Archive-name: robotics-faq/part3
Last-modified: Mon Dec 12 12:00:55 1994

This is part 3 of 5 of the comp.robotics Frequently Asked Questions
(FAQ) list. This FAQ addresses commonly asked questions relating to
Copyright Notice

This FAQ was compiled and written by Kevin Dowling with numerous
contributions by readers of comp.robotics. Acknowledgements are listed
at the end of the FAQ.

This post, as a collection of information, is Copyright 1994 Kevin
Dowling. Distribution through any means other than regular Usenet
channels must be by permission. The removal of this notice is

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compilations without express permission from the author.

Please send changes, additions, suggestions and questions to:
Kevin Dowling				tel:	412.268.8830
Robotics Institute			fax:	412.268.5895
Carnegie Mellon University		net:
Pittsburgh, PA 15213

Part 3/5
        [6] What University Programs are there?
                [6.1] Graduate Programs in Robotics
		[6.2] Student Who's Who

        [7] What is the State of the Robot Industry?

        [8] What companies sell or build robots?
		[8.1] Mobile robot companies
			[8.1.1] AGV Companies
 			[8.1.2] Underwater robots
		[8.2] Manipulator companies
                [8.3] Other Organizations doing robotics
                [8.4] Small Inexpensive Robots

	[9] What is a Robot Architecture?
[6] What University Programs are there?

	Any good four-year school undoubtedly offers robotics courses
within engineering programs. Departments of mechanical and electrical
engineering and computer science are all good candidates for
coursework in Robotics. However, a number of schools have established
track records with a focus on robotics and those are listed here.

Peterson's publishes a series of guides to higher education programs.
Their Graduate Programs in Engineering & Applied Sciences, 1994, lists
graduate programs in robotics in the U.S.  The following are those
listed which offer PhD programs in robotics:

Carnegie Mellon University
	PhD in Robotics
	The Robotics Institute

Catholic University of America
        PhD in Design and Robotics
        Department of Mechanical Engineering

Cornell University
        PhD in Robotics
        PhD in Artificial Intelligence
        Field of Computer Science

Ohio University
        PhD in Intelligent Systems
        Department of Integrated Engineering

University of California, San Diego
        PhD in intelligent systems, robotics, and control
        Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Note that this list is both too short and somewhat inaccurate because
many universities offers robotics research within the scope of other
engineering and science programs.

[6.1] Graduate Programs in Robotics

This list is grouped by countries including the United States,
Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, Sweden and Switzerland. Many
European and Asian universities are not represented and should be -
drop me a line if you have information on some that should be

Universities List

United States
	Boston University
	California Institute of Technology (Caltech)
	Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)
	Colorado School of Mines
	Georgia Institute of Technology
	Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
	New York University (NYU)
	North Carolina State Univerisity
	Rennsalear Polytechnic Institute (RPI)
	Stanford University
	University of California at Berkeley
	University of Iowa
	University of Kansas
	University of Kentucky
	University of Massachusetts
	University of Michigan
	University of Pennsylvania.
	University of Rochester
	University of Southern California (USC)
	University of Maryland
	The University of Texas at Arlington
	University of Wisconsin-Madison
	University of Utah
	Yale University
	University of Western Australia
	McGill University
	University of Alberta
United Kingdom
	Edinburgh University (UK)
	University of Essex (UK)
	University of the West of England at Bristol, U.K. 
	Bristol University
	Hull University, UK
	University of Manchester
	University of Oxford
	Reading University, UK
	Salford University
	University of Surrey
	University of Paris
	Lulea University of Technology
	Swiss Federal Institute of Technology


Boston University
  Dept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering:
  John Baillieul:  Control of Mechanical Systems and Mathematical
    System Theory.
  Pierre Dupont:  Robot Kinematics and Dynamics, Friction Compensation
    in Robotics.
  Ann Stokes:  Theoretical Dynamics and Control.
  Matt Berkemeier:  Legged Robots, Robot Control.

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)
  Pasadena, CA
	Joel Burdick - serpentine manipulation, control
        Richard Murray - control of nonholonomic systems, grasping
        Pietro Perona - biological and machine vision
  For more detailed information on robotics research at Caltech see

Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)
	The Robotics Institute is a 150 person organization that is
part of the School of Computer Science. RI offers a PhD in Robotics
but students from other programs (engineering and computer science
mostly) do research in the Institute as well. Lots of mobile robot
work, computer integrated manufacturing, rapid prototyping, sensors,
vision, navigation, learning and architectures.  Program is a set of
qualifiers and a program of research leading to a thesis and the
 For a look current research in autonomous navigation in the NavLab
group see:
  Facilities include about a dozen mobile systems with more under
  design and construction. Many manipulator systems and lots of
  compute cycles/person. Faculty include:
	Takeo Kanade - Vision and Autonomous Systems Center
	Pradeep Khosla - Advanced Manipulator Laboartory
	Matt Mason - Manipulation Laboratory
	Tom Mitchell - Learning Robots Lab
	Hans Moravec - Mobile Robots Lab
	Mel Seigel - Sensors Laboratory (non vision)
	Steve Shafer - Calibrated Imaging Laboratory
	Red Whittaker - Field Robotics Center
	and many others.....
		Graduate program contact:
		Graduate Admissions Coordinator
		The Robotics Institute
		Carnegie Mellon University
		Pittsburgh, PA 15213

Case Western Reserve University
Department of Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics
Glennan Building
10900 Euclid Avenue
Cleveland, Ohio 44106
Phone (216)368-4088
Fax (216)368-2668
See file://
	Electrical engineering at CWRU is a broad, dynamic field
offering a great diversity of career opportunities in areas such as
microwave and rf communications, microprocessor-based digital control
systems, robotics, solid state microelectronics, signal processing,
and intelligent systems.  The Department of Electrical Engineering and
Applied Physics offers Bachelor of Science in Engineering, Master of
Science in Electrical Engineering, Master of Engineering, and Doctor
of Philosophy degree programs which provide preparation for work in
these areas.  The department offers a minor in electrical engineering
for bachelor's degree students in other engineering disciplines as
well as a minor in electronics for bachelor's degree students enrolled
in the College of Arts and Science.

Colorado School of Mines
Mobile Robotics/Machine Perception Laboratory
Department of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
	The Colorado School of Mines is a state university,
internationally renowned in the energy, materials, and resource
fields, attracting outstanding students in a broad range of science
and engineering disciplines.  The School of Mines is strongly
committed to quality teaching and research. CSM provides an attractive
campus environment, a collegial atmosphere, relatively small size
(3000 students, about 30% in graduate programs), and an ideal location
in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains 13 miles from downtown Denver
and an hour from most ski areas.

	The Dept. of Mathematical and Computer Sciences offers BS, MS,
and PhD degrees under the department title.  With a faculty of 18
tenured and tenure track members, the department annually receives
roughly a million dollars in grants; 116 undergraduate students and 70
graduate students are currently enrolled in ou r degree programs.  The
computer science group within the department has a strong focus in AI
(symbolic and neural nets) and database and parallel processing syst
ems. The Mobile Robotics/Machine Perception Laboratory is a facility
devoted to basic and interdisciplinary research, technology transfer,
and hands-on education in artificial intelligence through robotics.
Research and technology transfer efforts concentrate on the reduction
of human risk in hazardous situations, stewardship of the environment,
and/or improvement of the quality of life throug h better
manufacturing processes. Research in the MR/MP laboratory is supported
by NSF, ARPA, NASA, and local industries.

	For more information, please send email to Dr. Robin R.
Murphy,  Include a brief summary of your
educational (with GPA) and work experience, what your research
interests are, and GRE scores.

  Ithaca, NY
  Mechanical Engineering
	Sam Landsberger
	Jeff Koechling
	Bruce Donald

Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA
Georgia Institute of Technology Robotics Activities
     Application study areas:
     Servo control and low level coordination
     Machine intelligence and high level control
     Design, sensors and actuators
     Human/machine interface
See also:
Robot applications are in areas such as manufacturing {K. Lee} poultry
processing {W.  Daley, G. McMurray, J.C. Thompson} and nuclear waste
inspection and cleanup {R.  Arkin, W. Book, S. Dickerson, T. Collins,
A. Henshaw} are underway.
        Several robotics researchers are regularly involved in a
student aerial robot design competition in which concurrent
engineering concepts are being used to tailor the characteristics of
the system.{D. Schrage} This competition, held at Georgia Tech and
sponsored by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems, has been
won by Georgia Tech entries for two of the three years it has been

Current research topics and researchers:
Long arm control {W. Book}
Parallel actuation of manipulators {K. Lee}
3DOF  direct drive actuator {K. Lee}
Special purpose end-effectors {R. Bohlander, H.  Lipkin}
Parallel processing computer architectures for  robot sensing and control.
{R.  Bohlander, C. Alford, T. Collins, A. Henshaw}
Laser generated ultrasound to sense structure of materials {C. Ume}
Gallium arsenide based rad-hard electronics. {W. Hunt}
Autonmous vehicles positioning {S. Dickerson}
Collision avoidance techniques {R. Arkin, W. Book}
Flexible arm control {W. Book}
Two arm coordinated motion.{Alford, Vachtsevanos}
Advanced feedback control, learning control, bounded uncertainty
approach, applications to rigid and flexible manipulators, force
control . {N Sadegh, Y Chen, W. Book}
Architectures, Framework for reactive control and hierarchical planning, vision
feedback, fuzzy logic application {Arkin, D. Lawton, G Vachtsevanos}
Human Computer Interaction {M Kelly, H. Lipkin}

	Roger Brockett

Iowa State University
Iowa Center for Emerging Manufacturing Technology
Ames, Iowa 50011
Iowa State University has one of the better visualization labs in the
country.  The lab consists of mainly mechanical engineers and computer

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
  Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science both have strong
  robotics efforts. Asada, Slotine, Brooks, Raibert and others
  are known and respected for their work in direct-drive arm, control 
  techniques, architectures, running machines etc.

New York University (NYU)
NYU's Department of Computer Science home page is at: Another informative source on NYU's robotics work
is in Rich Wallace's home page at:

	We offer Ph.D. and MS in computer science.  Ph.D. students may
work thesis research in robotics.  MS students may work on a thesis
(as a substitute for one course).  All graduate students are eligible
to enroll in Advaned Laboratory and work on a project in robotics.
Qualified undergraduates may take Independent Study and

	The Department of Computer Science offers graduate and
undergraduate courses in robotics, computer vision, AI and neural
computation.  There is also a weekly robotics colloquim For admissions
information, contact

Research (1994):
	Micro direct drive robotics (Wallace)
	Active Vision (Wallace)
	Multimedia (Schwartz, Wallace, Perlin) See Below 
	3-D target recognition (Hummel)
	Grasp Metrics (Mishra, Yap)
	Reactive Robotics (Mishra)
	Wavelets and Compression (Mallat)
	Human Body Animation (Perlin)
	Richard S. Wallace (Robotics, Computer Vision, Multimedia)
	Ken Perlin (Computer Graphics, Multimedia)
	Jacob T. Schwartz (Robotics, Multimedia, Computational Logic)
	Bud Mishra (Robotics, Theory of Computation) 
	Chee Yap (Robotics, Computational Geometry)
	Stephane Mallat (Wavelets, Computer Vision)
	Robert Hummel (Computer Vision)

What is Multimedia Robotics?
"Multimedia Robotics" is a new area of computer science concerning 
new markets for robotics technology, emphasizing the emerging
areas of virtual reality and telepresence, animation and
entertainment, and bioscience material processing.  

Wrench Displays -- Force and Torque input/output devices for
        user interfaces, also called "haptic displays".
Bioscience Applications -- Microrobots in DNA micromanipulation,
        Wrench displays for surgical VR training applications,
        Microsurgical instruments
Advanced actuators for VR and Multimedia -- Scaling theory and dynamics 
        of piezeoelectrics, shape memory metals, electromagnetics
        and other new actuator technolgies.
Telepresence -- Robotics and Mosaic, Video Telephony, Telesensuality
Research underway at NYU represents each of these four areas.

