  Fax: (305)975-9698

    Advanced Micro Solutions
                    1033 S Imperial Dr., Hartland, WI 53029

    American Automation
                    2651 Dow Avenue, Tustin, CA  92680

    AM Research     4600 Hidden Oaks Lane, Loomis, CA  95650
                    (800)949-8051   (916)652-7472   Fax: (916)6642
                    BBS: (916)652-7117

    Applied Microsystems
                    5020 148th Ave. N.E., PO Box 97002
                    Redmond, WA  98073-9702

    Archimedes Software
                    2159 Union St., San Francisco, CA  94123

    Ashling Microsystems Ltd
    Ireland         Plessey Technological Park
                    Limerick, Ireland
                    +353 61 334466   Fax:  +353 61 334477
    United Kingdom  Butler House
                    19-23 Market Street
                    Maidenhead, Berkshire,  UK
                    +0628 773070   Fax: 0628 773009

    Atmel           <anyone have this address>

    Avocet Systems  120 Union St., Rockport, ME  04856
                    (800)448-8500  (207)236-9055   Fax: (207)236-6713

    Binary Technology, Inc.
                    PO Box 541, Carlisle, MA  01741
                    (508)369-9556   Fax: (508)369-9549

    Blue Earth Research
                    165 W. Lind Ct., Mankato, MN  56001-0400
                    (507)387-4001   Fax: (507)387-4008
                    BBS: (507)387-4007

    Blue Ridge Micros
                    2505 Plymouth Rd., Johnson City, TN  37601
                    (615)335-6696   Fax: (615)929-3164

    International   333 Elm Street, Dedham, MA  02026-4530
                    (800)458-8276  (617)320-9400  Fax: (617)320-9212
    Europe          Tasking Software BV
                    P O Box 899, 3800 AW Amersfoort, Netherlands
                    +31 33 558584   Fax: +31 33 550033

    Business Data Computers
                    P.O. Box 1549, Chester, CA  96020

    Byte-BOS Integrated Systems
                    P.O. Box 3067, Del Mar, CA 92014
                    (800)788-7288   (619)755-8836

    ChipTools Inc   (905)274-6244   Fax: (905)891-2715

    Circuit Cellar Inc.
                    4 Park St., Vernon, CT  06066
                    (203)875-2751   Fax: (203)872-2204

    Creative Applications Engineering, Inc
                    Ed Carryer
                    (415)494-2363   BBS: (415)494-8463

    Crossware Products
                    2 The Lawns, Melbourn, Royston, Herts  SG8 6BA, UK
                    +44 763 261539   Fax: +44 763 262983
                    BBS: +44 763 261716

    Custom Computer Consultants
                    1807 Huron River Drive, Ypsilanti, MI 48197

    Cybernetic Micro Systems
                    Box 3000, San Gregorio, CA  94074

    Dallas Semiconductor
                    4401 S. Beltwood Parkway, Dallas, TX  75244-3292
                    (214)450-0448   Fax: (214)450-3715
                    International:  (214)450-5351
                    Orders:  (800)336-6933
                    Email: (Kevin Self, appl. engineer)
                            (great email address! right?)

    DataCraft International
                    2828 Ione Dr., San Jose, CA  95132
                    (800)873-3709   (408)259-4866

    Data Sync Engineering
                    POB 146, E. Stroudsburg, PA  18301

    Dunfield Development Systems
                    P.O. Box 31044, Nepean, Ontario Canada   K2B 8S8
                    (613)256-5820   Fax: (613)256-5821
                    BBS: (613)256-6289

    EE Systems      50935 Hill Dr., Elkhart, IN  46514
                    (219)296-1754   Fax: (219)522-4271

    Electronic Product Design, Inc.
                    6963 Bluebelle Way, Springfield, OR  97478

    Embedded System Products (formerly A.T. Barrett and Associates)
                    11501 Chimney Rock, Houston, TX  77035-2900
                    (800)525-4302   (713)728-9688   Fax: (713)728-1049

