Archive-name: robotics-faq/part1
Last-modified: Tue Dec 13 12:10:57 1994

This is part 1 of 5 of the comp.robotics Frequently Asked Questions
(FAQ) list. This FAQ addresses commonly asked questions relating to
Copyright Notice

This FAQ was compiled and written by Kevin Dowling with numerous
contributions by readers of comp.robotics. Acknowledgements are listed
at the end of the FAQ.

This post, as a collection of information, is Copyright 1994 Kevin
Dowling. Distribution through any means other than regular Usenet
channels must be by permission. The removal of this notice is

This FAQ may be posted to any USENET newsgroup, on-line service, or
BBS as long as it is posted in its entirety and includes this
copyright statement. This FAQ may not be distributed for financial
gain. This FAQ may not be included in commercial collections or
compilations without express permission from the author.

Please send changes, additions, suggestions and questions to:
Kevin Dowling     			tel:	412.268.8830
Robotics Institute			fax:	412.268.5895
Carnegie Mellon University		net:
Pittsburgh, PA 15213

This FAQ may be referenced as:
Dowling, Kevin (1994) "Robotics: comp.robotics Frequently Asked
Questions" Usenet news.answers.  Available via anonymous ftp from
part1 through part5. 70+ pages.

If the Last-modified date above is more than two months old you
should obtain a new copy.  See Section [0.1] Where to Find This FAQ .
Part 1/5

Part 1
	[0] Errata
		[0.1] Where to find this FAQ and comp.robotics archives
		[0.2] Related FAQ's and Mailing Lists

	[1] What is Robotics?
		[1.1] What is the definition of a 'robot'?
		[1.2] Where did the word 'robot' come from?
	[2] Where can I find robotics resources on the net?

	[3] Organizations
		[3.1] Robotics Related Organizations
		[3.2] Robotics Associations of Many Countries
		[3.3] Robotics Clubs

	[4] What Periodicals and Publications are there?
		[4.1] Magazines, Journals, Newsletters
			[4.1.1] Robotics Publications
			[4.1.2] Trade magazines
			[4.1.3] Other sources

		[4.2] Books, Online Information and Videos
			[4.2.1] Books
			[4.2.2] CDROMS
			[4.2.3] Magazine Articles
			[4.2.4] Online Technical Reports

Part 2
	[5] Conferences and Competitions
		[5.1] Conferences
		[5.2] Competitions

Part 3
        [6] What University Programs are there?
                [6.1] Graduate Programs in Robotics
		[6.2] Student Who's Who

        [7] What is the State of the Robot Industry?

        [8] What companies sell or build robots?
                [8.1] Mobile robot companies
			[8.1.1] AGV Companies
			[8.1.2] Underwater robots
                [8.2] Manipulator companies
                [8.3] Other Organizations doing robotics
                [8.4] Small Inexpensive Robots

        [9] What is a Robot Architecture?

Part 4 
	[10] What Robotics related products are there?
		[10.1] Sensors
			[10.1.1] Cameras
			[10.1.2] Inertial measurement devices and gyros
			[10.1.3] Rangefinding devices
			[10.1.4] Force/torque, accelerometers, tactile
			[10.1.5] Sonar sensors
			[10.1.6] Pan/tilt mechanisms
			[10.1.7] Measuring robot position
			[10.1.8] Measuring linear motion
			[10.1.9] Interfacing sensors
		[10.2] Actuators
			[10.2.1] RC-Servos
			[10.2.2] Shape memory materials
			[10.2.3] Stepper Motor Controller
		[10.3] Imaging for Robotics
                [10.4] Wireless Communication
			[10.4.1] RF Modems
			[10.4.1] RF Video
			[10.4.2] RF Ethernet
                [10.5] Robot Parts: Suppliers and Sources

Part 5
	[11] Whatever happened to Heathkit Hero Robots?
	[12] What's available for Puma Manipulators?
	[13] What kinds of Robotics Simulators are there?
		[13.1] Commercial Simulators
		[13.2] Shareware and Freeware Simulators
	[14] What Real-Time Operating System should I use?
	[15] What is NuTank?
	[16] Survey of Mobile Robot Development Environments
	[17] Small development platforms
		[17.1] What is the Miniboard?
		[17.2] What is the F1 Board?
		[17.3] What is the Bot Board?
	[18] What is the XXX Microcontroller?
		[18.1] Motorola 68XX
		[18.2] Motorola 683xx
		[18.3] Intel 80C186
		[18.4] Intel 8051
		[18.5] Intel 8096
		[18.6] Microchip PIC16/17
		[18.7] Parallax BASIC Stamp
		[18.8] National Semiconductor LM628/629
		[18.9] Hewlett-Packard HCTL 1000, 2000
		[18.10] Motor Drivers

	[19] Acknowledgements


[0] Errata
This section provides details on finding the comp.robotics FAQ and
gives pointers to other FAQs related to robotics.

[0.1]  Where to find this FAQ and comp.robotics archives

[0.1.1] Information for New Users of the Internet.

If you haven't done so, new users on the net should read
news:news.announce.newusers. In particular, the following posts are a good
	-A Primer on How to Work With The Usenet Community
	-Answers to Frequently Asked Questions About Usenet
	-Hints on Writing Style for Usenet

This FAQ is currently posted to comp.answers, news.answers and
comp.robotics.  All posts to news.answers are archived and are
available via anonymous FTP and e-mail from the following locations:

The World Wide Web:

WorldWideWeb (W3 or WWW) is the universe of network-accessible
information, an initiative started at CERN, now with many
participants. It has a body of software, and a set of protocols and
conventions. W3 uses hypertext and multimedia techniques to make the
web easy for anyone to roam, browse, and contribute to. Future
evolution of W3 is coordinated by the W3 Organization. The W3 has
grown into an extraordinary means of finding information about
organizations, people, companies, products and many, many other
things. Many browsers have been developed to search the net. Some of 
the most popular are Mosaic, MacWeb and Netscape.

If you are not using the Web or browsers: Learn! The WWW is already a
main source of information on the net and it is very easy to use with
the browsing and surfing tools now available. Within the robotics
community it is already providing robotic tools, images, videos,
teleoperation and observation.

The following is a general introduction to the WWW:

If you have electronic mail, then it possible (though slow!) to get W3
information by mail. try sending a mail to with
a line in it saying just HELP to get back instructions. Your mail
system must have a mail gateway onto internet mail, but that is quite
likely. You might have to take the internet address above and ask your
friendly system manager how to convert it into the equivalent mail
address on the system you are using.

Ways to get the FAQ:

	Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is a description language for
	the Webpages on the net. It provides links and pointers to
	other Web pages as well as formatting the documents.

	Jason Almeter at Indiana Univ has converted the c.r. FAQ
	to html format. Go to the Table of Contents at: 

	OSU has a very useful site for all the usenet FAQs:

	FTP is a way of copying file between networked computers. If
	you need help in using or getting started with FTP, send
	e-mail to with
		send usenet/news.answers/ftp-list/faq
	as the body of the message.
	part1, part2, part3, part4, part5
	Internet address:
        part1.Z, part2.Z [use uncompress]
        Internet address:
	[Check info_service/Usenet/00index for filenames]
	Internet address:
	part1, part2, part3, part4, part5

	Send email to containing these lines:
	send usenet/news.answers/robotics-faq/part1
	send usenet/news.answers/robotics-faq/part2
	send usenet/news.answers/robotics-faq/part3
	send usenet/news.answers/robotics-faq/part4
	send usenet/news.answers/robotics-faq/part5

	There are a number of sites in the US, Europe and Japan
	that store the FAQ and archives for comp.robotics. You can
	find these by using the Internet search programs, Archie,
	Gopher or Wais.