North Carolina State Univerisity
Raleigh, NC
  Professor Ren Luo

 Avi Kak: Vision and mobile robots
 Antti Koivo: Manipulation
 Mirek Skibiniewski: Construction Robotics

Rennsalear Polytechnic Institute (RPI)
	George Saridis
	Arthur Sanderson
	Jon Wenn
 About 20 PhD and 30 MS students. Path planning and multi-arm control
are current focus.

Stanford University
  Palo Alto, CA
  Mechanical Engineering:
	Bernard Roth (kinematics of manipulators)
	Mark Cutkosky: destrous manipulation and concurrent manufacturing
	Larry Liefer (rehabilitation, user interfaces)
  CS Department:
	Nils Nilsson
	Mike Genesereth
	Jean-Claude Latombe (path planning and geometric reasoning)
	Leo Guibas (geometric reasoning)
	Tom Binford (vision)
	Yoav Shoham (agents)
	Oussama Khatib
  Aerospace Robotics Laboratory:
	Bob Cannon (teleoperation, free flyers, space robotics,
	flexible manipulators)

University of California at Berkeley
  Faculty in Robotics at UC Berkeley
	Dept. of EE&CS:
	Prof. J. Canny: motion planning
	Prof. R. Fearing: tactile sensing, dextrous manipulation
	Prof. J. Malik: computer vision
	Prof. S. Sastry: multi-fingered hands, control
  Dept. of Optometry/EE&CS:
	Prof. L. Stark: telerobotics
  Dept. of Mechanical Engineering:
	Prof. R. Horowitz: control of robotic manipulators
	Prof. H. Kazerooni: man-robotic systems
	Prof. M. Tomizuka: control of robotic manipulators
	Richard Muller - micro mechanisms

University of Kansas
Space Technology Center (Telerobotics)

University of Kentucky
Center for Robotics and Manufacturing Systems
(founded 1990)

University of Massachusetts
Laboratory for Perceptual Robotics
Computer Science Department
Web -
	Rod Grupen
	Robin Popplestone
  The lab is equipped with two General Electric P-50 robots, two GE
  A4s, a Zebra Zero, and a Denning mobile platform.  In addition, the
  P-50s are fitted with a 4-fingered Utah/MIT and a 3-fingered
  Stanford/JPL* dexterous hand, respectively.  The lab includes
  VxWorks distributed VME controllers and an experimental real-time
  kernel (Spring kernel).  Research conducted at the lab includes:
	o controller composition for coordinating multiple robots
	o grasp planning
	o geometric reasoning for robust assembly & fine motion control
	o learning for admittance control & path optimization
	o biological models of motor planning
	o proprioceptive, tactile, & visual model acquisition
	o trajectory planning, coarse reaching
	o state-space decomposition
  The laboratory also engages in collaborative research with the
  Computer Vision (A. Hanson, E. Riseman, directors) and Adaptive
  Networks (A. Barto, director) groups within the department.

University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI
  Elec. Eng. and CS, relevant to robotics
  includes machine vision, systems and control, multiple cooperating
  agents (arms and mobile), and application of SOAR to robots (arms and
  mobile). (in conjunction with SOAR groups at CMU and elsewhere)
  Contacts:	Johann Borenstein <>
		Yorem Koren <>

University of Pennsylvania.
  UPenn offers Masters and PhD programs in Robotics and Robotics related
  fields of study. These programs are offered through the Departments of
  Computer and Information Science, Systems Engineering, and Mechanical
  Engineering and Applied Mechanics. The bulk of the robotics research
  is conducted in the inter-disciplinary General Robotics and Active
  Sensory Perception (GRASP) laboratory. Active areas of research are
  Telerobotics, Multiple Arm Control, Robotic Vision, Learning Control,
  Multi-agent Robotics and Mechanical Design. Leading Faculty members 
  are Drs. R. Bajcsy and R.P. Paul.

University of Rochester
Computer Science Department
	Well known Computer Vision group.
There was a workshop on visual servoing recently, in conjunction with
the latest Robotics and Automation conference. John Feddema had an
interesting essay on how come the industry is not (yet) very excited
about visual servoing type robot control.

University of Southern California (USC)
  USC has a new MS Program called: Master of Science in Computer
  Science with specialization in Robotics & Automation
    Beginning in Fall, 1993, this new MS program seeks to prepare
  students for a career in the application of Computer Science to
  design, manufacturing, and robotics. It also serves as an
  introduction to this area for students who wish to pursue advanced
  studies and research leading to a Ph.D.  A major goal is to produce
  a steady stream of graduates who are qualified to tackle challenging
  problems in the development of software for CAD/CAM (Computer-Aided
  Design and Manufacturing) and robotics.
    There is a strong focus on designing and building within the
  program Exposure to the practical aspects (and difficulties) of
  robotics and automation is strongly encouraged through laboratory
  work, and an optional thesis, conducted in collaboration with
  industry and research laboratories.
  See also

    For additional information, a complete set of degree requirements,
  and application materials, contact our Student Coordinator:
 	Ms. Amy Yung
	Computer Science Department
	University of Southern California
	Los Angeles, CA 90089-0781
	tel: 213.740.4499
	net: <>
  Faculty include:
  George Bekey : Assembly planning, design for assembly, 
                 neural nets for robot control, autonomous robots.
  Ken Goldberg : Motion planning, grasping, machine learning.
  Sukhan Lee : Assembly planning, sensor-based manipulation.
  Gerard Medioni: Computer vision.
  Ramakant Nevatia: Computer vision.
  Keith Price: Computer vision.
  Aristides Requicha: Geometric modeling, geometric uncertainty,
			planning for manufacture and inspection

  About twenty other faculty member associated with the Institute for
  Robotics and Intelligent Systems and many others associated with 
  USC's Information Sciences Institute (ISI).
  Brochure can be obtained from: 
	Ken Goldberg, Asst Professor
	IRIS, Dept of Computer Science
	Powell Hall Room 204
	University of Southern California
	Los Angeles, CA 90089-0273

University of Maryland
	Dave Akin - Director, Space Systems Laboratory.
	Facilties include a large neutral bouyancy tank, and a number
of free-flying teleoperators used underwater in the NBT. Much
teleoperations research. Dave has flown shuttle experiments and his
research is in the areas of teleoperation, control, man-machine
interaction and is one of the very few in the robotics community to
fly hardware in space.

University of Notre Dame
South Bend, Indiana
Research in Vision-Based Robotics Using Estimation
	The multimedia monograph discusses recent experimental and
theoretical work conducted at the University of Notre Dame aimed at
using methods of estimation to achieve accurate, robust and reliable
vision-based guidance of various kinds of mechanisms, including
typical holonomic robots, fork-lifts and other vehicles.  The
monograph is divided into two parts: Part 1 discusses the method of
"camera-space manipulation" and is in the early stages of development.
Part 2 discusses vision-based navigation of a vehicle.  Both parts
include several QuickTime movie illustrations of existing experiments,
and part 2 includes 3-D animations for illustration of principles.

The University of Texas at Arlington
  F.L. Lewis
  Automation and Robotics Research Institute
  University of Texas at Arlington
  7300 Jack Newell Blvd S
  Ft. Worth, TX 76118
  tel: 817.794.5972
  fax: 817.794.5952
  UT Arlington is located in the heart of the Dallas / Ft. Worth
  metroplex.  The EE department current has 33 faculty and the CSE
  department has 20 faculty.  Participating students will also be able
  to conduct research at the Automation and Robotics Research Institute
  located in Ft. Worth.

University of Wisconsin-Madison
   Mechanical Engineering & Electrical Engineering:
   Roland Chin         - machine vision, pattern recognition
   Neil Duffie         - teleoperation, autonomous systems, sensors
   Robert Lorenz       - actuators and sensors, robot control algorithms
   Vladimir Lumelsky   - motion planning, real-time sensing and navigation
   Computer Science:
   Charles Dyer        - machine vision
   Wisconsin Center for Space Robotics and Automation (WCSAR) -
   Interdepartmental NASA center: work is done on various applications
   of robotic systems for space.

University of Utah
Salt Lake City, Utah 84112
Steve Jacobsen
Center for Engineering Design
3176 MEB
  Hands, manipulators, biomedical applications, teleoperation. Micro
  electro-mechanical systems design.

Yale University - Vision and Robotics Group
  There is a broad spectrum of research activities in vision and
  robotics at Yale.  The members of this group include faculty from
  Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Psychology, Neuroscience,
  and the Yale Medical School. Active areas of research include
  machine vision, humanand computer object recognition, geometric
  reasoning, mobile robotics, sensor-based manipulation, control of
  highly dynamic nonlinear systems, planning, and learning.  There is
  also a wide spectrum of interdisciplinary work integrating robotics
  and machine vision.
  James S. Duncan: Geometric/physical models for analysing biomedical
  Gregory D. Hager: Sensor-based/task-directed decision-making and
  David J. Kriegman: Model-based object recognition, mobile robot
  Drew McDermott: Planning and scheduling reactive behavior, knowledge
	representation, cognitive mapping.
  Eric Mjolsness: Neural network approaches to vision and visual
  Pat Sharpe: Computational models of hippocampal spatial learning.
  Michael J. Tarr: Behavioral and computational approaches to visual
  Kenneth Yip: Automated reasoning about complex dynamical systems.


University of Western Australia
Some neat telerobotic work can be found at:


McGill University
Center for Intelligent Machines
McGill University
McConnell Engineering Building, Room 420
3480 University Street
Montreal, Que, Canada H3A 2A7
  and the 
School of Computer Science
McGill University
McConnell Engineering Building, Room 420
3480 University Street
Montreal, Que, Canada H3A 2A7

There is a web page and ftp archive at

	The McGill Centre for Intelligent Machines, CIM, was founded
in 1985 to provide researchers in robotics, computer vision, speech
recognition, and systems and control with a context in which to pursue
their common goal: the understanding and creation of systems which
exhibit intelligent behaviour.  The three main research foci are
perception, robotics and control theory.  The Centre now includes
faculty members and graduate students from five departments:
Electrical, Mechanical, Biomedical, and Mining and Metallurgical
Engineering, and the School of Computer Science.
	The center itself does not have a degree program, rather
students enroll in one of the associated departments and gain access
by being supervised a faculty member who is also a CIM member.  There
are research programs directly related to computer vision, robot
mechanical systems, walking machines, mobile robotics, etc.
	CIM Members: J. Angeles, P.R. Belanger, M. Buehler,
P.E. Caines, L. Daneshmend, R.  De Mori, G. Dudek, F. Ferrie,
J. Hollerbach, V. Hayward, D. Levanony, M.D. Levine, A. Malowany,
H. Michalska, J. Owen, E. Papadopoulos, M.  Verma, S. Whitesides,
G. Zames, P.J. Zsombor-Murray, S.W. Zucker

University of Alberta
Edmontom, Alberta
Canada T6H 2H1
  Center for Machine Intelligence and Robotics
  Robotics Research Laboratory, Department of Computing Science
  Ron Kube


Edinburgh University (UK)
Department of Artificial Intelligence
has robot and vision groups within it. 
Main interests of the robotics group:
  behaviour-based control of robots (both mobiles and arms)
  hybrid control -- symbolic planning and behaviour-based actions
  learning, both reinforcement and other types
  implementations of biological systems 
       eg cricket ears; vertebrate learning models
  active vision
  real-time control
  long survival times
  direct-drive arm control 
	As well as PhDs by research, the Department offers a one-year,
taught, modular, Masters course in Information Technology for
Knowledge-based Systems where one of the possible specialisations is
in robotics and vision. This course is designed for people without
specific AI background.  One module involves the Masters students
building and programming their own robot out of Lego and supplied
electronics.  Another module gives hands-on experience with a simple
robot arm.

Contact the Admissions Secretary Judith Gordon <>
for information about courses.