    Exor Inc.
                    4740T Interstate Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45246
                    (513)874-4665   Fax: (513)874-3684

    Forth, Inc.     1-800-55FORTH

    Forth Systeme   P.O. Box 1103, Breisach, Germany

    Franklin Software

    HBI Limited
                    6F, 1 Fleming Road, Hong Kong
                    852-891-3673  Fax: 852-834-9748

    Hewlett-Packard 1501 Page Mill Rd., Palo Alto, CA  94304

    HiTech Equipment Corp.
                    9400 Activity Rd., San Diego, CA  92126
                    (619)566-1892   Fax: (619)530-1458

    Hi-Tech Software
                    PO Box 103, Alderly QLD 4051, Australia
                    (+61-7) 300 5011   Fax: (+61-7) 300 5246

    Hitex (UK) Ltd  Sir William Lyons Road, Science Park
                    Coventry CV4 7EX
                    +0203 692066   Fax: +0203 692131

    Huntsville Microsystems
                    4040 S. Memorial Parkway, PO Box 12415
                    Huntsville, AL  35802

    IAR Systems Software
    North America   One Maritime Plaza, Suite 1770
                    San Fransisco, CA 94111  USA
                    (415)765-5500   Fax: (415)765-5503
    Sweden          IAR Systems AB
                    Box 23051
                    S-750 23 Uppsala, Sweden
                    +46 18 16 7800   Fax: +46 18 16 7838
    Germany         IAR Systems GmbH
                    Brucknerstrasse 27
                    D-81677 Munchen, Germany
                    +49 89 470 6022   Fax: +49 89 470 9565
    United Kingdom  IAR Systems Ltd
                    9 Spice Court
                    Plantation Wharf, York Rd
                    London SWII 3UE, England
                    +44 71 924 3334   Fax: +44 71 924 5341

    Intel Corporation
                    3065 Bowers Ave., Santa Clara, CA  95051
                    Technical Help: (800)628-8686 (USA/Canada only)
                       5 am to 5 pm PST
                    Faxback support: (800)628-2283 (USA/Canada)
                       touch tone phones only
                       Will only FAX to USA/Canada locations
                       English or Japanese support is available
                    BBS: (916)356-3600  24 Hr.
                       Auto config: 1200 thru 14.4K Baud

    Intellimap Engineering
                    1140 Morrison Dr., Suite 222
                    Ottawa Ontario Canada K2H 8S9
                    (613)829-3196   Fax: (613)820-1773

    Intermetrics Microsystems Software, Inc.
                    733 Concord Ave., Cambridge, MA  02138
                    (617)661-0072   Fax: (617)868-2843

    Iota Systems, Inc.
                    924 Incline Way, Suite N / POB 8987
                    Incline Village, NV  89452-8987
                    (702)831-6302   Fax: (702)831-4629

    J & M Microtek, Inc.
                    83 Seaman Rd., W Orange, NJ  07052
                    (201)325-1892   Fax: (201)736-4567

    JMI Software Systems, Inc.
                    P.O. Box 481, 904 Sheble Lane, Spring House, PA 19477
                    (215)628-0840   Fax: (215)628-0353

    Keil Elektronik GmbH
                    Bretonischer Ring 15
                    D-85630 Grasbrunn b. Muenchen, Germany
                    089-465057   Fax: 089-468162

    Kontron Electronics
                    D-8057 Eching/Munich
                    Oskar von Miller Str. 1, Germany
                    (0 81 65) 77-0

    Lear Com Company
                    2440 Kipling St. Suite 206, Lakewood, CO  80215
                    (303)232-2226   Fax: (303)232-8721

    Logical Systems Corporation (Disassembler, Simulator)
    Micro Dialects, Inc.
                    POB 30014, Cincinnati, OH  45230

    Logisoft        Box 61929, Sunnyvale CA  94086
                    (408)773-8465  Fax: (408)773-8466