	Archives of comp.robotics and many AI-related newsgroups
	can now be found in appropriate subdirectories of
	or more directly for comp.robotics at:
	Each of these newsgroups is being automatically archived on a
	weekly basis.  For example, the gzipped tar file 94_10_08.tgz
	in the comp.lang.lisp/ subdirectory contains all articles that
	appeared in the comp.lang.lisp newsgroup during the previous
	week. Links to these archives also exist in many of the
	topical directories of the CMU AI Repository (e.g.,
	/user/ai/lang/lisp/news/ contains links to Lisp-related
	newsgroups). The archives for most of the newsgroups start
	with articles appearing on 23-JUL-94. Comments and suggestions
	should be sent to

	The following site,
	indexes not only the CMU AI archives of newsgroups, but over a
	hundred other publicly-accessible sites.

	Another location is:

	In addition to the FTP archive maintained at, there are a couple of other mechanisms
	- The comp.robotics archive at wilma is also available as a WAIS
	source (called "comp.robotics.src"), and hence it is also
	available to WWW browsers, via the appropriate WAIS gateway.
	- Moises Lejter maintains a mailing list of individuals who
	would rather receive comp.robotics via Email as a daily digest
	of all messages posted to comp.robotics in each 24-hour
	period.  Anyone interested should send email directly to
	<>.  It's a LOT of mail though...

[0.2] Related FAQ's and Mailing Lists

	There are a number of newsgroups with topics related to
robotics.  These include:*
	sci.virtual worlds,
	rec.metalworking	(fabrication)

In a number of the sections of this faq are locations of related
materials on the net.

Most regularly posted FAQ's can be found at (rtfm is an
acronym for Read The #$%*! Manual)<newsgroup>
        where <newsgroup> is the name of a given newsgroup.

Or on the www:

See the Microcontroller section for several other FAQs related to a 
variety of microcontrollers.

Mailing Lists

av-mcm (Autonomous Vehicle - Mine Counter Measure) mailing list.

This mailing list was created to provide a professional forum for exchange of
information about R & D in connection with the use of autonomous vehicles 
and associated work packages and control concepts in the tasks of mine
(or hazardous materials) clearance on land, in the sea, or from the air
and space.

We wish to include individuals from the armed services, industry, federal 
sponsors of research, and the academic community.  Subscribers from the
international community are welcome.

To subscribe to the mailing list send a message to 
without a subject line. In the message body type  
    subscribe av-mcm your-email-address
This is an open, unmoderated mailing list. Once subscribed, you
may send messages directly to the list (there is no active moderator
who screens messages before they are posted).  To post a message to
the list (which will be delivered to all members) use the address
To send a message to the list manager only use the address
To find out more about this mailing list such as where old messages
are archived, and who subscribes to the list send a message to
     leave the subject line blank and then type
     Help        in the first line of text.  You should receive an email
                 response soon.

nanomech-l mailing list

nanomech-l: A new list for discussing the extension of 
micromechanical technology to nanometer precision 
(1 micron and below), high frequency agile manufacturing and 
robotics using high-precision parts, and techniques for the 
assembly of micro- and nanomechanical devices.  Possible topics include:

* actuation & control mechanisms (piezo, acoustic, etc.)
* parts and subsystems (electrostatic bearings, springs, ratchets, etc.)
* contact-free, high-frequency, high-DOF electromagnetic 
	and electrostatic actuators
* nanometer precision parts testing, sorting, and 
	selection systems
* nanometer precision assembly operations & mechanical
	designs for assembly machines
* high-precision registration (peg & hole, STM & atomic ruler, etc.) 
* nanometer precision lithographic techniques (SAMS, high proximity
  e-beam, tip arrays, high precision 3D lithography, etc.)
* materials for nanolithography (silicon, diamond, monodisperse 
  nanophase, Langmuir-Blodgett films, self-assembling molecular 
  structures, etc.)
* nanometer precision machining and finishing techniques (e-beam,
	AFM, "sanding", etc.)

The nanomech-l list is run automatically off majordomo.  
To subscribe send mail to with the 
first line "subscribe nanomech-l".

[1] What is robotics?
	In this section we define the words 'robot' and 'robotics' and
look a little at the history of robots.

[1.1] What is the definition of a 'robot'?
	A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move
material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various
programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks"

				Robot Institute of America, 1979

Obviously, this was a committee-written definition. It's rather dry and
uninspiring. Better ones for 'robotics' might include:

	Force through intelligence.
	Where AI meet the real world.

Webster says:
	An automatic device that performs functions normally ascribed
	to humans or a machine in the form of a human.

[1.2] Where did the word 'robot' come from?

The word 'robot' was coined by the Czech playwright Karel Capek
(pronounced "chop'ek") from the Czech word for forced labor or serf.
Capek was reportedly several times a candidate for the Nobel prize for
his works and very influential and prolific as a writer and
playwright.  Mercifully, he died before the Gestapo got to him for his
anti-Nazi sympathies in 1938.

The use of the word Robot was introduced into his play R.U.R.
(Rossum's Universal Robots) which opened in Prague in January 1921.
The play was an enormous success and productions soon opened
throughout Europe and the US. R.U.R's theme, in part, was the
dehumanization of man in a technological civilization. You may find it
surprising that the robots were not mechanical in nature but were
created through chemical means. In fact, in an essay written in 1935,
Capek strongly fought that this idea was at all possible and, writing
in the third person, said:

	"It is with horror, frankly, that he rejects all
	responsibility for the idea that metal contraptions could ever
	replace human beings, and that by means of wires they could
	awaken something like life, love, or rebellion. He would deem
	this dark prospect to be either an overestimation of machines,
	or a grave offence against life."

	[The Author of Robots Defends Himself - Karl Capek, Lidove
	noviny, June 9, 1935, translation: Bean Comrada]

There is some evidence that the word robot was actually coined by
Karl's brother Josef, a writer in his own right. In a short letter,
Capek writes that he asked Josef what he should call the artifical
workers in his new play. Karel suggests Labori, which he thinks too
'bookish' and his brother mutters "then call them Robots" and turns
back to his work, and so from a curt response we have the word robot.

R.U.R is found in most libraries. The most common English translation
is that of P. Selver from the 1920's which is not completely faithful
to the original. A more recent and accurate translation is in a
collection of Capek's writings called Towards the Radical Center
published by Catbird Press in North Haven, CT. tel: 203.230.2391

The term 'robotics' refers to the study and use of robots. The term
was coined and first used by the Russian-born American scientist and
writer Isaac Asimov (born Jan. 2, 1920, died Apr. 6, 1992). Asimov
wrote prodigiously on a wide variety of subjects. He was best known
for his many works of science fiction.  The most famous include I
Robot (1950), The Foundation Trilogy (1951-52), Foundation's Edge
(1982), and The Gods Themselves (1972), which won both the Hugo and
Nebula awards. 

The word 'robotics' was first used in Runaround, a short story published in
1942. I, Robot, a collection of several of these stories, was
published in 1950.

Asimov also proposed his three "Laws of Robotics", and he later added
a 'zeroth law'.

	-Law Zero: A robot may not injure humanity, or, through inaction,
		allow humanity to come to harm.

	-Law One: A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction,
		allow a human being to come to harm, unless this would
		violate a higher order law.

	-Law Two: (a) A robot must obey orders given it by human beings,
		except where such orders would conflict with a higher order

	-Law Three: A robot mus protect its own existence
		as long as such protection does not conflict with a higher
		order law.