Principal Researchers: 
	John Hallam <> for autonomous mobiles and survival
	Bob Fisher <> for most vision
	Chris Malcolm <> for assembly robotics and
	hybrid systems
	Gillian Hayes <> for active vision and
	biological control
   Postal Address:
	Department of Artificial Intelligence, 
	5, Forrest Hill,
	EH1 2QL

University of Essex (UK)
Brooker Laboratory for Intelligent Embedded Systems (Mobile Robots)
Main interests of the laboratory (email:
  Behavior-Based Architectures (software and hardware)
  Active Vision
  Collaborative AI (ie multiple agents)
  Fuzzy and Neural Systems
  Virtual Systems (eg robot simulation and telepresence)
  Planning & Learning
  Reliable Robots (ie for inaccessible or hazardous environments)

Principal Researchers:
  Victor Callaghan <> &
  Paul Chernett <>
    behavior-based architectures, virtual systems & active vision
  Libor Spacek
    active vision (& face recognition)
  Jim Doran <>
    Collaborative AI
   Chang Wang <>
    fuzzy and neural systems
  Edward Tsang <> & Sam Steel <>
    planning & learning
  John Standeven <> &
  Martin Colley <>
    reliable robotic systems
In addition to PhDs by research, there is a one-year, taught, Masters  
course in Computer Science where it is possible to undertake   
robotics, AI or vision.

Contact for further details of courses or for information on research. In addition some  
useful information on the laboratory can be obtained by ftp'ing the  
file from the ROBOTS archive at (in  
directory pub/robots)

University of the West of England at Bristol, U.K. 
(used to be Bristol Polytechnic)
Robotics is taught as part of undergraduate programs in engineering
courses and as part of a real time computing course.  The engineering
department has in its teaching labs Puma, Adept, IBM,
Cincinatti-Milacron and Funac robots
  There are two main groups, the Intelligent Autonomous Systems group
and Intelligent Flexible Assembly group.
Intelligent Autonomous Systems: 
  Yichuang Jin, Will Wray: Neural net control of manipulators,
especially stability-based adaptive control.  Comparative modelling of
neurocontroller design for robotics.
  Lawrence Bull, Owen Holland, Chris Melhuish: Behaviour-based mobile
robots, collective behaviour, reinforcement learning and genetic
  Intelligent Flexible Assembly Technology (InFACT/ALASCA Group):
Eureka/FAMOS Projects (EC colaborative project - academic and
Industry) The group has a large gantry based robot designed and built
by the group
  -Farid Dialami, Alan Redford: Advanced Large scale flexible assembly
(Peugot cars etc), generic tooling.
  -David Eastlake (hardware), Mike Morgan(software): Transputer based
robot control of co-operating manipulators.
Email: <>

Bristol University
  Mr Khodlebandelhoo
  Bi arm research
  Path planning for redundant robots
  Wall climbing robots

Hull University, UK
  Prof Alan Pugh
  Garment Manufacturing
  Arm/controller design

University of Manchester
Department of Computer Science
	This describes research in mobile robotics in the areas of
autonomous competence acquisition, learning by tuition and
navigation. Papers are also available at this site.

University of Oxford
Robotics Research Group
  The Robotics Group currently comprises about seventy academics,
  postdoctoral research staff, overseas visitors, and graduate
  students.  A broad range of topics in advanced robotics is studied
  in collaboration with industry and government establishments
  throughout Europe.
	Robot Design and Control
  A number of projects are concerned with the design and control of
  compliant robot arms.
	Parallel Architectures
  Real-time sensor-based control of systems such as robot vehicles is
  a topic of increasing interest.  For low bandwidth sensors such
  sonar, the emphasis is on Transputer architectures.  For high
  bandwidth sensors such as vision, hybrid SIMD/MIMD architectures are
  being developed.  A rapidly growing effort is concerned with the
  design, implementation, and application of neural networks.  Digital
  and hybrid digital/analog chips have been designed and are being
  fabricated.  Algorithms and TTL circuits have been constructed for
  text-to-speech synthesis.
	Vision and Active Vision
  The theory and applications of vision accounts for approximately
  one-third of the laboratory's effort.  Current projects include edge
  detection and texture segmentation and the computation of visual
  motion by a parallel algorithm that estimates the optic flow field.
	Sensors and Sensor Integration 
  Includes laser rangefinder development in addition to analog and
  digital sonar sensors, as well as infrared rangers, have been
  developed for the AGV project (below).
	Autonomous Guided Vehicles 
  Work on a research prototype of a fielded industrial AGV cuts across
  many of the separate themes of the laboratory's work.  The goal of
  the initial project is to equip the AGV with sonar, infrared, laser
  ranging, trinocular stereo, and model-based vision sensors to enable
  it to avoid unexpected obstacles and to locate pallets.

Reading University, UK
  Prof Kevin Warwick
  Using neural nets in robotics and novel control algorithms.

Salford University
or robotics work more directly at:
	Dr D.P.Barnes
	Dept. Of Electrical and Electronic Engineering.
	Mobile Robots Research Group.
  Autonomous mobile robot system with a behaviour-based architecture are
  designed and built with the intent to study the processes of
  cooperation with and without communication. Such an approach has led
  us up a number of paths with present work in behaviour synthesis and
  evolutionary robotics.  Expertise in: Robotics, Sensors,
  Communication, Connectionist Systems, Genetic Algorithms and Genetic
  Programming.  Possible studies in PhD and MSc work and courses at
  undergraduate level.
	Ruth Aylett, Information Technology Institute
  Robot planning systems, multi-agent systems, robot architectures,
  hybrid behavioural/symbolic robots
	Dr D.Caldwell
	Dept Of Electrical and Electronic Engineering.
  Multi-Functional Tactile Sensing and Feedback (Tele-taction)
  Tele-presence of an operator with a full mobile robot with two
  manipulator arms, stereo vision and sound. Tactile sensing
  datagloves are used to control the manipulators and video camera is
  used to move head (!).  Expertise: Manipulators, Sensors,
  Tele-presence. Possible studies at PhD and MSc and courses at
  undergraduate level.
	Advanced Robotics Research Centre
  Ultrasonic wrist sensor for collision avoidance
  Controller design
  Stereo Vision
	Dr Francis Nagy
  Speech Control of a Puma-560
  Control of an 'Inverted Pendulum'
  Miniature tactile sensors

University of Surrey
  Mechatronic Systems and Robotics Research Group
  Prof G A Parker (
  John Pretlove	(
  Primary Areas of Research activity:
  3D co-ordinate tracking system for robot metrology
  Neural networks and expert systems for vision and inspection
  Active stereo vision for real-time robot arm guidance
  Design of controllable stereo vision systems.
  Open architecture Puma controller
  Mobile robots
  We also offer MSc courses and undergraduate courses in automation,
  control, mechanical engineering and CIM.


University of Paris
  INRIA (Nice) just started a Phd program in Robotics.


Lulea University of Technology
Department of Robotics and Automation
S-971 87 LULEE


Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
  The Institute of Robotics
  Postgrad diploma in Mechatronics
  The Institute of Robotics at the Swiss Federal Institute of
  Technology (ETH) constitutes about 40 members of staff (including
  Ph.D. students). The main research theme is Intelligent Interactive
  Mechines. That is to say developing intelligent robots that in
  cooperation with man solves difficult tasks.  The institute takes
  its students from the departments of Electrical Engineering,
  Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science. Robotics lectures and
  project work is offered to undergraduate students. In addition there
  is the "Nachdiplom" in mechatronics (somewhere near a M.Sc.) where
  robotics is a central theme. For further details on the "Nachdiplom"
  see below. Finally there are about 30 Ph.D. students curently
  registered working on a variety of themes and projects.  Institute
  facilities include: several different robot arms including the in
  house developed modular robot arm (MODRO), mobile vehicles including
  the in house developed modular mobile robot, walking machines,
  supercomputing facilities, dedicated vision and signal processing
  hardware, etc.
  The head of the group is Professor G. Schweitzer.
	Institute of Robotics
	ETH-Center, LEO,
	8092 Zurich
	tel: (01) 256 35 84 (secretary)
	fax: (01) 252 02 76.
The "Nachdiplom" in mechatronics runs over two semesters plus
three months project/thesis work. The lectures covers:
robotics, mobile robotics, micro robots, computer based
kinematics and dynamics of multibody systems, control
theory, magnetic bearings, real time software techniques,
information processing with neural networks, computer
vision, and artificial intelligence. The fees are 2400,-
Swiss Franks, founding is available. Contact:
	H.-K. Scherrer
	Mechatronics postgraduate course
	ETH-Centre, LEO B3
	8092 Zurich
	net: <>

[6.2] Student Who's Who

An useful additional source of information is the graduate student
guide compiled by Ron Kube <>. It is a list of
graduate students, their universities, and areas of research. The list
is updated monthly and can be found at

The list is a good starting point for those interested in graduate
programs and for those looking for individuals with similar research

[7] What is the State of the Robot Industry?

In general, there was a significant slump in the mid to late 1980's in
industrial robotics. However in the early 1990's sales and number have
rebounded to surpass early 1980 numbers and dollars.

>From Motion Control Magazine April 1994: Robotics Industries
Association said recently Robot orders jumped 40% through June, 1993
as the industry posted its best opening half-year ever....  Net new
orders received by U.S. based robotics companies totalled 3,640 robots
valued at $306.2 million, the highest unit and dollar figures ever.

>From the New York Times, Wednesday September 7th pC1
(paraphrased) In the late 1980's a steep decline in robot orders drove
most US companies out of the business. In the first half of 1994 4,335
robots with a total value of $383.5 million. Fanuc is the leader with
about $360M in sales this year. Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) is second with
sales estimated at $120M. The next several are Japanese: Motoman,
Panasonic, Sony and Nachi.

The only major US producer to have survived is Adept Technology with
about $50M in sales in a $700M market.

Interpreted from a graph in the article:
Net new orders in US:
	Year	# of robots	$US
	1984	5800		$480M
	1985	6200		$380M
	1986	5400		$320M
	1987	3800		$300M
	1988	4000		$325M
	1989	4500		$510M
	1990	5000		$510M
	1991	4000		$410M
	1992	5250		$500M
	1993	6800		$630M
	1994	4335 (6 mos)	$383M (6 mos)

>From Industry Flash Vol1, No. 4, Dec 5, 1994:
ANN ARBOR, Mich. - U.S.-based robotics companies are
enjoying the best of times.  The Robotics Industries
Association (RIA) says surging demand recently led American
robotic companies to their best nine-month totals ever.
Through September, new orders totaled 6,218 robots valued at
$548 million, a 12 percent increase in units and 13 percent
increase in revenue over the previous nine-month period last
year.  The greatest demand, says the trade group, is coming
from U.S. manufacturers which are finally learning what the
Japanese have known for years: robots can play a significant
role in improving productivity, quality, flexibility and
time-to-market.  But, even though demand is surging and the
U.S. is the world's second largest robotics user with some
53,000 systems, the Japanese have more than seven times as
many robots in use, RIA says.

[8] What companies sell or build robots?
               [8.1] Mobile robot companies
			[8.1.1] AGV Companies
			[8.1.2] Underwater robots
                [8.2] Manipulator companies
                [8.3] Other Organizations doing robotics
                [8.4] Small Inexpensive Robots

[8.1] Mobile robot companies

There are a small number of companies targeting the research community
for the mobile robot market. TRC, RWI, and Cybermotion have all sold
and are selling mobile devices for research and real
applications. There are a number of Automatic Guided Vehicle companies
as well and their primary applications are factory operations.
Companies manufacturing Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGV) are listed at
the end of this section. Robot lawn mowers too!

Action Machinery Co.
One Vulcan Drive
Helena, AL 35080, USA
tel: 205.663.0814
fax: 205.663.3445
	Severe-duty hydraulic robots and manipulators. Payloads from
65kg - 7000kg. Primarily forge, foundry, and casting operations.

Applied AI Machines & Software
Suite 504, Gateway Business Park
340 March Rd, KANATA
Ontario, Canada  K2K 2E4
net: <>
MIT subumption architecture style robots. Ghengis-II walker runs
$8636.00 including a development system and downloading board, but
without LISP.

