The media-independent plan is used by two media-specific generators (one for text, another for graphics) to create parts of the presentation. (The problems of media-allocation,how the system decides what parts of the presentation to realize in which media, and media-coordination,how it coordinates information conveyed in both media, are beyond the scope of this paper. )The text generator converts parts of the plan (as determined by the media-allocation component) to functional descriptions (FDs) of sentential units, which specify, for example, semantic predicate-argument structure, open-class lexical items, and aspects of sentence structure with pragmatic import. The FDs are subsequently realized by a general-purpose sentence generator(FUF/SURGE) [Elhadad and Robin1996]. (Decisions regarding the content of referential descriptions and anaphora, which are made by the text generator, are beyond the scope of this paper.) The first stage of the graphics generator converts parts of the plan (as determined by themedia-allocation component) to a sequence of logical user tasks that will enable the presentation's goals to be achieved; the task sequence is then input to the SAGE graphic design system[Roth and Mattis1990, Chuah et al. tasks. For example, the presentation goal that the user know the population of Arlington would be enabled if the user were able to perform the sequence of logical tasks of searching for Arlington in a graphic, finding its population attribute, and then looking up the value; furthermore, these tasks could be performed using a graphic such as (a) in Figure 1. (The process of converting acts of the plan to tasks is partly described in [Kerpedjiev et al. 1998] and is beyond the scope of this paper.)