    L.S. Electronic Systems Design
                    2280 Camilla Rd., Mississauga, Ontario
                    Canada  L5A 2J8
                    (905)277-4893   Fax: (905)277-0047

    Mandeno Granville Electronics, Ltd
                    128 Grange Rd., Auckland 3, Australia
                    +64 9 6300 558   Fax: +64 9 6301 720

    Matra Semiconductor
                    2840-100 San Tomas Expressway, Santa Clara, CA  95051

    MetaLink Corporation
    North America   325 E. Elliot Road, Chandler, AZ  85255
                    (800)638-2423   (602)926-0797
                    Fax:  (602)926-1198
    Europe          MetaLink Europe GmbH
                    Westring 2, 8011<85614>
                    Kirchseeon-Eglharting, Germany
                    (08091)2046   Fax: (08091)2386

    Micro Computer Control Corporation
                    PO Box 275, 17 Model Ave., Hopewell, NJ  08525
                    (609)466-1751   Fax: (609)466-4116
                    BBS: (609)466-4117

    Micro Future    40944 Cascado Place, Fremont, CA  94539
                    (510)657-0264   Fax: (510)657-5441
                    BBS: (510)657-5442

    MicroMint       4 Park St., Vernon, CT  06066
                    (203)875-2751   Fax: (203)872-2204

    Microtek International, Inc.
    North America   Microtek International, Inc.
                    3300 N.W. 211th Terrace, Hillsboro, OR  97124
                    (503)645-7333   Fax: (503)629-8460
    Europe          Microtek Electronics Europe GmbH
                    Starnberger Strasse 22, 82131 Gauting bei Munchen
                    +49(89)893139-30    Fax: +49(89)893139-50

    MPE: MicroProcessor Engineering Ltd.
                    133 Hill Lane, Shirley, Southampton SO1 5AF U.K.
                    +44 1703 631441   Fax: +44 1703 339691

    Nohau Corporation
                    51 E. Campbell Ave., Campbell, CA  95008
                    (408)378-2912 (24 hr. information center)
                    Fax: (408)378-7869

    Offete Enterprises, Inc.
                    1306 South B Street, San Mateo, CA  94402
                    (415) 574-8250

    Okapi Systems   (206)258-1163

    Onset Computer Corporation
                    199 Main St.,  P.O. Bos 1030
                    North Falmouth, MA 02556-1030
                    (508)563-9000   Fax: (508)563-9477

    Orion Instruments
                    180 Independence Drive, Menlo Park, CA  94025
                    (800)729-7700   Fax: (415)327-9881

    Parallax, Inc.  6200 Desimone Lane, #69A, Citrus Heights, CA  95621

    Philips Microcontroller Product Group
                    811 East Arques Ave. / POB 3409
                    Sunnvale, CA  94088-3409
                    Technical documentation:
                        Sunnyvale, CA - (800)447-1500  Fax: (408)991-3773
                        Eindhoven, Netherlands - Fax: 31-40-724825
                    Technical questions:
                        Sunnyvale, CA - (408)991-3518

    Production Languages Corporation
                    P.O. Box 109, Weatherford, TX  76086
                    (800)525-6289   (817)599-8365   Fax: (817)599-5098

    Prologic Designs
                    PO Box 19026, Baltimore, MD  21204
                    (410)661-5950   Fax: (410)661-5950

    PseudoCorp      716 Thimble Shoals Blvd., Newport News, VA  23606
                    (804)873-1947   Fax: (804)873-2154
                    BBS: (804)873-4838

    Quantasm Corporation
                    19672 Stevens Creek Blvd.
                    Cupertino, CA  95014
                    (800)765-8086   (408)244-6826   Fax: (408)244-7268

    Raven Computer Systems
                    PO Box 12116, St. Paul, MN  55112

    Rigel Corporation
                    P.O. Box 90040, Gainesville, FL  32607

    Scientific Engineering Labs
                    255 Beacon St., Suite 3D, Somerville, MA  02143