Arrick Robotics 
2107 W. Euless Blvd. 
Euless, Texas 76040 USA 
tel: 817.571.4528 
fax: 817.571.2317 
R20 mobile robot platform for use by AI software developers.  3-wheel
design, 14" wide, 14" long, 10" tall, 15lbs.  20lb payload.  On-board
controller connects to the user's laptop computer by cable or low-cost
RF modem.  Sensors include compass, tilt, wheel travel, temperature,
light level, bumpers, battery status, etc.  Price as of 1/1/95
$2,900.00.  Units in use at UTA Automation Robotics Research
Institute.  Send for detailed specifcations.

Bell and Howell
Mailmobile Company
81 Hartwell Avenue
Lexington, MA 02173-3127
tel: 617.674.1110
  Mailmobiles were developed by Lear-Siegler in the mid-70's for the
  industrial cleaning market. They left this market and
  Bell & Howell, the audio-visual company,  was refocusing on office
  automation products and picked
  up this product from Lear-Siegler. There are three models of
  Mailmobile, the Packmobile, the Sprint and the Trailmobile. About 3000
  systems sold and about 2000 probably in operation. They use a chemical
  trail that floureseces under UV light. Payloads up to a couple of
  hundred kg.  Some systems have been operating for over 15 years.
Branch & Associates Pty Ltd
1153 Tasman Highway
Cambridge, Tasmania 7170
Australia (operating in Europe, Asia and America)
tel: +61-02-485-807
fax: +61-02-485-809
contact: Alex Vail, Division Manager
	Since 1979, specialist in autonomous navigation and guidance;
products and technology for applications, research, and teaching.
Conquerer series of fully autonomous AGV's, mapping system,
non-accumulated error, accuracy 1cm, 1 degree, no environmental
modifications, $12K - $25K.
	Fander: research and educational mobile robot. $5.5K includes
everything: built-in software demonstrates in real situations numerous
exmaples of roboti mobility technologies for teaching, research and
teaching manual, stand-alone and remote PC modes, real time graphics.

5457 Jae Valley Road
Roanoke, VA 24014
tel: 703.562.7626
  John Holland's company. Mobile K2 bases making use of ingenious
  torque-tube synchronous drive system. Security markets and research
  platforms, manipulators for base as well. Map building software too.

31 Ontario Street
Orillia, Ontario
L3V 6H1 Canada
tel: 705.325.6110
fax: 705.325.8566
  Primary product are 'building blocks' for mobile robot
  development including controllers, sensors, softare and chassis'.

Denning Branch International Robotics
1401 Ridge Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA  15233
tel: (412) 322-4412
fax: (412) 322-2040
email: Soon. Messages to will be forwarded.
Denning-Branch is a merger of Denning Mobile Robotics, once 
located in the Boston area, and makers of human-size mobile
robots since 1983, and Branch and Associates, of Hobart, 
Australia, designers and builders of smaller mobile robots
since 1979.
	Among the first products available is an MRV retrofit kit,
which substitutes a modern Intel 80486 system with more power and a
simpler interface for the 1985 vintage MC 68000 based controller.
	Small (~60x30x30 cm) 80486 based robot for educational
purposes, with infrared and rotating sonar sensors, preprogrammed for
several autonomous navigation tasks, and externally controllable via
serial link. $5.5K
MRV 1&4
	Large (~90x90x120 cm) heavy payload capacity synchro drive
robot, with optional sonar ring and laser nav sensors and software.
	Robot-mounted scanning infrared laser unit that uses wall
mounted bar-coded retroreflectors or active transponders to navigate
to centimeter precision in 10-meter-scale areas. $8K
	Small-scale revolving sonar head with 4 sonar units and
	software. $3K
Sonar Ring
	MRV-scale belt of 24 sonar units and driving hardware and

IS Robotics
4353 Park Terrace Drive			Suite 6, 22McGrath Hwy
Westlake Village, CA 91361 USA		Somerville, MA 02143
tel: 818.597.1900			tel: 617.629.0055
net: <>			fax: 617.629.0126
R-2 Wheeled machine $7K
	Gripper with 7.5cm opening, 18cm lift, 1kg lift force.
R-3, wheeled robot, $14K
Genghis II, 15" walking robot, $8.6K
Pebbles III, tracked robot, $12.5K
Nexes, high end walking robot, $16K
T-1 tracked robot approx 50cm x 36cm. $5k
	CCD video camera for Nexes(TM), $2,500
	Gripper system for Nexes(TM), $1,500
	Radio Position/Communication for R-3(TM) or Pebbles III(TM), $2,500
  Use the ubiquitous MC68HC11E2 microcontrollers. Robots include IR
  and bump sensing for obstacle detection. Pyro sensors and color
  camera with pan-tilt are optional.

Co. Cork, Ireland
tel: +353 23 49791, 49808
fax: +353 23 49801
Teleoperated bomb disposal vehicles in a range of sizes.

mecos Robotics AG
CH-8005 Zurich
tel: + 41 1 445 11 35
fax: + 41 1 445 11 34

Contact: S. J. Vestli
  Company formed as a spin off of the Institute of Robotics, ETH
  (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology). "mecos Robotics"
  specialises in modular and adaptive robot manipulators and
  robot vehicles (mobile robots). All "mecos Robotics" systems
  uses the same type of controller, a VME based computer. This
  system comes with high level development tools, and for
  research institutions the systems have the advantage of being
  open. The overall goals of all "mecos Robotics" systems are
  flexility and modularity.

  The mobile robot program from "mecos Robotics" follows this
  principle. The physical size and the mechanical configuration
  can be altered. The standard configuration has three wheels
  with air tyres and independant suspension. One wheel is used
  for steering and propulsion (imagine a kids tricycle).  The
  overall size is 0.7 m (W) * 1.0 m (L) * 0.5 m (H). The price
  depends on configuration and starts around the 70.000,- Swiss
  Franks mark.
Nomadic Technologies
1060-B Terra Bella Avenue
Mountain View, CA 94043
tel: 415.988.7200 ext. 203
fax: 415.988.7201
  Nomad 200 is an integrated mobile robot system with four
  sensing modules including tactile, infrared, ultrasonic, and
  2D laser.  Integrated software development package for the
  host computer includes a graphic interface, robot simulator
  and a library of motion planning, motion control and sensory
  data interpretation functions. Geared toward teaching and
  research in Robotics and AI. The Nomad utilizes a synchronous
  steering system (ala Cybermotion and RWI). Speeds up to .5
  meters/second and onboard battery power.
	Nomad 200 Mobile  Base				$10,000
	Nomad 200 Control System			$ 6,000
	Sensus 100 Tactile Sensing System		$ 1,500
	Sensus 200 Fixed Sonar System			$ 2,500
	Sensus 500 Structured Light Vision System	$ 7,000
	RF Modem Kit					$ 2,000
	Digital Compass					$   450

Via Valdilocchi 15
19136 La Spezia ITALY
Tel. +39 187 58 2843
Fax +39 187 58 2669
contact: Gian Carlo Caligiani, Robotic Systems Office

OTO MELARA R.2.5.Robotized System
The Robotized R.2.5 (R.2.5.R) Project aims at prototyping a
mobile robot for intervention in hostile environments.
The system is composed by three main units: the transportable
control station, the radio communication set and the mobile robot
based on an armoured, diesel propelled, wheeled platform called
R.2.5. Gorgona, produced by OTO MELARA.

Robot can be remotely controlled via full-duplex radio link. Can be
teleoperated and provides supervised modes as well. Speeds from
30cm/sec to 30km/h. As of May 1994 the locomotion system and
teleoperated system are complete. Additional functionality in the form
of supervised and autonomous operation are planned.

Poulan/Weed Eater
c/o Robotic Solar Mower Dept.
PO Box 91329
Shreveport, LA 71149-1329
tel: 318.687.0100 X3939
[Boiled out of their press release - Gareth Branwyn]
The Robotic Solar Mower is a 12.5 lb. automated solar-powered "lawn 
groomer." It uses a wire boundary system to keep it inside the 
mowing area. It runs continuously when the sun shines. Its operation 
is "virtually noise free." It continues on its constant mowing course, 
taking between several hours and several days to complete a 
grooming cycle (depending on size of yard, obstacles, etc.). Instead of 
cutting 1/3 of the grass blades (as in a conventional mower), it only 
trims the tips. It can handle a yard up to 13,500 sq. feet and has a 
slope tolerance of 15-20 degress. A pilot program is currently 
offering the mower in the US for $2,000.

Real World Interface (RWI) P.O. Box 375
15 Fitzgerald Dr.
Jaffrey, NH 03452
tel: 603.532.6900
fax: 603.532.6901
	RWI Manufactures the B12 and the B21 Mobile Robot Systems.
The B12 Robot System is for research at the university level and is
based on the widely used B12 Synchro Drive Base.  Sensors available
include: ultrasonic ranging, infra-red proximity, tactile heading, and
	The B21 Robot System is for mobile autonomous research and
emerging commercial/military applications.  It is based on the B21
Synchro Drive Base which has a payload of 200 pounds (90 kg) and
carries 1500 watt hours of battery power.  Sensors include: ultrasonic
ranging, infra-red proximity, full body tactile, heading, and vision.
The B21 CPU section mounts 3 networked Linux 486DX2/4's.  Console
computer runs X-Windows.  Power management allows no-shutdown battery
(B12) B12 Base                                        $6,850
      B12 Base Tactile                                $1,500
      B12 Enclosures                           $2,500-$2,950
      B12 68000 Computer                              $1,850
      B12 Ultrasonics                                 $1,900
      B12 Infra-Reds                                  $1,750
(B21) B21 Base (low IR, tactile sensors)             $19,500
      B21 Enclosure (high IR, ultrasonic, tactile)   $11,500
      B21 486DX4 (linux, 16mb ram, 420mb HDD, etc)    $2,750+/-
      B21 Console Computer                            $2,495+/-
(Acc) Pan-Tilt Head                                   $1,800
      Radio Links (RS-232 & ethernet)          $1,295-$5,995
      CCD Cameras (color & B&W)                  $800-$1,500
      Frame Grabbers                                 Inquire
      Digital Navigation Compass                        $695
114 Union Valley Road
Oak Ridge, TN 37830
tel: 615.483.0228
fax: 615.483.1426
  The ANDROS line of teleoperated mobile robots. These were
  designed to be useful in the nuclear industry and in other
  hazardous applications, and are very rugged. You can hose them
  down. Available in a range of sizes, with a variety of
  optional attachments, such as video cameras, arms, etc.

TAG Technology
5 Bowlands Mill,
Alnwick, Northumberland, NE661LN, UK
tel: +44 655 604895
fax: +44 665 510624
Frank - a tracked vehicle. Cost $UK 2000 - 5785 depending on

Transistions Research Corporation (TRC)
15 Great Pasture Road
Danbury, CT 06810
tel: 203.798.8988
fax: 203.791.1082
  Labmate research platform - $7500, plus additional optional
  sensors etc. Other products for hospital markets and floor
  cleaning machines.  (Helpmate and RoboKent respectively)

Visual Inspection Technologies
27-2 Ironia Road
Flanders, NJ 07836-9124
tel: 201.927.0033
fax: 201.927.3207
 VIT specializes in remote visual and ultrasonic testing but sells or
rents a small tracked rover for inspection work. Products include
ROVVER, SPOT, and PIPECAT vertical pipe crawler. VIT also makes
miniature remote pan and tilt devices.

Yamazaki Construction Company, Tokyo Japan.
Intelligent Robot Lab
Kaika Building 
2-7-1 Sotokanda
Chiyoda-ku 101 Tokyo
tel: 81-3-5256-0715
  LR1 robot - small research robot, basically a VME cage on
  wheels with some ultrasonic sensors and a nice constant force
  suspension. Has shown up at IEEE R&A conferences $30K.

RoboSoft SA
      ,        ,
6, allee Paul Cezanne
93360 Neuilly Plaisance
tel: +33 1 4944 3035
fax: +33 1 4944 3297

[8.1.1] AGV Companies

AGV Products
9307-E Monroe Road
Charlotte, NC 28270-1485
tel: 704.845.1110
fax: 704.845.1111
  Controls and components for AGV's. Supplier of Schabmuller
  motor-in-wheel drives.