An interesting article on this subject:

	Clarke, Roger, "Asimov's Laws for Robotics: Implications for
	Information Technology", Part 1 and Part 2, Computer, December
	1993, pp. 53-61 and Computer, January 1994, pp.57-65.

The article is an interesting discussion of his Laws and how they came
to be in his books, and the implications for technology today and in
the future.

[1.3] When did robots, as we know them today, come into existence?

The first industrial modern robots were the Unimates developed by
George Devol and Joe Engleberger in the late 50's and early 60's. The
first patents were by Devol for parts transfer machines. Engleberger
formed Unimation and was the first to market robots.  As a result,
Engleberger has been called the 'father of robotics.'

Modern industrial arms have increased in capability and performance
through controller and language development, improved mechanisms,
sensing, and drive systems. In the early to mid 80's the robot
industry grew very fast primarily due to large investments by the
automotive industry. The quick leap into the factory of the future
turned into a plunge when the integration and economic viability of
these efforts proved disastrous. The robot industry has only recently
recovered to mid-80's revenue levels. In the mean time there has been
an enormous shakeout in the robot industry. In the US, for example,
only one US company, Adept, remains in the production industrial robot
arm business. Most of the rest went under, consolidated, or were sold
to European and Japanese companies.

In the research community the first automata were probably Grey
Walter's machina (1940's) and the John's Hopkins beast. Teleoperated
or remote controlled devices had been built even earlier with at least
the first radio controlled vehicles built by Nikola Tesla in the
1890's. Tesla is better known as the inventor of the induction motor,
AC power transmission, and numerous other electrical devices. Tesla
had also envisioned smart mechanisms that were as capable as humans.
An excellent biography of Tesla is Margaret Cheney's Tesla, man out of
time, Published by Prentice-Hall, c1981.

SRI's Shakey navigated highly structured indoor environments in the
late 60's and Moravec's Stanford Cart was the first to attempt natural
outdoor scenes in the late 70's. From that time there has been a
proliferation of work in autonomous driving machines that cruise at
highway speeds and navigate outdoor terrains in commercial

Articles on the history of personal robots:

What ever happened to ... Personal Robots? by Stan Veit
The Computer Shopper, Nov 1992 v12 n11 p794(2) 

What ever happened to ... Personal Robots? (part 2) by Stan Veit
Computer Shopper, April 1993 v13 n4 p702(2) 

I have the text to these online but am trying to find out if I can
include these as part of the FAQ or as separate files that are

[2] Where can I find robotics resources on the net?

Within this FAQ are a wide variety of URL's and pointers to ftp sites
for robotics resources. There are a few URL's that go beyond this and
some of those are presented here:

Robotics Internet Resource Page:

This is an excellent source of pointers to a wide variety of Robotics
related work on the Internet. This includes files, video, images,
teleoperation etc etc. - Use your favorite browser (Mosaic, Netscape,
MacWeb etc. to check it out)

European Robotics Archive:

Eurobots is an archive dedicated to storage of robotics related  
information. It can be accessed via WWW at 

In addition to holding a collection of general information, the WWW
version has "Hot Links" to useful documents (such as this FAQ!) and
pointers to other mobile robot sites. There is also a dedicated
section for those working in Europe.  This archive is intended to
provide a service to all mobile robot developers, so check it out and
send us material that others might find useful, or give us your
suggestions for improvement.

Virtual Reality (VR) related:

For sci.virtual-worlds:

Also see:
There are papers, productsheets, publications and information.

Tutorial and Overview of Estimation and Navigation work at Notre-Dame
[I highly recommend this - it is an excellent use of the www and a
well-done overview of the work. - nivek]

Part I: Camera Space Manipulation
Part I relates to the positioning of a rigid body in three-dimensional
space relative to a specific, second body accomplished with either a
holonomic system, such as a typical industrial robot, or a
nonholonomic system, such as a forklift.

Part II: Estimation Based Navigation
Relates to the navigation of a vehicle relative to a known environment
such as a home, office, or warehouse.

[3] Robotics Organizations
	There are a number of organizations and societies related to
robotics. Some are related specifically to industry, several to
academia and a number of hobbyist groups. In addition, a number of the
groups, such as the ASME or IEEE, (see below) are very large
organizations and robotics is one of many sub-disciplines in their
respective fields. Many of these organizations also have periodicals
associated with robotics.

		[3.1] Robotics Related Organizations
		[3.2] Robotics Associations of Many Countries
		[3.3] Robotics Clubs

[3.1] Robotics Related Organizations

Advanced Robot Technology Research Association (Japan)
Kikai-shinko Bldg
3-5-8 Shiba-Kohen, Minato-ku, Tokyo
tel: (03) 434-0532
fax: (03) 434-0217
Has joint research programs with member companies.
Members are 20 or so Japanese companies including:
Ishikawajima-Harima, Oki Electric, Kawasaki Heavy Industry, Kobe
Steel, Komatsu, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Toshiba, JGC, NEC,
Hitachi, Fanuc, Fujitsu, Fuji, Matshushita Research Institute, Mitsui,
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Electric, Yaskawa

American Society of Mechanical Engineers, (ASME)
345 E. 47th Street
New York, NY 10017
Mechanical Engineering magazine, like the IEEE's Spectrum, is
an excellent general publication on aspects of mechanical engineering.
There are often publications on robotics and the ASME sponsors a
number of other publications and conferences that are relevant to
robotics. The ASME also has a BBS service, MechEng, with an email
server. send email to <> with 'send info' in
the body.

Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems (AUVS)
1735 North Lynn Street
Suite 950
Arlington, VA 22209-2022
tel: 703.524.6646
fax: 703.524.2303
Promoting worldwide advancement of unmanned vehicle systems.
Membership includes subscription to Unmanned Systems magazine, AUVS
News Bulletin, regional seminars, annual symposium and trade show, and
other opportunities. AUVS also sponsors an annual aerial Robotics
Competition. See Conference announcements for more details.
or see:


Student membership: $15/year
Educational Institutions/Libraries $100/year
Individual: $40/year
Corporate memberships also available.

Center for Autonomous and Man-controlled Robotic and Sensing Systems
Charles Jacobus, CAMRSS director
PO Box 8618
Ann Arbor, MI 48107
tel: 313.994.1200 X2457
Member companies include: Ball Aerospace, Coulter Electronics, ERIM,
Fairchild, Ford Aerospace, Geospectra, Grumman, Industrial Technology
Institute, KMS Fusion, Michigan State, UofM.

American Insitute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA)
370 L'Enfant Promenade, SW
Washington, DC 20024
tel: 202.646.7400
tel: 212.247.6500 (Technical Information Service)
Conferences and publications, several cover automation technologies
for servicing on the ground and in space as well as exploration.

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Service Center
445 Hoes Lane
Piscataway, NJ 08854-4150
tel: 201.981.0060
tel: 800.678.IEEE
A large organization with hundreds of publications including journals, 
transactions, Spectrum, sponsoring conferences, workshops and meetings.
   IEEE membership is $95 regular ($23 students)
   For membership in the IEEE Computer Society, add $22.
   $20 for IEEE Expert (Intelligent Systems and their Applications)
   $12 for Transactions on Neural Networks
   $12 for Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics
   $15 for Transactions on Robotics and Automation
   $19 for Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
   $24 for Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine IntelligenceIEEE 

The International Society for Optical Engineering, (SPIE)
P.O.Box 10
Bellingham, Washington 98227-0010.
tel: 206.676.3290 (PST)
fax: 206.647.1445
tlx: 46-7053
	SPIE has publications, meetings and conferences in the field
of intelligent robots, mobile robots, teleoperation, machine vision,
	SPIE is a nonprofit society dedicated to advancing engineering
and scientific applications of optical, electro-optical, and
optoelectronic instrumentation, systems and technology. Its members
are scientists, engineers, and users interested in the reduction to
practice of these technologies. SPIE provides the means for
communicating new developments and applications to the scientific,
engineering, and user communities through its publications, symposia,
and short courses.

SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering, has started
up four new listservers, covering robotics, fiber optics, optical
computing and processing, and optomechanical engineering/instrument
design. This brings the total to eight (see list below).

SPIE maintains several e-mail Listserver Groups dedicated to various
technical specialties. These groups are a way for colleagues to share
information, solve problems, and discuss issues related to their
interests. While the topics are tied to the various International
Technical Working Groups of SPIE, membership is not required to join a
listserver group.

Currently available e-mail listservers maintained by SPIE:
Listname        Group
--------        -----
info-bios       BiOS (Biomedical Optics Society)
info-ei         Electronic Imaging
info-holo       Holography
info-adopt      Adaptive Optics
info-fibers     Fiber Optics
info-opcom      Optical Computing and Processing
info-robo       Robotics
info-optomech   Optomechanical and Instrument Design

To subscribe to one of these groups, send an e-mail message to
and include the words:   subscribe info-listname
in the message body area, where listname matches one of the names
listed above. For a complete set of instructions, send a message to with the word HELP in the message
body. For an up-to-date list of SPIE listserver groups at any time,
send the word LISTS to the same address.

The Material Handling Institute
8720 Red Oak Blvd, Suite 201
Charlotte, NC 28217
  Primary robotics focus is on AGV's.

National Service Robots Association (NSRA)
900 Victors Way
PO Box 3724
Ann Arbor, MI 48106
tel: 313.994.6088
An organization devoted to robots other than on the factory floor.

Robotics Industry Association (RIA)
(same address as NSRA)

Society of Manufacturing Engineers, (SME)
One SME Drive
PO Box 930
Dearborn, MI  48121
tel: 313.271.1500

Utility/Manufacturer Robot Users group (UMRUG)
Contact: Harry T. Roman
MC: 16-H
Public Service Electric and Gas Company
80 Park Plaza
PO Box 570
Newark, NJ 07101
tel: 201.430.6646

[3.2] Robotics Associations of Many Countries

Compilied from a list provided by the British Robot Association.
Alphabatized by English spelling of country.

Australian Robot Association Inc
G.P.O. Box 1527
New South Wales
Contact: Mr Michael Kassler
tel: +61-2-959-32-39
fax: +61-2-959-46-32

Osterreichisches Forschungszentrum
Seibersdorf GmbH
Hauptabteilung Fertigungstechnik und Automation
Contact: Mr Erwin Fugger
tel: +43-2254-80-22-13
fax: +43-2254-80-21-18

SOBRACON - Sociedade Brasileira de Comando
Numerico, Automazacao e Computacao Grafica
Rua General Jardim, 645-7 andar, cjto.72
01223 011 - Sao Paulo, SP
Contact: Mr. Arnaldo Pereira Ribeiro
tel: +55-11-256-1192 / 258 3320
fax: +55-11-256-94-96

British Robot Association (BRA)
BRA Aston Science Park
Love Lane
Birmingham B7 4BJ
tel: +44 (0)21-628 1745
fax: +44 (0)21-628 1746
  Meetings, newsletters, information, contacts, sponsor of several
  events in the UK.  Individual and Student rate is 60 pounds UK.

"Robot" Interindustry Research and Production Association
(MNTK "Robot")
Izmailovskaya sq.,7
MOSCOW - Russia
Contact: Mr. Vladimir P Stepanov
tel: +7-095-367-85-36
fax: +7-095-367-88-81

China Society of Industrial 
Automation & Automated Industries
8, 7F, Tun Hwa N. Rd.
TAIPEI - China
Contact: Mr. Chen, Chen-Chang
tel: +886-2-751-34-68
fax: +886-2-781-77-90

Danish Industrial Robot Association (DIRA)
Contact: Mr. John Nielsen
tel: +45-86-14-24-00
fax: +45-86-14-43-55

Robotics Society in Finland
c/o Suomen Automaation Tuki Oy
Asemapaallikonk. 12 C
tel: +358-0-146-1644
fax: +358-0-146-1650
Contact: Mr. Hannu Lehtinen

Fachgemeinschaft MHI im VDMA
P.O. Box 71 08 64
Contact: Mr. Berndt Knoerr
tel: +49-69-66-03-466
fax: +49-69-66-03-459

Nobelstrasse 12
Contact: Mr Rolf D Schraft
fax: +49-711-970-13-99

Association Francaise de Robotique
Industrielle (AFRI)
Tour 66
4, Place Jussieu
F-75252 PARIS CEDEX 05
Contact: Mr. Arnauld Laffaille
tel: +33-1-44-27-62-12
fax: +33-1-44-27-62-14

Hungarian Robotics Association
c/o Tungsram T.H. Co.Ltd.
Centre of Robotics and Automation
H-1340 Budapest
IV., Vaci ut 77
Contact: Dr. Jozsef K. Tar
tel: +36-1-169-6144
fax: +36-1-169-6144

Government of India
Ministry of Science & Technology
Dept. of Science & Technology
Technology Bhavan
New Mehrauli Road
New Delhi-110 016
Contact: Mr. A.N.N. Murthy, Director
tel: +91-11-662-260, 654-793
fax: +91-11-616-2418

SIRI - Associazione Italiana di Robotica
c/o ETAS Periodici
Via Mecenate 91
I-20138 MILANO
Contact: Mr Daniele Fabrizi
tel: +39-2-580-842-24
fax: +39-2-554-003-88

Japan Industrial Robot Association
c/o Kikaishinko Bldg
3-5-8, Shibakoen, Minato-Ku
Contact: Mr Kanji Yonemoto
tel: +81-3-3434-2919
fax: +81-3-3578-1404

KIST - Korea Institute of Science and Technology
P.O. Box 131, Cheongryang
Contact: Mr. Chun Sik-lee
tel: +82-2-967-3505, 963-4497
fax: +82-2-969-1763

Meininger Automation bv
P.O. Box 743 
Contact: Mr Jack B Eijlers
tel: +31-70-340-17-80
fax: +31-70-340-1602

Federation of Norwegian Engineering Industries (TBL)
Box 7072 - H
N-0306 OSLO 3
Contact: Mr Johan Ulleland
tel: +47-2-46-58-20
fax: +47-2-46-18-38

Polish Federation of Engineering Associations (NOT)
Czackiego Str 3/5
Contact: Mr. Kazimierz Wawrzyniak
tel: +48-22-26-87-31
fax: +48-22-27-29-49

Singapore Industrial Automation Association (SIAA)
151 Chin Swee Road
#03-13 Manhattan House
Contact: Mr Stephen Teng
tel: +65-734-69-11
fax: +65-235-57-21

MVVZ Robot
Nam. Legionarov 3
CZ-080 01 PRESOV
Contact: Mr Vladimir Cop
tel: +42-91-235-77
fax: +42-91-231-95

"J. Stefan" Institute
Jamova 39
61000 Ljubljana
Contact: Mr Jadran Lenarcic
tel: +38-61-159-199
fax: +38-61-161-029, 273-677

Asociacion Espanola de Robotica
Rambla de Catalunya 70, 3r 2a
Contact: Mr Luis Basanez
tel: +34-3-215-57-60
fax: +34-3-215-23-07

Swedish Industrial Robot Association (SWIRA)
Box 5506
Contact: Mr Thomas Hardenby
tel: +46-8-783-80-00
fax: +46-8-660-33-78