    Siemens Components, Inc.
                    Integrated Circuit Division, 10950 N. Tantau Ave.
                    Cupertino, CA  95014
                    (800)777-4363  Fax: (708)296-4805

    Signetics Corporation (see Philips Microcontroller Product Group)

    Signum Systems  Mountain View, CA     (415)903-2220
                    Thousand Oaks, CA     (805)371-4608

    Software Science
                    3570 Roundbottom Rd., Cincinnati, OH  45244

    Sophia Systems  NS Bldg. 2-4-1, Nishishinjuku, Shinuku-ku
                    Tokyo 160, Japan

    Speech Technology Inc., Software Division
                    837 Front Street South, Issaquah, WA  98027

    Sun Equipment Corporation
    Lodestar Electronics Corp.
                    616 Hawick Rd., Raleigh, NC  27615
                    (800)870-1955   (919)881-2141   Fax: (919)870-5720

    Suncoast Technologies
                    PO Box 5835, Spring Hill, FL  34606

    Sysoft SA       6926 Montagnola, Switzerland

    Systronix Inc.  555 S. 300 E., Salt Lake City, UT  84111
                    (801)534-1017  Fax: (801)534-1019
                    BBS: (801)487-2778

    URDA, Inc.      (800)338-0517   (412)683-8732

    US Software     14215 N.W. Science Park Drive, Portland, OR  97229
                    (800)356-7097   (503)641-8446   Fax: (503)644-2413
                    Product information available by ftp -
              : pub/ussw

    Universal Cross Assemblers
                    (506)849-8952   Fax: (506)847-0681

    Vail Silicon Tools, Inc.
                    Box 165, Pompano Beach FL  33069
                    (305)491-7443   Fax: (305)974-8531

    Zax Corporation
                    2572 White Road, Irving, CA 92714
                    (800)421-0982   (714)474-1170

    Zitek Corporation
                    1651 East Edinger Ave., Santa Ana, Ca  92705


5.1) Periodicals that cover the 8051

    Various magazines and journals (journals seems to be THE popular name
    for magazines these days) provide articles from time to time on the
    8051 family of microcontrollers:

    The Computer Applications Journal (Circuit Cellar Ink)
        - programming and construction articles
        - POB 7694, Riverton, NJ  08077-8784
        - FAX: (203)872-2204
        - Voice orders: (609)786-0409
        - On-line orders (BBS): (203)871-1988
        - Email orders:
        - $21.95, $31.95 surface Canada and Mexico,
          $49.95 air all other countries

    Computer Design
        - industry announcements and trends
        - One Technology Park Drive, P.O. Box 990, Westford, MA  01886
        - (508)692-0700

    The Computer Journal
        - programming and construction articles
        - PO Box 535, Lincoln  96648

    Dr. Dobbs Journal
        - programming articles, concepts, and designs
        - 411 Borel Ave., San Mateo, CA  94402
        - (415)358-9500

    Electronic Engineering Times
        - industry announcements and trends
        - FREE to qualified engineers and managers involved in
          engineering decisions
        - Fulfillment Dept., PO Box 9055, Jericho, NY  11753-8955
        - FAX:  (516)733-6960

    Electronics Now
        - construction articles
        - Box 55115, Boulder, CO  80321-5115
        - $19.97 one year

    Elektor Electronics
        - programming and construction articles
        - World Wide Subscription Service Ltd
          Unit 4, Gibbs Reed Farm, Pashley Road
          Ticehurst TN5 7HE, England
        - 27 UK pounds
        - Old Colony Sound Lab, P.O. Box 243, Peterborough, NH 03458
        - Tel. (603)924-6371, 924-6526
        - Fax: (603)924-9467
        - $57 USA and Canada per year

    Embedded Systems Programming
        - programming and systems design articles
        - Miller Freeman Publications
        - 500 Howard St., San Francisco, CA  94105
        - (415) 397-1881