Apogee Robotics
2643 Midpoint Drive
Fort Collins, CO 80525
tel: 303.221.1122
fax: 303.221.1774
  Standard and custom-designed AGV's

BT Systems
7000 Nineteen Mile Road
Sterling Heights, MI 48314
tel: 313.254.5200
fax: 313.254.5570
  Automated Handling Systems (Formerly Volvo Automated Systems)

Caterpillar Industrial
5960 Heisley Road
Mentor, OH 44060
tel: 216.357.2935
fax: 216.357.4410

  Manufacturer and distributor of fork lift trucks and guided
  vehicles. Cat's SGV's use rotating laser scanner and barcodes
  as opposed to traditional wire-guided systems.

Control Engineering Company
Jervis Webb Company
34375 W. Twelve Mile Road
Farmington Hills, MI 48331-5624
tel: 313.553.1220
fax: 313.553.1253

515 East 100 South
PO Box 45425
Salt Lake City, UT 84145-0425
tel: 801.530.4000
fax: 801.530.4243
  AGV's and integrated systems

4205 St. Clair Avenue
Cleveland, OH
tel: 216.881.6200
fax: 216.391.7708
  Designs/manufactures rider style, electric, fork and platform
  mobile material handling equipment. Line includes AGV's, high
  tonnage capacity. Mobile cranes, explosion proof forklifts.

Eskay Corporation
563 West 500 South
Bountiful, UT 84010
tel: 801.295.5315
fax: 801.299.9990
  Automated material handling systems including AGVS.

Fata Automation
37050 Industrial Road
Livonia, MI 48150
tel: 313.462.0678
fax: 313.462.0997
  Sales and service of AGVs.

FMC Corporation
400 Highpont Drive
Chalfont, PA 18914
tel: 215.822.4300
fax: 215.822.4342
  AGVs, Automated Handling Systems, Consulting, Trolley and
  Power and Free Converyors, Tow lines, Integrated Systems and
  Controls, Roll Handling Equipment.

IDAB Incorporated
1 Enterprise Parkway, Suite 300
PO Box 8157
Hampton, VA 23666
tel: 804.825.2260
fax: 804.825.9307
  Automatic handling systems and AGV's

Litton Industrial Automation
2300 Litton Lane
Hebron, KY 41048
tel: 606.334.2033
fax: 606.334.2847
  Full service material handling company.

Mannesmann Demag Corporation
29201 Aurora Road
Cleveland, OH 44139-1895
tel: 216.248.2400
fax: 216.248.3086
  Overhead cranes, wire rope and chain hoists, AGV systems,
  automatic storage and retrieval systems, monorail, aircraft
  maintenance equipment.

Mentor AGVS Products
8500 Station Street
PO Box 898
Mentor, OH 44060
tel: 216.255.4051
fax: 216.255.3430
  AGV systems and automated transfer cars.

Munck Automation Technology
315 E Street
Hampton, VA 23661
tel: 804.838.6010
fax: 804.826.5651
  Manufacturer and integrator of automated material handling
  systems. AGVS of many configurations (unitload, forklift,

The Raymond Corporation
South Canal Street
PO Box 130
Greene, NY 13778
tel: 607.656.2311
fax: 607.656.9005
  Material handling equipment.

Roberts Sinto Corporation
3001 West Main Street
PO Box 40760
Lansing, MI 48901-7960
tel: 517.371.2460
fax: 517.372.4930
  MGV's (Mechanically guided vehicles)

Professional Materials Handling Co, Inc.
4203 Landmark Drive
Orlando, FL 32817
tel: 305.677.0040
  Steinbock fork trucks. Wire guided, use regenerative braking.

[8.1.2] Underwater robots

[new section, need more information]

There are a number of companies building underwater remotely operated
vehicles (ROV's). 

Hydrovision		Tel UK ?  224-740145

Benthos			Tel US 1-800-446-1222

JW Fishers		Tel US 1-800-822-4744

Sutec			Tel Sweeden ?  46-13-15-80-60

Rovtech			Tel Uk ?  229-813641

Deep Ocean Engineering	Tel US 501-562-9300

UWI			Tel UK ?  224-896913

[8.2] Manipulator companies

Adept Technology
150 Rose Orchard Way
San Jose, CA 95134
tel: 408.432.0888
fax: 408.432.8707
  High speed direct-drive and harmonic-drive SCARA style arms. 0.001"
  (.025mm) repeatabiliy. Payloads from 4-25kg Can be used in clean room
  and food applications as well. Adept sells vision systems and
  controllers also.

AEA Technology 
	AEA is the commercial division of the UK Atomic Energy
Authority.  markets the NEATER series telerobots for decommssioning in
the nuclear industry. The system includes a bilateral input device and
active (autonomous) force control.
	The system can deploy drills, reciprocating saws, nibblers,
grippers for insertions etc. Larger range of robots including the AEA
Technology 200 Kg arm, use filtering compliance to avoid damage to the
robot when deploying heavy duty dismantling tools.

Antenen Research
PO Box 95
Hamilton, OH 45012
tel: 800.323.9555
tel: 513.887.4700
fax: 513.887.4703
  New and used robots for manufacturing, research and
  training. Used at savings of 40% - 70%. Also lots of parts and

Asea Brown Boveri (ABB), Vesteraas, Sweden
ABB Robotics
2487 South Commerce Drive
New Berlin, WI 53151
tel: 414.785.3400
fax: 414.789.9235
  Now own Cinncinatti Milacron robotics group, Graco and
  Trallfa. Many types of larger industrial robots.

Comau - Italy
Via Rivalta 30
10095 Grugliasco
Torino, Italy
tel: 011 33341
fax: 011 7809156
	A variety of industrial manipulators ranging in payloads from 6kg to 125kg. All electric AC drives. One of the novel designs is a 6DOF, 12kg payload robot The SMART-3 6.12 R. It uses a carbon fibre forearm, absolute resolver feedback and 0.15mm repeatability.

CRS Plus,
PO Box 163, Station A 
830 Harrington Court
Burlington, Ontario
Canada L7R 3Y2
tel: 416.639.0086
fax: 416.639.4248
  Sells several manipulators. 5-DOF around $25K, 6DOF around $33K.
  Sell end-effectors as well (electric, vacuum and penumatic)
  Wrist can be bought separately. Controllers use RAPL, a VAL-like
  language. Fairly open architecture. 3Kg payloads +/- 0.05mm

International Submarine Engineering Ltd
International Submarine Engineering Research Ltd
1734 Broadway Street
Port Coquitlam, B.C.
Canada  V3C 2M8
Tel: (604) 942-5223
Fax: (604) 942-7577
	Underwater manipulators and teleoperated underwater vehicles.

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.
24402 Sinacola Court
Farmington Mills, MI 48331
tel: 313.474.6100
fax: 313.474.6101
  Kawasaki was the first Japanese mfg to lead in the production
  of industrial robots.  They licensed the former Unimation line
  of robots and now make about a dozen types of electric arms
  for welding, painting and assembly.

Kraft Telerobotics
11667 W. 90th Street
Overland Park, KS 66214
tel: 913.894.9022
fax: 913.894.1363
  Nice telerobotic arms for underwater work.

Labman Automation Ltd
Stokesley, North Yorkshire. TS9 5JY. UK
net:<> tel:INT 44 642 710580
Contact: Andrew Whitwell
Tailoring mainly gantry based systems for laboratory applications. Designs 
include storage systems, multiple manipulators, special probes, modification 
of instruments and laboratory equipment. PC driven stepper drives, linear
drives, dc motors, pneumatics, all sensors, RS232 links, LIMS communication.
Systems include powder feeding, wet chemistry analysis, microtitre plate
handling and many more.

mecos Robotics AG
Technopark Zurich
Pfingstweidstrasse 30
CH-8005 Zurich
tel: + 41 1 445 11 35
fax: + 41 1 445 11 34
Contact: E. Nielsen
  Spin-off of the Institute of Robotics, ETH (Swiss Federal
  Institute of Technology). Modular and adaptive robot
  manipulators and robot vehicles (mobile robots). All mecos
  Robotics systems use a VME based computer as controller.  The
  system comes with high level development tools, and are open
  systems. The manipulator's mechanical configuration can be
  changed at will (number and type of joints, length of links,
  etc.)  Manipulators use linear aluminum extrusions with
  integral motions for joints. The controller accounts for
  configuration changes. With this principle of modularity and
  flexibilty hybrid force / position controllers have been
  realised on "mecos Robotics" arms. Price depending on
  configuration (50.000,- Swiss Franks and upwards). NTSC or PAL
  videos available for Sfr. 40 per tape. 

	Mitsubishi PA-10 portable robot.
	o 7 DOF, with continuous path control
	o supposedly *open* control architecture, using PC
	o 30 Kg arm, 25 Kg controller, 10 Kg payload
	[I have no other information on this, anyone?]

Motoman [Hobart/Yaskawa]
3160 MacArthur Boulevard
Northbrook, IL 60062-1917
tel: 708.291.2340
fax: 708.498.2430

Also have this address:
805 Liberty Lane,
West Carrollton, OH, 45449.
tel: 513.847.3300

  Large industrial manipulators for welding, painting, palletizing,
  dispensing, etc. Can be floor, ceiling or wall mount units. Payloads
  for the 8 robots in the K-series range from 3kg to 100kg and
  repeatability of 0.1 to 0.5 mm over that same range. They are vertical
  jointed-arm type manipulators. (i.e. 4 bar linkage to reduce arm
  intertias). 3 S-series robots are SCARA-type manipulators with
  payloads of 50-60kg and varying workspace sizes

  Yaskawa also has bought the rights to RobotWorld, Vic Schienman's unique
  gantry design robot system. This system allow a number of mobile
  modules in the same workspace to zip around at speeds up 80"/sec (3G
  accel). RAIL and C can be used in a multilevel programming
  environment. 0.002" Accuracy, 0.0005" repeatability. Neat stuff.

Oxford Intelligent Machines (OxIM)
12 Kings Meadow,
Osney Mead Industrial Estate
Oxford, OX2 0DP, UK
tel: +44 (0) 865 204881
fax: +44 (0) 865 204882
contact: Dr. Peter Davey
	Incorporated in 1990, OxIM provides a complete design service
in the related fields of industrial sensors and automation. OxIM is
manufacturing and developing robots and advanced industrial equipment.
The MAP-IT vehicle is an open architecture research vehicle for indoor
environments. The top surface, complete with an array of mounting
holes, is available to the user for moutning experimental sensors and
payload. Two direct drive motor-gearbox units provide locomotion. An
extended 3U rack contains a controller card and power converter drive
card. A third spare slot is provided. 400mm diam with payload surface
200mm above ground. Remote base station including power supply, dual
RS232 ports, Full ANSI source code, 2 spare axes of servo control,
bumper system, 10kg payload, 65W power supply. Several options are
also available including PC interface.

Salisbury Robotics, Inc.
20 Pemberton St.
Cambridge, MA 02140
tel: 617.661.8847
net: <>
  Sells the three-fingered Salisbury hand and force sensing fingertips.
  Contact: Ken Salisbury, 

Sarcos Research Corporation
390 Wakara Way,
Suite 44, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108
tel: 801.581.0155
  Spinoff of University of Utah's Center for Engineering Design (CED).
  Teleoperated systems,  manipulators. Audio-animatronic work as well.
  Beautiful force reflecting work and systems. High performance and
  small hydraulic valves and actuators.

1632 Da Vinci Court
Davis, CA  95616
tel: 916.753.6718
fax: 916.753.8092
  Electro-mechanical engineering and manufacturing company
  specializing in telerobotics.  Various remote manipulator and
  telerobotic manipulator systems.

Seiko Instruments
Torrance, CA
tel: 310.517.7700
	Seiko has made a wide variety of pick and place machines and
newer 6DOF manipulators.