Schweizerische Gesellschaft fur
Automatik, Arbeitsgruppe Robotik
Postgasse 17
CH-3011 BERN
Contact: Mr Charles Giroud
tel: +41-31-21-22-51
fax: +41-31-21-12-50

British Robot Association (BRA)
Aston Science Park, Love Lane
Aston Triangle
United Kingdom
Contact: Mr. Donald Pitt
tel: +44-21-628-17-45
fax: +44-21-628-17-46

Robotic Industries Assoc (RIA)
P.O. Box 3724
Contact: Mr. Donald A. Vincent
tel: 1-313-994-6088
fax: 1-313-994-3338

Secretariat of IFR
c/o Sveriges Verkstadsindustrier
Box 5506
Contact: Mr Lennart Djupmark
	 Mrs Kerstin Teglof Delgado
tel: +46-8-783-80-00 or
fax: +46-8-660-33-78

[3.3] Robotics Clubs

The original computer club in Silicon Valley was the Homebrew computer
club, out of which evolved a major portion of the personal computer
industry. In that spirit, if not the hope for history repeating
itself, a number of robotics societies and clubs have sprung up.

Maintainer of this list:

Ed Severinghaus <>
listserver: send message "get society" to listserver
            or "help" for list of other options

Atlanta Hobby Robotics Association
P.O. Box 2050
Stone Mountain, GA 30086
tel: 404.972.7082
fax: 404.979.3660,,,11
net: <>
bbs: Robots R4U 404.978.7300 - 300-14400 - 8N1 - 24hrs - 7days
Supporting Hobby Robot activity in Atlanta and more. Source of "Robot
Hobby; The Complete Manual, for Individuals and Clubs" See Books Section.

The Robot Group
PO Box 164334
Austin, TX 78716
tel: 512.794.9105
net: <>
     gopher:// Interesting Gophers/Robogopher

Connecticut Robotics Society
c/o Jake Mendelssohn 
190 Mohegan Drive
West Hartford, CT 06117 
tel: 203.233.2379

The Dallas Personal Robotics Group
Dallas Personal Robotics Group 
c/o Eric Yundt - President 
5112 Hardaway Circle 
The Colony, TX  75056 
Voice #: 214-625-4454 
Fax #: 214-612-2035 
BBS:  The Interociter BBS  214-258-1832 

LA Area Robotics and Automation Group
Los Angeles, CA
	If you wish to subscribe to the <la-ragroup> mailing list,
please send a message to:
with a blank Subject: line and the body of the message reading:
        subscribe la-ragroup <First Name> <Last Name>
[David Lee                              e-mail:]

Palo Alto Homebrew Robotics Club
c/o Richard Prather
91 Roosevelt Circle
Palo Alto, CA 94306

Portland Area Robotics Society (PARTS)
821 SW 14th
Troutdale, OR 97060
tel: 503.666.5907.
contact: Marvin Green
	The purpose of the Portland Area Robotics Society is to
support and promote the development of personal robotics, and to
facilitate the exchange of information between robot enthusiasts.
P.A.R.T.S will help provide practical and technical assistance to its
members, by promoting experimentation, construction, discussions,
seminars, exhibitions, and contests, in the field of hobby robotics.
	Membership to P.A.R.T.S shall be open to all persons, who are
interested in learning more about robotics, and furthering the
objectives of the club.  To get the most from P.A.R.T.S, active
participation is wholeheartedly encouraged.  After all, you only get
out of it what you put into it. Membership is $20 a year and includes
the PARTS newsletter.
	PARTS also has a newsletter that focuses on robotics for the
hobbyist. Each issue contains valuable information on electronics,
microcontrollers, sensors, hardware construction and software for
robotics.  You can obtain a set of twelve newsletters for only $9.95.
This includes shipping and handling.

The Robot Group - Alex Iles, President
POB 164334
Austin, TX 78716
tel: 512.288.9135  
net: gopher:// Interesting Gophers/Robogopher 

Robotics Society of Southern California
c/o Jerry Burton, President 
10471 S. Brookhurst
Anaheim, CA 92804
Robotics Society BBS at (714) 538-0614 

Robotics Club of Maryland
Computer Science Dept.
A.V. Williams Bldg. (115)
University of Maryland
College Park, Md.  20742-3255
contact: Stephen Klueter, President
net: <>

robotics group
President/founder: Franco Arteseros 
13702 East Lehigh Ave, unit E. 
Aurora, CO 80014 
tel: 303.680.9324 

The Robotics Society of America
PO Box 1205 
Danville, CA 94526-1205
fax: 415.550.0411
bbs: 415.648.6427 (supports 14.4Kb)
net: <>
	Subscription to SFRSA "Magazine" The normal subscription rate
will be $25 for 12 monthly issues.

Rochester Institue of Technology
Brace Peters, President       
RIT Robotics Club                  An RIT recognized club. 
1502 Grace Watson Hall
Rochester, New York 14623 
meetings are held every Sunday,
7:00 pm in building 09, room 2139 (Gleason building)

San Francisco Robotics Society of America
Brad Smallridge, Director
P.O.Box 1205
Danvile, CA 94526-1205
BBS 415-648-6427, 14.4K N81

Seattle Robotics Society
c/o Jeff Sandys
P.O.Box 30668
Seattle, WA 98103-0668
206-782-5989 (8AM-9PM PST, ask for Bob)

Triangle Amateur Robotics Club
P.O. Box 17523
Raleigh, NC 27619
tel: 919.782.8703
net: (Rodney Radford)
tel: 919.677.8001 x7703
hme: 919.469.9359
Meets first Monday of every month at 7:30pm on NCSU campus (110 Clark Lab) 

Twin Cities Robotics/AI Group 
St Paul, Minnesota 
Contact:  Alan Kilian, (612)683-5499 
via Mosaic:  

University of North Carolina Asheville Robotics Club 
contact: Paul Schuh    
Home phone: (704) 645-6165 

A related group:
MicroMechanics Information Clearinghouse
Requests to join list are sent to: <>
FTP site:
directories: /pub/prm, /pub/prospero, /pub/mems, /pub/papers

Robot related performance art:

Survival Research Laboratories
1458-C San Bruno Ave.
San Francisco, CA  94110
tel/fax: 415.641.8065
contact: SRL director Mark Pauline
net: <>
	Survival Research Laboratories is a not-for-profit machine-
performance art group conceived of and founded by Mark Pauline in
November 1978.  Since its inception SRL has operated as an
organization of creative technicians dedicated to re-directing the
techniques, tools, and tenets of industry, science, and the military
away from their typical manifestations in practicality, product or
warfare.  Since 1979, SRL has staged over 45 mechanized presentations
in the United States and Europe.  Each performance consists of a
unique set of ritualized interactions between machines, robots, and
special effects devices, employed in developing themes of
socio-political satire.  Humans are present only as audience or

	Survival Research Laboratories is now available for email and
time-restricted Gopher and anonymous FTP access from 0000-0600 PST
daily. [NOTE TIME RESTRICTION!]: and The directory holds scanned-in photographs
and video images of SRL shows in GIF format; SRLInfo has news. Image
file sizes range from 70 to 250 Kbytes, but our link speed is only
9600 baud; please be patient. Always select BINARY mode before FTP
file transfers.  Filenames can be specified in upper or lower case.
Comments or questions to

 Joel Plutchak has a WWW mirror site for SRL at:

There are two SRL tapes carried by Media Magic - a company that has all
sorts of great books, programs, CD-ROMs, laser disks, videos, etc dealing
with computers in science and art.  The tapes are:

	#v112a The Pleasures Of Unihibited Excess ($30) and
	#v112b The Will To Provoke ($25)

Media Magic
P.O. Box 598
Nicasio, CA   94946  
tel: 415.662.2426 or orders
tel: 800.882.8284

[4] What Robotics Related Periodicals and Publications are there?