    Inquisitor Magazine
        - If you're the type that watched Gilligan's Island for its
          socio-political insights, then you'll love a new 'zine that
          just crossed my desk - Inquisitor Magazine.  It's general
          philosophy seems to be ... well, it seems to be ... uh, yeah!
          Technical in nature, bizarre, tongue in cheek, eclectic,
          electric, did I mention bizarre(?), and lots of fun.  Worth
          looking at if you like the out of the ordinary.  The moving
          force behind this magazine is Daniel Drennan, who seems to have
          suffered from an overdose of radiation from his computer
          monitor ;-).
        - Planetarium Station, P.O.Box 132, New York, NY  10024-0132
        - (212)595-8370
        - Email:
        - $16 per year (4 issues)

    Microcomputer Journal (formerly Computer Craft)
        - programming and construction articles
        - 76 N. Broadway, Hicksville, NY  11801
        - $29.70 one year

    Midnight Engineering
        - 1700 Washington Ave., Rocky Road, CO  81067
        - (719)254-4553

    MW Media - Product Directories
        - 8051 Product Directory
          (survey of various 8051 products)
        - Intel Development Tools Handbook
          (survey of commercial development tools for the 8051, 8096,
          and 80186 lines of Intel microprocessors)
        - This documents could very well be a "must" if you're into
          serious development using one of these chips.  If you are
          "just" a hobbyist, see how the "other half" lives.
        - other guides on Intel development tools, Embedded Intel 386,
          Intel 486/Pentium, 8051 products, Hitachi microcontroller
          development tools, AMD FusionE86, AMD 29K; low power products,
          DSP, multimedia CD
        - FREE to qualified developers
        - MW Media
        - Fairmont Plaza, 50 W. San Fernando, #675, San Jose, CA  95113
        - (408)288-4721 and (408)286-4200
        - FAX: (408)288-4728

    Nuts & Volts Magazine
        - A National Publication for the Buying and Selling of
          Electronic Equipment
        - 430 Princeland Court, Corona, CA  91719
        - Mailed third class, USA only:  $17.00 one year
                                         $31.00 two years
        - Mailed first class, one year only:  $34.00-USA
        - Foreign/Air Mail - $70.00;  Foreign/Surface - $39.00
        - (800)783-4624
        - Email:

5.2)  Books on the 8051

5.2.1)  List of books

    I don't have information on all of these, only that they exist.  I
    would greatly appreciate it if someone could provide a short synopsis
    and the complete book name if you are familiar with any of these

    The 8051 Family of Microcontrollers
        -Richard H. Barnett
        -Prentice-Hall, 1995
        -ISBN 0-02-306281-9

    8051 Interfacing and Applications
        - Applied Logic Engineering
        - 13008 93rd Place North, Maple Grove, MN  55369
        - (612)494-3704

    The 8051 Microcontroller
        - I. Scott MacKenzie
        - Macmillan Publishing Company, 1992
        - includes schematics for a single-board computer,
          assembly-language source code for a monitor program, and
          interfaces to a keypad, LEDs, and loudspeaker.

    The 8051 Microcontroller
        - James W. Stewart
        - Regents/Prentice-Hall, 1993
        - $27.50, 273 pages
        - includes many interfacing examples (switches, solenoids,
          relays, shaft encoders, displays, motors, and A/D converters)
          and a chapter on top-down design method

    The 8051 Microcontroller: Architecture, Programming and Applications
        - Kenneth J. Ayala
        - 241 pages, soft cover
        - 5.25" diskette with assembler and simulator
        - ISBN 0-314-77278-2, Dewey 004.165-dc20
        - West Publishing Company
        - P.O. Box 64526, St. Paul, MN  55164
        - (800)328-9352
        - see review in next section

    Assembly Language Programming (for the MCS-51 family)
        - F. A. Lyn
        - L. S. Electronic Systems Design