Sony Corporation of America
Factory Automation Division
542 Route 303
Orangeburg, NY 10962
tel: 914.365.6000
fax: 914.365.6087
  Several SCARA type manipulators including a double armed
  manipulator.  This model is used for the assembly of 8mm

Robotics Research Corp.
P.O. Box 206
Amelia, OH  45102
tel: 513.831.9570
fax: 513.381.5802
  RRC offers a variety of dexterous manipulators which can be
  operated individually or in dual-arm mode.  Their second
  generation, denoted the "i-Series", is lighter and provides
  great dexterity.  They are currently building
  "spaceflight-qualified" manipulators for NASA (GSFC) using
  this new generation of their product.  They have also been
  doing some work developing sensor-based automatic obstacle
  detection and avoidance technology which uses a patented
  algorithm with arm-mounted sensors. They have also built two
  massively-redundant 17-DOF Anthropomorphic systems for Grumman
  and JPL to serve as testbeds for researching "man-equivalent"
  robots for space applications.

Robotic Systems International (RSI), Ltd.
9865 W. Saanick Rd.
Sydney, BC V8L 3S1
tel: 604.656.0101

UMI Microbot 
[no longer in business in the US]
In the UK: 
Oxford Intelligent Machines, UK
tel: 0865 204881
	Originally known as the Microbot teachmover. A small cable
driven manipulator for desktop robotics. Excellent teaching tool.
Original design by John Hill (now at SRI) Microbot was bought out by
the British company UMI two years ago. In May, 1991 they moved from
Silicon Valley to Detroit, MI. As of Early 1994, only the UK company
was still in business.

USA Robot
PO Box 4018
Portland, ME 04101
tel: 207.761.9039
	Maxym production robots for business. Simple accurate 3D
linear motions coupled with power tooling such as routers, air drills
and sanders. Workspaces up to 60cmx147cmx15cm. IBMPC software for
designing parts and production path but takes DXF files as input.
Not a machine like the giant production turning and routing machines
used by large furniture makers but is a nice small machine for small
production shops. Prices range from $14.5K to $19.9K.

Western Space and Marine
111 Santa Barbara St.
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
tel: 805.963.3831
fax: 805.963.3832
  Telerobotic manipulators for space and undersea applications.

Zebra Robotics
Jeff Kerr
Menlo Park
tel: 415.328.8884
  Small manipulators with integral force control.

Zymark Corp
Hopkinton, MA
Robots for laboratory automation. Zymate

Other companies: (no addresses, yet) 

	Beckman Biomark
[8.3] What other Organizations are working with robotics?

This list is a small fraction of companies and other organizations
that are actively working in robotics. One way to obtain more
companies is to search through proceedings of conferences or find
member companies of many of the organizations listed in previous FAQ
sections. Industrial robotics is used widely throughout a number of
companies. Most large aerospace companies have groups working in or
looking into robotics. Martin Marietta (Denver), Rockwell
International (Downey, CA), Boeing (Seattle) to name a few. Mitre
Corporation of McLean VA and Houston TX, are also doing quite a bit in

Advanced Robotics Research Centre
Salford, UK.
  The Advanced Robotics Research Ltd (incorporating the National
  Advanced Robotics Research Centre, UK) is a joint UK Government and
  UK Industries funded research organisation involved in the research
  of enabling technologies for the advanced robotics systems.

Automation and Robotics Research Institue (ARRI)
7300 Jack Newell Blvd. South
Ft. Worth, Texas 76118
tel: 817.794.5900

Mechanical Engineering Lab (MEL)
Tsukuba City, Japan
  Kazuo Tanie: Robotics and cybernetics

Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL), AIST, MITI.
1-1-4 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305 Japan.
  General description:
	ETL is a govermental institute with about 630 staffs and
  annual budget of over 10 billion yen including personnel expenses,
  covering a broad area related to electronics, physics, material
  sciences, device technology, energy technology, standards and
  measurements technology, bio-electronics, information science,
  computer science, computer systems, artificial intelligence, and
  Gopher host:

  Robotics group:
  	Intelligent Systems Division covers robotics and related areas.
  It consists of following sections; Intelligent Machine Behavior,
  Autonomous Systems, Computer Vision, Interactive Interface Systems, and
  Communicating Intelligence.
  The robotics group in the division foucuses on intelligent robots
  and system integration. Its current research topics include, but not
  limited to, Dextrous manipulation, Motion planning, Active vision,
  Multi-sensor fusion, Multi-fingered hands, Hand-eye systems, Mobile
  robot navigation, Multiple-robot cooperation, Intelligent teleoperation,
  Learning, and Architecture.
  The robotics group at ETL has continuously been at the frontier of
  intelligent robotics research.
  PostDoc positions:
  	ETL accepts postdoctoral research fellows from all over the
  world. Mainly two support programs are available: STA fellowship and
  AIST fellowship. They require a doctoral degree, age no greater
  than 35, fluency in Japanese or English, etc. Typical research
  period is one year (2 yrs max.). The fellowship includes a basic
  allowance (270,000yen/month) plus family allowance (50,000yen/month),
  housing cost, and a round trip air ticket (1 person).
  The fellowships are highly competetive and have different application
  procedures depending on an applicant's nationality.
  Those who are interested should contact their local governmental
  agency for international research cooperation (such as NSF in USA).
  A more convenient way might be to catch a member of ETL staff at some
  conference and inquire about the fellowships.

  Graduate Summer Institute Program:
	ETL is a member of the graduate summer institute program. The
  robotics group hosts a couple of guest student researchers every summer.
  The Graduate Summer Institute program is based on Japan-USA contract on
  research cooperation in science and technology.
  It is open for graduate students in the USA who are majoring in
  science and technology fields.
  The aim of the program is to provide opportunities for the students to
  get acquainted with Japanese culture, science and techonology, and to
  promote future collaboration in research in science and techonology.
  Here is some data from last year's example.
  Period: 2 months (Late June -- Late August).
  Program (subj. to change): Japanese classes. Research at host
  institutes. Lectures, Meetings, Going to Kabuki, Kyoto tour,
  Official Receptions. 
  Support: Return air ticket, domestic transportation, accomodation,
  japanese classes, tours.
  Contact: Japan Programs, Division of International Programs, NSF.
	I, TROV and Ranger projects.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)
Greenbelt, MD 20771
Contact: Stephen Leake <>
  Since the cancellation of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer
  (FTS), the Robotics Lab has been concentrating on work in the
  area of automated space craft servicing.  The goal is to
  replace or supplement Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) with
  teleoperated or semiautonomous robotic systems for external
  vehicle maintenance. Current project includes a robot to
  assist in second Hubble servicing mission.

NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC)
Houston, TX
Contact: Charles Price
  More of an operations house but lots of shuttle RMS work. A number
  of robot projects including testing of space station manipulator
  systems happens at JSC.

NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC)
Robotics Group
Contact: Bill Jones
  Like JSC, KSC is an operations house with responsibility to keep
  shuttles flying and integrate payloads. There is a small but
  growing robotics group that is emplacing ground support robotics
  applications. Recent work includes filter inspector for launch pad
  payload areas, shuttle radiator inspector and a mobile system for
  thermal protection system tasks.

NASA Langley Research Center, (LaRC)
Hampton, VA
Contact: Jack Pennington - vision, inspection, 3-D sensors

National Laboratories

The US National Laboratories are large complexes with a number of
robotics efforts. One current focus is the enormous and costly cleanup
of the weapons complexes throughout the country. Remediation, removal
and cleanup of hazardous materials will require hundreds of billions
of $$$ and many years. Robotics will be a key in much of this.

Sandia National Laboratories,
Albuquerque, NM
  Sandia is a DOE National Laboratory with a substantial program in
  robotics at its Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center. The Center
  has interests in manufacturing, hazardous material handling, site
  remediation, and research to support these
  applications. Consequently areas of focus include assembly planning,
  robotic interfaces, control theory, motion planning, sensor
  fusion, sensor development, mobile vehicles, telemanagement, mobile
  vehicles, and so on. At the time of writing (2/15/93) the center has
  nearly 100 full-time staff with degrees in computer science,
  mechanical engineering, mathematics, electrical engineering, as well
  as a few in other fields. The mix is about 30% PhD, 40%MS, and 30%
  BS. Recent hires have come from Cornell, Stanford, Berkeley, CMU,
  Illinois, Penn, ... The center operates over 20 fully equipted labs
  including robots from Puma, Adept, GCA, Cincinnati Millacron, and
  Schilling.  The virtual reality lab includes stereoscopic viewers
  from Fake Space, audio, speech recognition and synthesis, and big
  boxes from SGI to drive the graphics. In addition to the normal
  complement of departmental computing we have use of other compute
  resources at Sandia including a 1000 node N-cube, a 1000+node Intel
  Paragon, several crays, a CM-200 (16K procs).
	Contacts: Randy Brost, Pat Xavier, Sharon Stansfield, Pang
	Chen, David Strip, Jim Novak, Ray Harrigan, Pat Eicker, Bob

Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research
P. O. Box 2008, MS-6364
Oak Ridge, TN  37831-6364
tel: 615.241.4959
fax: 615.574.7860
Contact: Dr. Lynne E. Parker, email:
   Research in mobile and manipulator robotics, including
redundant and multiple manipulators, cooperating mobile robots, 
parallel vision systems, sensor fusion, laser range finder
research, real-time quantitative reasoning and behavior based 
control, and machine learning.  Current applications include 
robots for nuclear power stations, environmental restoration 
and waste management, material handling, and automated 
Researchers:  James Baker, Marty Beckerman, Chuck Glover, William
Grimmell, Judd Jones, Reinhold Mann, Ed Oblow, Lynne Parker, 
Nageswara Rao, David Reister, Phil Spelt, Michael Unseren.

Redzone Robotics
2425 Liberty Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15222-4639
tel: 412.765.3064
fax: 412.364.3069
contact: Dave White <>
  A spin-off of CMU, Redzone has focused on hazwaste and nuke
  manipulator applications but is also developing mobile
  applications. Primarily protoypes and not multiple unit
  manufacturing at this time.

Southwest Research Institute
San Antonio, TX
Robotics and Automation Department
  Some large systems for servicing aircraft (painting, spraying,
  deriveting etc)

Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Groforschungseinrichtungen (AGF)
(Association of National Research Centers)
Ahrstrae 45
Postfach 20 14 48
53144 Bonn
tel: (02 28) 3 76 74-1
fax: (02 28) 3 76 74-4
	These are sixteen research centers in Germany. One of the
research centers is GMD and they do robotics. GMD is at

[8.4] Small Inexpensive Robots
	One of the most common discussions on the net are related to
finding, building and working on small and low cost robots. There are
a few small robots on the market and a number of construction kits
that robots can be built from such as Lego, FischerTechnik and
Capsula. None of these require large investments. These systems are at
most several hundred $US and can run on a desktop. There are also a
number of kit robots that include printed-circuit boards and

Advanced Design, Inc.
6080 N. Oracle Road, Suite B
Tucson, Arizona 85704
tel: 602.544.2390
fax: 602.575.0703

ADI makes the Robix(tm) RCS-6 Robotic Construction Set, priced at
US$550, or US$565 for 220V/50Hz and PAL video.  The RCS-6 is designed
specifically for use by educators and industrial modelers, and is used
to build and operate a wide variety of PC connected desktop robots.
Included are many construction parts, 6 hobby-type servos, an
electronics interface with an 8-channel 8 bit A/D, power supply,
software, manual, video, carrying case, and more, even including a
pair of safety goggles.  The 40-minute video that comes with the set
is also available separately for just the airmail postage cost: US$3
to US locations, $4 to Canada, $5 to Mexico and $8 to all other
countries.  Shown in the video are 5 different arms built for (and
performing) 5 different tasks, a pair of 3-servo-each opposable
fingers twiddling a ball, 3 animatronic figures, and a 3-legged (but
6-footed) walker with both a walking and galloping stride.  In
addition, an arm is built step-by-step in the video, and then
programmed interactively.  The software includes a scripting interface
as well as complete C and QuickBasic 4.5 libraries with documentation
and sample code.