		[4.1] Magazines, Journals, Newsletters
			[4.1.1] Robotics Publications
			[4.1.2] Trade magazines
			[4.1.3] Other sources

		[4.2] Books, Online Information and Videos
			[4.2.1] Books
			[4.2.2] CDROMS
			[4.2.3] Magazine Articles
			[4.2.4] Online Technical Reports

[4.1] Magazines, Journals, Newsletters
	There are a number of academic journals and trade magazines
devoted to robotics.  There are no magazines currently devoted to the
hobbyist or designer of robotic mechanisms. In the 1980's Robotics
Engineering (nee Robotics Age) lasted for 7-8 years but folded. The
one difficulty I noted as a subscriber was that the magazine attempted
to address the hobbyist, the curious and those whose work was devoted
to robotics without successfully catering to all groups.

[4.1.1] Robotics Publications

This list of periodical covers the academic journals, the trade
magazines devoted to both robotics and relevant sub-areas, and the
lone newsletter for hobbyists.

Advanced Robotics (in English)
	The International Journal of the Robotics Society of Japan.
	ISSN 0169-1864
	Editor-in-Chief, Robotics Society of Japan, 6FL. Bunkyo-Shogaku Bldg.,
	1-15-4, Hongu, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan.
	Subscriptions and orders:
	VSP, PO. Box 346, 3700 AH Zeist, The Netherlands.
	Bimonthly, DM525 (1993 price).

Automation in Construction
	Publisher: Elsevier Science Publisher B. V., Amsterdam.
	Desk Editor: Erik de Vries
	The Editor of the journal is
	Dr. T. Michael Knasel
	10324 Lake Avenue
	Cleveland, OH 441102-1239.
	fax: 216.651.5136.

Autonomous Robots
	ISSN 0929-5593
	Kluwer Academic Publishers
	Journal Dept
	PO Box 358, Accord Station
	Hingham, MA 02018-0358
	tel: 617.871.6600
	fax: 617.871.6528
	subscription: $50/individual
	Vol 1, 1994 (2 issues)
	George Bekey <>

Industrial Robot
	ISSN 0143-991X
	Quarterly, $145/year
	MCB University Press Ltd.
	62 Toller Lane
	Bradford, West Yorkshire
	England, BD8 9BY
	tel: (44) 274 499821,
	fax: (44) 274 547143
	--in the US
	MCB University Press Ltd.
	PO Box 10812
	Birmingham, AL 35201-0812
	tel: 1-800-633-4931 (1-205-995-1567),
	fax: 1-205-995-1588

Institute of  Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)
	The IEEE has a formidable array of journals, transactions and
	magazines. Here are a few that are relevant to robotics work:
	IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation
	IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics
	IEEE Control Systems Magazine
	IEEE Computer Magazine
	IEEN Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
	IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
	Cost: Have to join IEEE and then subscribe. Student rates are
	much less expensive than non-student rates.

International Journal of Robotics and Automation
	Published 4 times annually. ISSN 0826-8185
	ACTA Press, PO Box 354, CH-8053, Zurich, Switzerland or ACTA
	Press, PO Box 2481, Anaheim, CA 92814.
	Subscriptions: $165 US or 313.50 SFr. ($12 US or 22.80 SFr postage and
	handling). A special rate is available to members of IASTED.

International Journal of Robotics Research (IJRR)
	MIT Press
	28 Carleton Street
	Cambridge, MA 02142
	Cost: $50/year to individuals

Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems
	Three issues per volume, $58.50 per volume (individual)
	Kluwer Academic Publishers Group
	PO Box 322,
	3300 AH Dordrecht,
	The Netherlands
	--in the US:
	PO Box 358
	Accord Station,
	Hingham, MA 02018-0358

Journal of the Robotics Society of Japan
	Robotics Society of Japan
	6Fl. Bunkyo Shogaku Bldg.,
	1-15-4 Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan
	tel: (03)3812-7594
	fax: (03)3812-4628.
 	The table of contents (TOC) are posted to comp.research.japan
	and comp.robotics as they are available, although there is
	some delay. All of the TOC for this and other
	Japanese CS journals are archived for anonymous FTP at

Journal of Robotic Systems
	G. Beni and S. Hackwood, editors
	College of Engineering
	University of California, Riverside
	Riverside, CA 92521-0425
	Interscience Division
	Professional, Reference, and Trade Group
	John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
	605 Third Ave.
	New York, NY 10158

Mechatronics (Mechanics, Electronics, Control)
	Dr. R. W. Daniel
	Department of Engineering Science,
	University of Oxford,
	Parks Road, 
	Oxford, OX1-3PJ 
	United Kingdom:
	tel: +44-865-273153
	fax: +44-865-273153

	Professor J. R. Hewit
	Engineering Design Institute
	Department of Mechanical Engineering,
	University of Technology, Loughborough
	Leicestershire, LE11 3TU
	tel: +44-509-222936
	fax: +44-509-268103)
	Published by Pergamon Press Ltd, Headington Hill Hall, Oxford
	OX3 0BW UK.  1993 subscription rates: 193 pounds Sterling (US
	$312) Personal subscription rates for those whose library
	subscribes at a regular rate are available on request.
	Subscription rates for Japan are available on request.

Robot (Japanese)
	Industrial Robots and Application Systems
	published bimonthly
	Japan Industrial Robot Association (JIRA)
	Kikai-Shinko Building
	3-5-8, Shiba-Kohen,
	Mina To-ku
	Tokyo, Japan
	tel: (03) 3434-2919
	fax: (03) 3578-1404

Robot Explorer
	'The newsletter of motile systems'
	ISSN: 1060-4375
	Appropriate Solutions
	145 Grove Street
	PO Box 458
	Peterborough, NH 03458-0458
	tel: 603.924.6079
	fax: 603.924.9441
	$14.95/year in the US, $29.95 to the rest of the world.

	International Journal of Information, Education and Research
	in Robotics and Artificial Intelligence
	Quarterly publication, US $179 per year!
	Cambridge University Press
	The Edinburgh Building
	Shaftesbury Road,
	Cambridge CB2 2RU (UK)
	in the US:
	Cambridge University Press
	Journals Department
	40 West 20th Street
	New York, NY 10011-4211

Robotics and Autonomous Systems
	-- In Europe -- 
	Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.
	Journals Department
	PO Box 211, 100 AE Amsterdam
	The Netherlands
	Editors in Chief:
	Prof. F.C.A. Groen
	University of Amsterdam
	Faculty of Mathematics and CS
	Dept. of Computer Systems
	Kruislaan 403
	1098 SJ Amsterdam
	The Netherlands
	net: <>

	-- In the US and Canada --
	Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc.
	Journal Information Center
	655 Avenue of the Americas
	New York, NY 10010
	Editor in Chief
	Prof. T.C. Henderson
	University of Utah
	Dept. of Computer Science
	3160 Merrill Engineering Bldg.
	Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA
	net: <>

Robotics and Computer Integrated Manufacturing
	Pergamon Press, ISSN 0736-5845
	Editorial Office: Dr. Andre Sharon, Associate Editor,
	Subscriptions and orders:
	Elsevier Science Inc, 660 White Plains Road, Tarrytown, 
        NY 10591-5153, USA
        or Elsevier Science Ltd, The Boulevard, Langford Lane, 
        Kidlington, Oxford, OX5 1GB, UK.