    Basic-52 Programmer's Guide
        - Systronix, Inc. (they also sell a Basic compiler)

    Beginner's Guide
        - Suncoast Technologies

    C and the 8051
        - Thomas W. Schultz
        - Prentice Hall
        - ISBN 0-13-753815-4

    Data book / Handbook / Users' Guide
        - Advanced Micro Devices
        - Dallas (User's guide for the DS5000)
        - Intel
        - Philips
        - Siemens

    Embedded Controller Forth for the 8051 Family
        - Academic Press (I think)
        - William H. Payne
        - uses a Forth development system available on the Internet
          (see above in the Forth software section)

    Embedded Systems Programming in C and Assembler
        - John Forrest Brown
        - Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1994
        - 304 pages, $49.95
        - ISBN 0-442-01817-7
        - covers Motorola and Intel processors
        - includes diskette with code from the book
        - book review in Dr. Dobb's Journal, November 1994, page 121

    Experimenter's guide
        - Rigel Corporation

    Introduction to Microcontroller Design, Based on the 8051 family of
        - Business Data Computers
        - P.O. Box 1549, Chester, CA  96020

    The Microcontroller Idea Book
        - Jan Axelson (of Microcomputer Journal fame)
        - features the 8052-BASIC microcontroller
        - hands-on guide with complete plans (schematics, design theory,
          program listings, construction details, etc)
        - explains how to use sensors, relays, displays, clock/calendars,
          keypads, wireless links, and more
        - 1994, 273 pages, $31.95 + shipping
        - Lakeview Research, 2209 Winnebago St., Madison, WI  53704
          (608)241-5824  Internet:
        - contact the author at

5.2.2)  Book reviews

    Jan Axelson's review of her book:
    The Microcontroller Idea Book

       This is a hands-on guide that presents designs for use in data
       loggers, controllers, and other small-computer projects.  It
       includes complete circuit schematics and parts lists, design
       theory, example program listings, construction and debugging tips,
       and vendor listings.  Example circuits and programs are based on
       the 8052-BASIC microcontroller.  The book is loosely based on a
       series of articles I wrote for ComputerCraft magazine (now The
       Microcomputer Journal).

       Chapter titles:  microcontroller basics, inside the 8052-
       BASIC, powering up, saving programs, programming, inputs and
       outputs, switches and keypads, displays, using sensors to
       detect and measure, clocks and calendars, control circuits,
       wireless links, calling assembly-language routines, running
       BASIC-52 from external memory, related products

    Richard H. Barnett's summary of his book:
    The 8051 Family of Microcontrollers

       The book covers basic micros through complete projects using the
       8051 family as examples.  It is designed as a "lots of meat, very
       little filler" type of text, but is very well-suited for use as a
       handbook of project development using 8051 family parts.  The book
       stresses examples, both hardware and software.  The hardware
       examples are real working items including 3 complete projects in
       the last chapter.  Software examples are presented in both C and
       assembly code.  All of the program listings and other software
       examples were imported electronically to the text eliminating

       For more info contact the author -

    Richard Kendrick's review of the book:
    8051 Interfacing and Applications
    from Applied Logic Engineering

       IN BRIEF

       An excellent collection of interfacing circuits and well commented
       source code in assembly.  This is not a book for beginners as it
       assumes the user is very familiar with the architecture of the
       8051 and its registers.  A disk of assembly source code listings
       is included.