For complete technical information, a faq section, text of a cover
story about the RCS-6 in Popular Electronics Magazine, plus over 50
image files (.gif's), a DOS PC .gif viewer, a useful section on what
the set does *not* do, and more, download from the anonymous ftp site: from directory /pub/robix.  See the readme.txt file
there first.

To get the video, order by phone or fax, or by email from  
Visa and Mastercard are accepted.

Aleph Technology
Parc Heliopolis
16 rue du Tour de l'eau
BP 295-38407
Saint Martin d'Heres cedex, France
tel: +33 76422999
fax: +33 76444620
Small, turtle robot for education. 17000FF

Angelus Research
6344 Sugar Pine Circle
Angelus Oaks, CA
tel: 909.794.8325.
contat: Don Golding
	A small differentially-steered mechanism (no casters!)
utilizing a 68HC11 controller w/ 32K RAM and RS-232 interface. Four
visible collision sensors (range 3-12 inches depending on ambient
light) and two whiskers. On-board battery (Pb- acid and built in
charger) monitors current as well for stall current. Software included
with easy-to-use high-level command set. Operable right out of the
box. A lot of features for a very affordable device. Fully assembled
and tested: $695, wireless version $1195. Intro to Whiskers Curriculum
$95.  Controller board available separately for $249. Future
developments include IR obstacle detector, sonar, pyro (people
detector) sensors, and magnetic compass. Video available for $5.

Play-Jour International
Room 914, New World Office Building
(East Wing), 24 Salisbury Rd
Tsimshatsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong
  Capsula is a robot construction set. Looks like a series of bubbles
  connected together. Some intriguing modules including IR control,
  voice commands, motorized clutches etc. Edmund Scientific sells this
  as do many toy stores.

Circuit Specialists Inc
PO Box 3047
Scottsdale, AZ 85271-3047
tel: 800.528.1417
tel: 602.464.2485
	Quickshut robot arm sold by Circuit Specialists for
$259. Appears to be a nice low cost 5 axis arm for education. IBM (or
compatible) interface, kit including all components and board, power
supply kit, software package, logic probe and experiments and
instructions. If anyone has information as to who actually makes this
please send me email.  CSI has a FAX back service at 1(800)622-5426.
At the voice prompt, enter 3060 for more information on the arm.  The
software package supplied includes test routines and Robot control
proceedures. The software is written in BASIC and Assembly languages.

The Electronic Gold Mine
PO Box 5408
Scottsdale, AZ  85261
tel: 602.451.7454
Roamer Robot Kit. A simple, hardwired robot kit with all parts
necessary to complete the kit.  It sells for $39.95.

Arthur Fischer GmbH & Co. KG
Weinhalde 14-18
D-72178 Waldachtal
tel: germany + 07443 120
fax: germany + 07443 12222
Model Technology
2420 Van Layden Way
Modesto, CA 95356
tel: 209.575.3445
fax: 209.527.6016
Economatics Ltd
Epic house, Darnell Road
Attercliffe, Sheffield
United Kingdom
tel: +44 742 56 11 22
fax: +44 742 43 93 04
telex: 5 47 095 ECOMAT G
  Like Lego, Fischertechnik is a european-developed construction kit
  but much more comprehensive in scope. Electro-mechanical parts
  galore including a wide variety of switches, relays, slip rings,
  contacts, etc. Many types of building block units as well and
  computer interfaces available.  More expensive than Lego. Model
  Technology, listed above, is one distributor. See also the Robot
  Explorer in the publications section.
Here is a listing of some of the kits that they build:
Interface for Macintosh: "Service II" from Boenig and Kallenbach, sold
by Pandasoft Uhlandstrasse 195 D-1000 Berlin 12 Fax: germany (030)
315913-55 for DM 498.- for Mac Plus or better.  8 digital in and
outputs, 2 analoguous inputs. With Hypercard Stack Computing
Experimental and driver software for all Pascal versions, 4th
Dimension and Ragtime (comparable to MSWorks). Works also with the
FischerTechnik Robot and Plotter assembly kit, 80 pages manual in
german?, 3 Diskettes.
There are also computing kits containing interfaces for C64, PC and
Apple II.
-Profi Computing by Fischer Technik:
	"High-end" kit, 3 motors, 6 switches, 4 lights, 2 fotocells,
20 plugs patch bay, construction base-support plate, 12 models
explained as there are a robot with a controlled hand, a plotter, a
slot-machine, a credit-card reader and a CD-player (certainly without
audio out), 888 parts in total: DM 376, needs the Service II

-Training robot by Fischertechnik:
	3 rotation axes which may be controlled simultaneously.
Working radius between 12 and 37 cm, fetching height: 6 to 25 cm,
driven by 3 Fischer Technik S-motors, positioning with infrared
photocell, with cabling and manual, needs the Service II interface,
for DM 547.

-Plotter/Scanner by Fischertechnik:
	Scanning head not included, "heavy duty" construction,
precision < 0.5 mm on a A4 surface, driven by 2 bipolar stepper
motors, needs the Service II interface. For DM 487.-

-Computing by Fischertechnik:
	10 models possible, all explained: antenna rotor, Plotter,
Graphic Tablet, 2-axis robot etc., needs Service II and power supply
for DM 298.-

Johuco, Ltd.
Box 390
Vernon, CT 06066
Muramator and Photovore. These are simple robot control boards that
are hardwired but can be adjusted using potentiometers.  They sell
bare PCBs and you can get the parts from Radio Shack or DigiKey.  The
PCBs sell for about $25.00.

Khepera Support Team
INF Ecublens
1015 Lusanne 
tel: ++41 21 693.52.65
fax: ++42 21 693.52.63
net: <>
contact: Franscesco Mondada
Web site is at

A VERY small mobile robot. Motorola 68331 Processor with 256K RAM and
256 or 512K ROM. Serial port. Six 10bit analog inputs. DC motor
powered with incremental encoders.  Eight IR proximity and light
sensors. NiCd batteries. Additional capabilities can be added by using
stackable K-extension bus.  Software environments: Calm assembler (PC
or MAC), Gnu C compiler (on all machines supported by GNU) and LabView
(PC, Mac or Sun).
  Size: 55mm diameter, 30mm high
  Weight: 70grams
  Cost: 3000 Swiss Francs [About $2K US]
  Vision and Gripper modules under development.
	Mondada et al. Mobile Robot Miniaturisation: A Tool for
	Investigation in Control Algorithms. Third International
	Symposium on Experimental Robotics, Kyoto, Japan, Oct 28-30,

Lego Dacta
555 Taylor Road
PO Box 1600
Enfield, CT 06083-1600
tel: 800.527.8339
fax: 203.763.2466

Canadian office for Lego/Dacta
tel: 800-387-4387.
  LEGO Dacta is the educational branch of the LEGO company. Dacta
  sells the LEGO Technic product line. These are the geared and
  motorized versions for the LEGO system.

  Use anonymous ftp to obtain a list of a variety of lego information
  and application programs from:
	directory:	/pub/lego
	filenames:	<see below>

	Directory Structure: ~ftp/pub/lego/
	CAD/    contains several languages for specifying models
	faq/    contains latest faq sheet for
	games/  Rules for games using lego people and pieces
	images/ Pictures and drawings of sets and instructions
	sets/   Database listings of lego sets and catalog numbers
	upload/ Place your files here!

  Lego kits recommended for robotics work include:
  1038 Technical Universal Buggy - dual drive vehicle. $60
  1032 Technic II w/ motorized transmission - $76
  9605 Technic Resource Set - general parts kits - $200

  Lego-to-Mac software:
	Paradigm Software	617.576.7675
	Bots 			415.949.2126
  MIT has papers on LEGO projects available via FTP from:
	dir:	pub/el-memos
	file:	memo8.* "LEGO/LOGO: Learning Through and About Design"

M & T Systems
POB 7816
Huntington Beach  CA  92615
Contact M&T Systems at:
tel: 714.969.3166
fax: 714.969.3167

[Tom Thorton]
The HexWalker(tm) walking robot kit is based on the Insectoid built by
Gary Malolepsy of The Robotics Society of Southern California (RSSC),
and chronicled in the February, March and April 1994 issues of Robot
Builder (the newsletter of RSSC). The Insectoid robot was given
passing mention by Scott Edwards in the June 1994 issue of Nuts and
Volts (How Far Can a Stamp Take You?).

RSSC Club Officers had discussed kitting the walking robot up for
members for several months, but had taken no action. Finally, I built
one for myself. It generated so much attention at meetings that I
decided to kit it out. The HexWalker(tm) robot kit is the result.

As supplied in the kit the Hexwalker(tm) robot detects the world by
means of two feelers. Normal movement for HexWalker(tm) is to walk
forward using the opposing triangle gait. When the robot detects an
obstacle (when a feeler switch closes) it pauses, backs up several
steps, turns left or right, and resumes forward walking. HexWalker(tm)
turns left when the right feeler switch closes, or right when the left
feeler switch closes.

HexWalker(tm) is large enough to work on easily. It measures 8 1/2 inches 
(22cm) long (plus feelers), 6 1/2 inches (16cm) wide, and 2 1/2 inches 
(6cm) tall. It is strong, able to support its own weight (12 ounces) plus 
about an 8 ounce payload.

Modifying the basic robot is encouraged. Ideas for
modification/improvement include: Substitute LED photodetectors for
the feeler/snapswitch sensors. Add a second Stamp to HexWalker(tm)
that performs sensor monitoring functions. Add additional sensors
to HexWalker(tm).
  backup sensor to prevent walking into objects when walking backwards.
  down sensor to detect "cliffs" and prevent walking off edges.
  sonar for long range sensing."

HexWalker(tm) sells for US $125.00.
California residents add 7.75% sales tax.
Shipping throughout North America is US $3.00.
Shipping to all others is US $15.00.
The kit without Basic Stamp (if you have your own controller) is 
   US $100.00 plus s&h.
The construction manual alone is US $10.00 plus US $1.00 s&h.

[many addresses around the world]
363, avenue de Saint-Exupery
	There are several mechanical construction systems available.
The best source of info I've seen is a list put together by Colin
	directory:	/ftp/pub/
	filenames:	meccano
	The German model train company, Maerklin makes a Meccano
compatible construction set. They also have a 1007 Robotic Arm kit and
programmable controller as well. ~$300 You may be able to order it
through a local train and hooby shop. 

524 San Anselmo Ave.,
San Anselmo, CA 94960
tel: 415.455.9330
     800.374.5764 (orders)
fax: 415.455.9333
     800.455.9333 (orders)
net: <>

A wide variety of Nickel-Titanium Alloy products. Mondo can supply an
email brochure as well as a Muscle Wire FAQ. Products include:

Muscle Wire Project Book- New 3rd Edition. Presenting everything you
need to successfully design, build, and operate devices with Muscle
Wire - nickel-titanium filaments that actually contract when
electrically powered and lift thousands of times their own weight.

Topics include: Basic lever action, ratchets and latches, model
railroad crossing, AC power circuit, solar power circuit, paper
airplane launcher, life-like butterfly, rubber tube "flexi",
proportional control, radio control interface, programmable multiple
wire controller & serial port interface, PC parallel port interface
and much more. Boris the six-legged motorless miniature walking

     BORIS - A miniature motorless six-legged walking machine
     Length: 13.5 cm
     Height: 4.5 cm
     Weight: 30 grams
     Power & Drive:
      - Eight 100 um dia. Muscle Wires (50 centimeters total).
      - 6 volts, 500 milliamp max.
      - Full software control via PC parallel printer port.

MUSCLE WIRES PROJECT BOOK   3-133     $17.95

Includes meter each of Flexinol
050, 100 and 150, plus crimps and instructions.  Enough to build all
the projects in the Project Book including Boris the motorless walking
machine. An ideal starter package for engineers, students and
experimenters of all ages.