Robotics Today
	Published by:
	Society of Manufacturing Engineers
	One SME Drive
	PO Box 930
	Dearborn, MI 48121
	tel: 313.271.1500

Robotics World
	"The end-user's magazine of flexible automation"
	Published quarterly
	Communication Channels
	6255 Barfield Road
	Atlanta, GA 30328
	tel: 404.256.9800
	They also publish the Robotics World Directory $49.95

InterLingua Retrieval Service

InterLingua, an information retrieval and translation company, will be
making available (starting January, 1995) at no cost the
tables-of-contents of selected Japanese publications every month.
This is part of a larger project in the science / technology arena
that we are engaged in, so it is possible for us to make this
information available at no obligation.

T-O-Cs of Japanese publications in the computer/electronics cateogry
will be posted on the Usenet group (comp.research.japan). However,
other T-O-Cs can be delivered via e-mail to you if you contact us with
your address and category preferences at the e-mail address below.
(Sorry, we are unable to deliver via post office or fax).

Below is a list of categories in which we are currently translating
T-O-Cs and making them available at no cost. Should you have any other
suggestions, please let us know. If there is sufficient interest in
other categories, we will consider making arrangements with Japanese

Tables-of-contents from Japanese magazines will be available in the
following categories:

1. General engineering (robotics, materials, inventions & patents)
2. Mechanical engineering
3. Transportation engineering
4. Metal engineering
5. Chemistry and chemical engineering
6. Energy engineering
7. Nuclear engineering
8. Electrical engineering
9. Electronics and communication technology
10. Information science (software & hardware)

Again, these are the subject areas in which InterLingua is currently
engaged in translations and information retrieval. Any additional
suggestions are more than welcome.

To subscribe to our e-mail delivery service contact us by e-mail at:

[4.1.2] Trade Magazines

	Usually free, mostly ads or industry news. Many articles
written by advertisers. Great sources of product information. Our lab
at CMU receives 50-60 trade magazines and journals per month and while
no one reads all of the articles, pointers are passed on to people
around the lab. This keeps the group abreast of new products and

Advanced Imaging
	445 Broad Hollow Rd.
	Melville, NY 11747
	tel: 516.845.2700
	fax: 516.845.2797
	Subscription free to qualified professionals, $50/yr otherwise.

	CQ Communications
	76 N. Broadway
	Hicksville, NY 11801
	tel: 516.681.2922
	fax: 516.681.2926
	cost: $18.97/yr
	ISSN: 1055-5072

Computer Applications Journal
	Circuit Cellar Inc.
	4 Park St. Suite 20
	Vernon, CT 06066
	Subscriptions: P.O. Box 7694
	Riverton, NJ 08077
	tel: 203.875.2751
	cost: $21.95/yr
	ISSN: 0896-8985
	Excellent for those building hardware, programming
	microcontrollers, etc. Also a very good source for companies
	who have products in these areas.

Design News
	Cahners Publishing Co.
	275 Washington Street
	Newton, MA. 02158
	News and Applications for design engineers.
	Cost: Free to qualified recipients; otherwise - ?

EE Times
	CMP Publications, Inc.
	600 Community Drive
	Manhasset, NY  11030
	Cost: Free to qualified recipients (in the U.S.); otherwise -
	$159/yr	(U.S. & Foreign)

Electronic Design
	Penton Publishing Inc
	1100 Superior Ave
	Cleveland, OH 44114-2543
	611 Route #46 West
	Hasbrouck Heights, NJ 07604
	tel: 201.393.6060
	fax: 201.393.0204
	cost: $95.00/yr (free if qualified)
	ISSN: 0013-4872

Electronics Now (formerly Radio Electronics)
	Gernsback Publications Inc
	Subscription Dept
	Box 55115
	Boulder, CO 80321-5115
	500-B Bi-County Boulevard
	Farmingdale, NY 11735
	tel: 516.293.3000
	cost: $19.97/yr
	ISSN: 0033-7862

Embedded Systems Programming
	Miller Freeman
	600 Harrison St.
	San Francisco, CA 94107
	tel: 800.829.5537 (customer service)
	tel: 415.905.2200
	bbs: 415.905.2689.
	$49.95 for 12 issues

Laser Focus World
        10 Tara Blvd., Fifth Floor (Editorial Office)
        Nashua, NH  03062
        tel: 603.891.0123
        fax: 603.891.0574
        Subscription Inquiries: 918.831.9424

Machine Design
	Penton Publishing Inc.
	1100 Superior Ave.
	Cleveland, OH 44114-2543
	tel: 216.696.7000
	fax: 216.621.8469
	Cost: Free to qualified recipients in the U.S.; otherwise -
	$100.00/yr in U.S.; $140/yr in Canada; $160/yr - all other

Midnight Engineering 'Journal of Personal Product Development'
	Published by William E Gates, [No, not him...]
	111 E. Drake Road
	Suite 7041
	Fort Collins, CO 80525
	tel: 303.225.1410
	fax: 303.225.1075
	One-year (6 issues) $24, canada and mexico $29, other foreign
	$49 (airmail) Perhaps marginal for this list but focus is on
	"resources and insight for the entrepreneurial engineer"
	Issues and articles on developing hardware, software,
	micro-controllers, product development, marketing, patenting
	issues, startups, etc etc. Excellent if you need this info.

Modern Materials Handling
	44 Cook Street
	Denver, CO  80206-5800
	tel: 303.388.4511
	Trade magazine covering productivity solutions for
	manufacturing, warehousing and distribution.  Typically
	includes articles on factory automation, etc.  Cost: Free to
	qualified recipients; otherwise - $75 for US subscribers.

Motion Control
	Tower Media Corp.
	800 Roosevelt Rd.
	Bldg. C, Suite 206
	Glen Ellyn, IL  60137
	Trade magazine for Motion Control applications and Technology.
	Cost: Free to qualified recipients in the U.S.; otherwise -
	$50/yr in U.S. $90/yr foreign subscriptions.

NASA Tech Briefs
	Associated Business Publications Co., Ltd.
	41 E. 42nd St.
	New York, NY  10017-5391
	Contains useful technology transfer information which very
	often includes robotics research performed at various NASA
	centers.  Cost: Free to qualified recipients; otherwise -
	$75.00/yr in the U.S., $150.00/yr for Foreign subscriptions

Nuts and Volts
	430 Princeland Court
	Corona, CA 91719
	tel: 800.783.4624
	Electronics classifieds and ads. Lots of devices and products
	relevant for robot builders. Often features articles on robot
	building as well by Karl Lunt. 

	Helmers Publishing
	174 Concord Street
	PO Box 874
	Peterborough, NH 03458-0874
	tel: 603.924.9631
	Trade magazine devoted to sensing devices. Publishes directory.
	Cost: Free to qualified subscribers, $55/yr otherwise
	[To add]
GPS World (Global Positioning System related)
RF Design
Sea Technology
Laser Focus
POB (surveying profession)
Broadcast Engineering (TV and radio engineering)

[4.1.3] Other sources:

Thomas Register
	Thomas Publishing Company
	One Penn Plaza
	New York, NY 10117-0139
	tel: 212.695.0500
	fax: 212.290.7362
	About $250 for a 20-odd volume encyclopedia of US industry.
Concentration on heavier industries - but still an amazing source for
information. No company or lab building products should be without
one. Available on CD-ROM for about $300.

EEM - The 'Thomas Register' for Electrical engineers.
[Address to add]

[4.2] Books, Online Information and Videos

	[4.2.1] Books
	[4.2.2] CDROMS
	[4.2.3] Magazine Articles
	[4.2.4] Online Technical Reports

The readership of this group ranges from the beginner to experienced
robot designers and users. Accordingly, this list covers the gamut as
well. I would like to include net resources as well such as papers or
tech reports so send me your sites!