             1    - 8051 Interfacing and Applications
             1.1  - Introduction
             1.2  - Main System Core
             1.3  - Simple Methods of User Input
             1.4  - Interfacing a 16 digit keypad to the 8031
             1.5  - Centronics Parallel Input Port
             1.6  - Centronics Parallel Output Port
             1.7  - Interfacing to the built-in Serial Port
             1.8  - Interfacing to a Dual Channel UART
             1.9  - Interfacing to an LCD
             1.10 - Bank Selection of Memory
                  - Appendix A: List of Vendors
                  - Appendix B: Connection to an External Computer
                     0.1 RS-232 Serial Connection
                     0.2 Centronics Interface Cabling


       This spiral bound book is thin (74 pages) but manages to cover a
       lot of information.  All of the sub-chapters have excellent code
       listings with full comments, partial schematic diagrams, and an
       occasional timing diagram.  The chapter on using the serial port
       is based on the MAX232 chip becoming so popular.  A table of timer
       reload values is provided to get standard baud rates but the book
       only mentions the required clock frequency of 11.0592 mHz in the
       first chapter.  It also doesn't explain why a seemingly
       non-standard crystal frequency was chosen.  The dual UART channel
       features the 2681 chip.  The LCD chapter gives a small but
       adequate explaination of the Hitachi controller chip usage on LCD
       displays and a tiny fragment of data on display characteristics of
       LCDs.  The bank selection of memory is useful showing code and
       schematic using five 62256 chips for 160K bytes of read/write

    Richard Kendrick's review of the book:
    Microprocessor/Controller Design
    by Wayne P. Lichti of Business Data Computers

       A lame little book better bypassed.  As an introductory text,
       Kenneth Ayala's book is the winner hands down.  This book is a
       poor rehash of the same information in Intel's or AMD's data book.
       There is one code listing in the book and does little more than
       tell the reader that the 8051 family of processors exist.

       This book is 134 pages of wasted time.  The schematics were
       printed on a dot matrix printer and poorly reproduced.  Many of
       the sections are just a table or a paragraph with two or three
       sentences.  Use Ayala's book, you'll learn a lot more useful

    John Little's review of the book:
    The 8051 Microcontroller: Architecture, Programming and Applications
    by Kenneth J. Ayala

       IN BRIEF

       A good book for those who are already moderately familiar with
       assembly language programming and wish to learn more about 8051
       specifics.  Has many example listings, all of which are very well
       documented in terms of comments and explanations in the text. NOT
       a book for absolute beginners OR hardware hackers looking for
       circuits and applications.


          1 - Microprocessors and Microcontrollers.
          2 - The 8051 Architecture.
          3 - Moving Data.
          4 - Logical Operations.
          5 - Arithmetic Operations.
          6 - Jump and Call Opcodes.
          7 - An 8051 Microcontroller Design.
          8 - Applications.
          9 - Serial Data Communication.
          A - 8051 Operational Code Mnemonics.
          B - How to Use the Assembler.
          C - how to Use the Simulator.
          D - The 8255 Programmable I/O Port.
          E - Control Registers.


       In his preface to the book, Mr Ayala states that that it is
       intended for "... a diverse audience. It is meant for use
       primarily by those who work in the area of electronic design and
       assembly language programming of small, dedicated computers".
       Later, he goes on to refer the reader to the manufacturer's data
       books for more information on hardware issues. This sets the tone
       for the whole book, which is very much software orientated.

       Anyone buying the book expecting to find reams of circuit diagrams
       and details on how to build their own 8051 driven, automated car
       assembly plant will be disappointed. In fact, most of the circuits
       and applications shown are very much conceptual, with generic,
       black-box outlines for most of the components. The single
       exception to this is a fairly complete system (8031, EPROM & RAM,
       jumper selectable memory sizes) in the chapter on microcontroller
       design.  Even then, there's no I/O shown (the txd/rxd are

       Having said that, Mr Ayala does do a fairly thorough job of
       working through the peculiarities of the 8051, with detailed
       coverage of memory organisation, bit/byte level operations,
       timers, interrupts and, at the end of the book, a complete chapter
       on 8051 communication modes. Each area has relevant assembly
       language listings, along with a detailed explanation of the
       workings of the code.