Project Book & Deluxe Kit   3-168   $59.95

A complete package designed for corporate and laboratory Research
and Development work with shape memory alloys. Includes to following:
* Muscle Wires Project Book
* Five meters each of Flexinol 050, 100 and 150
* One meter of Flexinol 250
* Crimps & instructions

Muscle Wires R & D Package     3-102     $249.00

A wide variety of NiTiNol lengths and diameters are also available.
Send email to

OWI (Movit robots)
tel: 310.638.4732
fax: 310.638.8347
Available from:
	Kelvin Electronics 	800.645.9212
	Pitsco  		800.835.0686
	Edmund Scientific 609.573.6260 (See Robot Parts Section)
These are small toy-like robots that reflexively respond to obstacles,
sounds or light depending on the model. They're cute and show what can
be done with a relatively small amount of hardware. The top of the
line model is the Wao II which has two 'feelers' for bump sensors and
can be programmed with an on board key-pad or via a host computer.  It
sells for $89.95.  Most of the other robot kits sell for between $35
and $55.  The kits usually only require mechanical hardware assembly
(no soldering required.) Edmund also has a Robotic Technology
Curriculum with lessons and tests featuring the Movit
robots. Curriculum is $65 from Edmund Scientific.

Reality Robots
Marvin Green,
821 SW 14th, Troutdale, OR 97060
tel: 503.666.5907

Starter Kits
The B-BOT Frame: This is a complete robot frame with a 360 degree
bumper skirt and clear head dome.  The frame is six inches in diameter
and uses two modified RC servos (not included).  The B-BOT can be
controlled by a small microcontroller, such as the BOTBoard, Mini
Board, PIC or BASIC STAMP.  The B-BOT Frame is expandable, flexible,
and makes it easy to get your robot projects off the ground quickly.
The B-BOT Frame and assembly manual is $29.95.  The B-BOT
jr. (smaller, with single level base) is $19.95.  Please add $4.00
shipping for first kit, $1.00 for each additional kit. Please make
check or money order to Marvin Green at the above address.
The BOTBoard: The BOTBoard is a bare printed circuit board designed
for robotic applications.  The BOTBoard uses the popular 68HC11
microcontroller in a minimum configuration, and is easily programmed
>from your PC.  Engineered to be flexible, the BOTBoard is also
powerful and easy to use.  Each board measures 2" X 3" and contains 38
I/O pins, and a small prototyping area.
The BOTBoard is $5.95 each, or three for $15.00.  Add $1.25 plus $.25
for each board for shipping.
The ARMBOT: The ARMBOT is a flexible three axis robotic arm.  It is
designed to use small unmodified RC servos and a microcontroller.  The
ARM-BOT provides clockwise and counter clockwise rotation of greater
than 180 degree, shoulder lift of greater than 45 degree a gripper
range of about two inches. The ARMBOT is surprisingly strong. It's fun
to use, and can easily be build within a couple of hours.
The ARMBOT kit and instruction manual is $12.95.  Please add $2.00
shipping and handling.
NOTE: These kits are designed to spark your intuitive engineering
skills.  Each kit comes with a detailed manual, assembly instructions,
diagrams, parts list, and all the custom parts needed to build the
kit.  Common parts, such as RC servos or ICs are not included because
they can be purchased elsewhere.  Keep in mind that you may need to
drill some holes or use a soldering iron. contains three gif images of the ARMBOT and B-BOT.
	SRS BBS (206) 362-5267          Seattle Robotics Society BBS.

I designed these kits to help inspire people to build robots. The kits
are high quality and inexpensive.  Please contact me for more
information. <>

Rug Warrior
A K Peters 
289 Linden Street
Wellesley, MA 02181
tel: 617.235.2210
fax: 617.235.2404
	A companion kit for the book, Mobile Robots: Inspiration to
  Implementation. See Books section of FAQ.  The Rug Warrior circuit
  board is designed to support the construction of small, yet
  sophisticated mobile robots.  The board provides all the processing,
  memory, and sensor circuitry needed for a custom designed
  robot. $289.00. Does not include chassis, skirt and motors.

  Rug Warrior offers the following features: Motorola MC68HC11
  microcontroller, LCD display (32 alphanumeric characters), 32K of
  battery backed RAM, RS-232 serial port, Collision detection from any
  of 6 directions, Photoresistor light sensors, Infrared obstacle
  detection, Microphone for sound detection, Piezoelectric buzzer
  generates tones of arbitrary frequency, Motor driver chip allows
  control of two DC motors, Dual shaft encoders allow
  velocity/position control, Four user controllable LEDs, Optional
  pyroelectric (heat) sensor, Expansion capabilities for more sensors
  and actuators.

  The kit consists of a circuit board with the logic and interface
  components already soldered on and tested, plus all the sensors and
  other circuitry needed to build the robot board as described in our
  book "Mobile Robots: Inspiration to Implimentation."

  The kit includes Interactive C (IC) on a disk for either Mac or PC.
  Self test routines are also provided for each of the standard
  sensors and actuators. In the near future A. K. Peters plans to
  offer a complete robot kit including chassis, skirt, and motors.

  A small nitinol-based mobile robot is available from Indiana
  University in a technical report and as a kit. Send your request for
  the report with payment to:
	Computer Science Department
	215 Lindley Hall
	Indiana University
	Bloomington, IN  47405
  To receive the technical report only:
	Send  $5.00 PRE-PAID and add ATTN: TR363A
  To receive the technical report and a complete kit:
	Send $15.00 PRE-PAID and add ATTN: TR 363A Squito Kit

TR 414 - Stiquito II and Tensipede: Two Easy-to-build
Nitinol-propelled Robots available in FINAL DRAFT via anonymous ftp from

the report is archived as four .hqx (binhex encoded) .sea (stuffit
lite self-extracting archive) Microsoft Word 4 documents.  There are no
plans to archive a postscript version, as word 5 & 6, available on PCs
& Macs, are supposed to be able to read and print word 4 documents.

stiq.II.p1.sea.hqx   contains the introduction, the build-a-leg tutorial, and
                     the instructions to build tensipede

stiq.II.p2.sea.hqx   contains the instructions to build both a rigid and an
                     articulated version of stiquito II

stiq.II.p3.sea.hqx   contains the instructions to build the ibm pc and
                     compatible computer parallel printer port interface

stiq.II.p4.sea.hqx   contains the programmer's guide to the interface and
                     examples of a pulse frequency modulated nitinol driver,
                     a metachronal wave program for tensipede, and a tripod
                     gait program for stiquito II, as well as stiquito's
                     family crest.

Tomy Armatron
  Sold by Radio Shack in the US, the Armatron was a popular small
  plastic manipulator and later a mobile version was sold.  A number
  of articles appeared in the hobbyist press regarding linking the
  Armatrons to computers.  The mobile version is still being sold in
  Japan and is called the "GO ROBO ARM" You might be able to pick one
  up at a flea market or garage sale. Buy it - they are neat clever
  devices and fun.

Ublige Software and Robotics Corporation
P.O. Box 18034
Huntsville, AL, 35804
tel: 205.518.9422
contact: Luis Lopez
 Kits and pre assembled robots (insects). USR produces Electro-Optic
components and software tools for compound eye robotics.  The catalog
lists a low-cost walking system kit called Prometheus (TM) for $US 610
- 1799.  Several modules are also available (eg. RS232, motor driver

[9] What is a Robot Architecture?

A robot 'architecture' primarily refers to the software and hardware
framework for controlling the robot. A VME board running C code to
turn motors doesn't really constitute an architecture by itself. The
development of code modules and the communication between them begins
to define the architecture.

Robotic systems are complex and tend to be difficult to develop. They
integrate multiple sensors with effectors, have many degrees of
freedom and must reconcile hard real-time systems with systems which
cannot meet real-time deadlines [Jones93]. System developers have
typically relied upon robotic architectures to guide the construction
of robotic devices and for providing computational services (e.g.,
communications, processing, etc.) to subsystems and components. These
architectures, however, have tended thus far to be task and domain
specific and have lacked suitability to a broad range of applications.
For example, an architecture well suited for direct teleoperation
tends not to be amenable for supervisory control or for autonomous

One recent trend in robotic architectures has been a focus on
behavior-based or reactive systems. Behavior based refers to the fact
that these systems exhibit various behaviors, some of which are
emergent [Man92]. These systems are characterized by tight coupling
between sensors and actuators, minimal computation, and a
task-achieving "behavior" problem decomposition.

The other leading architectural trend is typified by a mixture of
asynchronous and synchronous control and data flow. Asychronous
processes are characterized as loosely coupled and event-driven
without strict execution deadlines. Synchronous processes, in
contrast, are tightly coupled, utilize a common clock and demand hard
real-time execution.

Subsumption/reactive references
Arkin, R.C., "Integrating Behavioral, Perceptual, and World Knowledge
in Reactive Navigation", Robotics & Autonomous Systems, 1990

Brooks, R.A., "A Robust Layered Control System for a Mobile Robot",
IEEE Journal of Robotics and Automation, March 1986.

Brooks, R.A., "A Robot that Walks; Emergent Behaviors from a Carefully
Evolved Network", Neural Comutation 1(2) (Summer 1989)

Brooks, Rod, AI Memo 864: A Robust Layered Control System For a Mobile Robot
	look in

Brooks, Rod, AI Memo 1227: The Behavior Language: User's Guide
	look in

Connell, J.H., "A Colony Architecture for an Artificial Creature", MIT
Ph. D. Thesis in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1989.

Erann Gat, et al, "Behavior Control for Robotic Exploration of
Planetary Surfaces" To be published in IEEE R&A. FTPable.
	location: 	pub/gat
	filename:	bc4pe.rtf

Insect-based control schemes
Randall D. Beer, Roy E. Ritzmann, and Thomas McKenna, editors, Biological
Neural Networks in Invertebrate Neuroethology and Robotics, Academic Press,

Hillel J. Chiel, et al, "Robustness of a Distributed Neural Network
Controller for Locomotion in a Hexapod Robot," IEEE Transactions on
Robotics and Automation, 8(3):293-303, June, 1992.

Joseph Ayers and Jill Crisman, "Biologically-Based Control of
Omnidirectional Leg Coordination," Proceedings of the 1992 IEEE/RSJ
International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 574-581.

Asynchronous/synchronous (i.e., "traditional", "top-down", etc.)
Amidi, O., "Integrated Mobile Robot Control", CMU-RI-TR-90-17,
Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 1990.

Albus, J.S., McCain, H.G., and Lumia, R., "NASA/NBS Stanford Reference
Model for Telerobot Control System Architecture (NASREM)" NIST
Technical Note 1235, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, July 1987.

Butler, P.L., and Jones, J.P., "A Modular Control Architecture for
Real-Time Synchronous and Asynchronous Systems", Proceedings of SPIE
Applications of Artificial Intelligence 1993, Orlando, FL, 1993.

Fong, T.W., "A Computational Architecture for Semi-autonomous Robotic
Vehicles", AIAA Computing in Aerospace conference, AIAA 93-4508, 1993.

Lin, L., Simmons, R., and Fedor, C., "Experience with a Task Control
Architecture for Mobile Robots", CMU-RI-TR 89-29, Robotics Institute,
Carnegie Mellon University, December 1989.

Schneider, S.A., Ullman, M.A., and Chen, V.W., "ControlShell: A
Real-time Software Framework", Real-Time Innovations, Inc., Sunnyvale,
CA 1992.

Stewart, D.B., "Real-Time Software Design and Analysis of Reconfigurable
    Multi-Sensor Based Systems", Ph.D. Dissertation, Dept. of Electrical and
    Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh.

Stewart, D.B., M. W. Gertz, and P. K. Khosla, "Software Assembly for
    Real-Time Applications Based on a Distributed Shared Memory Model",
    in Proc. of the 1994 Complex Systems Engineering Synthesis and
    Assessment Technology Workshop (CSESAW '94), Silver Spring, MD,
    pp. 217-224, July 1994.

End of Part 3


aka: Kevin Dowling			Carnegie Mellon University
tel: (412) 268-8830			The Robotics Institute
adr:			Pittsburgh, PA 15213

aka: Kevin Dowling			Carnegie Mellon University
tel: (412) 268-8830			The Robotics Institute
adr:			Pittsburgh, PA 15213