       Each section also has highlighted "comment" passages which point
       out common pitfalls and reinforce critical points. Each chapter
       ends with a summary of the important points covered and a series
       of ten to twenty pertinent problems for the reader to solve. For
       the most part, the answers to the problems can be found in the
       text.  In later chapters though, the reader is asked to elaborate
       on various programming themes and to write assembly language
       programs of their own to perform various tasks. The problems range
       from the bland "Name twenty items which have a built in
       microcontroller" (Chapter 1), to the more esoteric "Compose a
       40-value lookup table that will generate a sawtooth wave using a
       D/A converter" (Chapter 8).

       It should be noted that the book is not aimed at the complete
       novice. For instance, although assembly language listings are used
       throughout, it is not until Appendix B that the reader finds out
       what the assembler actually does and how the listings relate to
       machine code. Even then, the complete neophyte will be left with a
       rather empty feeling, as there are pages and pages of code, the
       schematic for a (more or less) complete system and instructions on
       how to use the assembler, but no information at all on how the
       object code should be utilised (other than with the included
       simulator - see below). If you don't already know how to blow an
       EPROM, you're in trouble.

       The diskette which accompanies the book contains the PseudoSam
       assembler (which is used throughout) and an 8051 simulator. Both
       being intended for use on a PC (it's a measure of how fast the
       computer industry is evolving that a 5.25 inch diskette seems a
       little archaic just three years after the publication date of the
       book).  The PseudoSam assembler ran fine on my system and I was
       able to assemble several of the examples from the book and
       successfully run them on a small, home-brew 8031 system. I was
       totally unable to get the simulator to run. However, as it failed
       on several different systems I'm prepared to believe that my
       particular copy of the diskette was at fault.


       All in all, a recommended book for those who have previous
       assembly language experience and wish to get to know details
       relating to the 8051 microcontroller. While the internal
       architecture of the chip is covered in detail, external hardware
       and peripheral interfacing is not.  Only the basic 8051/31 is
       covered, with little mention of the other variants available.
       There are extensive listings in the text, covering routines for
       handling keyboards and displays, as well as timing loops and
       communications. A large, clear typeface ensures that all of the
       listings are completely legible. The layout and presentation of
       the book is excellent, with a consistent, unambiguous style used

    Tim McDonough's review of the book:
    C and the 8051: Programming for Multitasking
    by Thomas W. Schultz

       Schultz's book provides a brief overview of the 8051 architecture
       but is primarily a discussion of multi-tasking software in an 8051
       environment.  He presents quite a few code examples.  The examples
       and the accompanying text show comparisons of how to accomplish
       things in assembler, PLM, and C.  The C examples presented are
       based on Version 3 of the Franklin compiler but should be easily
       understandable by anyone already familiar with C.

       Later chapters in the book deal with more advanced topics.
       Chapters are devoted to Real-Time Ideas, Timing and Scheduling,
       Communications and Synchronization, Interrupts, Priority, and
       Context, and Distributed Systems.  The Real-Time Ideas chapter
       briefly discusses six Real Time Operating System (RTOS) kernels
       offered by several vendors.  Later in the book some examples are
       given to simple applications with and without using a RTOS.

       All in all, a useful addition to my technical library.  It is one
       of the few 8051 books that goes beyond the basics and would be
       particularly of interest to those contemplating their first
       non-trivial 8051 design.

5.3)  Miscellaneous documentation on the 8051

    Advanced Micro Devices
        - application notes

    Intel Corporation
        - application notes

    L.S. Electronic Systems Design
        - application notes (source code on diskette and schematics)

    Philips Semiconductors (Signetics)
        - application notes

    Software Science
        - application notes


I disclaim everything.  The contents of this article might be totally
inaccurate, inappropriate, misguided, or otherwise perverse - except for
my name (hopefully I got that right).

Copyright (c) 1995 by Russell Hersch, all rights reserved.
This FAQ may be posted to any USENET newsgroup, on-line service, or BBS
  as long as it is posted in its entirety and includes this copyright
This FAQ may not be distributed for financial gain.
This FAQ may not be included in commercial collections or compilations
   without express permission from the author.

Russ Hersch -