[4.2.1] Books
	Some of these books may be out of print. Check with your local
bookseller or try a used bookstore that provides a search service.

Advanced Robot Systems
Mark J. Robillard
Howard Sams & Co. 1984

Autonomous Robot Vehicles
I.J. Cox and G.T. Wilfong (eds) 
New York, Springer-Verlag, 1990
Collection of seminal papers on autonmous robot vehicles.

Build Your Own Universal Computer Interface
Bruce Chubb
TAB Books

Control System Design Guide
George Ellis
ISBN 0-12-237470-3
Covers hardware,software and theory of ordinary PID control.

Directed Sonar Sensing for Mobile Robot Navigation
by John J. Leonard & Hugh F. Durant-Whyte
Kluwer Academic Press
Boston (1992) ISBN 0-7923-9242-6
  An expansion on John's thesis work, which he did at Oxford.

Industrial Robots:  Computer Interfacing and Control, Wesley E. Snyder
Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1985.
LOC # TS191.8.S67
Fair amount of detail on inductrial robot controllers and connecting
to them.

Inside the Robot Kingdom: Japan, Mechatronics and the Coming Robotopia
Frederik L. Schodt
Kodansha International
New York, NY 1988
Lots of interesting views of robots in Japan and Japan's fascination
with robots.

Interfacing Test Circuits With Single-Board Computers
Robert H. Luetzow
TAB Books

Machines That Walk
Shin-Min Song and Kenneth J Waldron
ISBN 0-262-19274-8
Like it says: legged locomotion. Focus is on the OSU Adaptive
Suspension Vehicle.

A Mathematical Introduction to Robotic Manipulation
R. M. Murray, Z. Li, and S. S. Sastry
CRC Press, 1994
For more information, see

Microprocessor Based Robotics
Mark J. Robillard
Howard Sams & Co. 1983

Microcontroller Technology: The 68HC11
Peter Spasov
Regents/Prentice Hall, 1993, ISBN 0-13-583568-2
Aimed at the 68HC11 family, good reference.

Minimalist Mobile Robotics
Jonathan H Connel
ISBN 0-12-185230-X
Brooks subsumption architecture robots. Shows complex behaviors are
possible with little of the massive architectures done in other

Mobile Robots: Inspiration to Implementation.
 Joseph L. Jones and Anita Flynn, 
 This book grew out of the Mobot Lab at MIT and covers many aspects
 of mobile robots including design and the mechanics and electronics of
 construction as well as robot programming. Good for the beginner and
 experienced robot builder. A Mobile Robot kit is also available. See
the Rug Warrior in the section on Small, Inexpensive Robots.
 Klaus Peters
 President and Publisher
 289 Linden Street
 Wellesley, MA 02181
 tel: 617.235.2210
 fax: 617.235.2404
 net: <>

The Robot Book
Richard Pawson
Windward, 1985, 192 pages.
Utilizes Lego kits.

The Robot Builder's Bonanza: 99 Inexpensive Robotics Projects
Gordon McComb
TAB Books

Robot Evolution: the Development of Anthropomorphics
Rosheim, Mark E.
1994, John Wiley & Sons
ISBN  0-471-02622-0

Robot Hobby: The Complete Manual, for Individuals and Clubs
John W. Gutmann, Foreword by Joe Engelberger
ISBN 0-9634272-4-5
Soft cover $29.95    
Hard Cover $36.95
Machine Press Publishing
P.O. Box 870210
Stone Mountain, GA 30087-0006

Robotic Technology: Principles and Practice.
Werner G. Holzbock
Van Nostrand Reinhold Co, 1986, ISBN 0-442-23154-7

edited by Marvin Minsky
Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1985
ISBN: 0385194145, LCCN: 84024390

Robot Motion: Planning and Control 
Brady, Hollerbach, Johnson, Lozano-Perez, and Mason.
Cambridge, MA, MIT Press 1982)
        Collection of excellent papers on the topic of robot motion.

Peter Marsh
Crescent (Crown) Publishers, NY 1985
        Marsh edited the volume and the book is made up of several
contributions from robotics researchers. A very well illustrated book
that covers the general topic of robots. Excellent source materials
and graphics.

Safety, Reliability, and Human Factors in Robotic Systems.
Edited by James H. Graham.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991.
ISBN 0-442-00280-7
  Laws/rules/regulations are governing industrial robot installations
in the U.S.

[4.2.2] CDROMS

Isaac Asimov's The Ultimate Robot.
        It is an excellent intro and retrospective on robotics.
Includes movie clips from several cinema robots, robotic terminology
defined and illustrated (linkages, kinmatics, arm types etc),
vignettes of many historically important robots including Moshers work
>from the 60's, many teleoperated devices, several mobile machines
including the ASV and many others.  There is also a fun part where you
get to select parts, build a robot and animate it. (Design by Ralph
MacQuarrie who was production designer on Star Wars)
        There are video interviews with Asimov and all of his robot
stories and essays as well Published by Microsoft. Available from a
number of CDROM vendors.


        Network Cybernetics Corporation is now shipping the second
annual revision of their popular AI CD-ROM, an ISO-9660 format CD-ROM
containing a wide assortment of information on AI, Robotics, and other
advanced machine technologies. The AI CD-ROM contains thousands of
programs, source code collections, tutorials, research papers,
Internet journals, and other resources. The topics covered include
artificial intelligence, artificial life, robotics, virtual reality,
and many related fields. Programs for OS/2, DOS, Macintosh, UNIX,
Amiga, and other platforms can be found on the disc.  The files have
been collected from civilian and government research centers,
universities, Internet archive sites, BBS systems and other
sources. The CD-ROM is updated annually to keep it current with the
latest trends and developments in advanced machine technologies such
PRODUCT OF THE YEAR AWARD finalist and has received good reviews in
many magazines including Byte (Jerry Pournelle, March '93) and IEEE
Computer (J. Zalewski, July '93), CD-ROM Professional and others.
        The new revision of the AI CD-ROM is now shipping. The price
of Revision 2 will remain the same as the Revision 1 CD: $129 + $5
(US) / $10 (foreign) for shipping & processing. If you currently own
the revision 1 AI CD-ROM, you can "upgrade" to the Rev.2 CD for $79 +
shipping. Email or fax us to get an upgrade form.

From:   Network Cybernetics Corporation
        4201 Wingren Road, Suite 202
        Irving, Texas 75062-2763
        tel: 214.650.2002
        fax: 214.650.1929

[4.2.3] Magazine Articles

Initial List Provided by Dave Hrynkiw]

        Best source for most general articles and journal articles is
your library - check online sources too!

Discover Magazine, March 1991, Pg 43
An excellent 6 page article of the goings-on in the MIT Artificial-
Intelligence lab.

"Mathematical Recreations - Insectoids Invade a Field of Robots"
Scientific American Magazine, July 1991
Another excellent 4 page article about MIT's work in the field of mobile
"Gearing Down"
Science News, Vol. 139 No. 2, January 12 1991, Pg 26-27
I haven't seen a copy of this article yet.  If you find it, PLEASE
fax/send me a copy.  Referenced from Scientific American Magazine,
July 1991 ("Mathematical Recreations" column)
"Fast, Cheap, and Out of Control"
Research News, May 1990, Pg 959-961
One of the better MIT Lab articles.  Worth hunting down.
"Working the bugs out of a new breed of 'insect' robots"
Smithsonian Magazine, June 1991, pgs 63-73.
Another excellent & more technical article on MIT's robot research.
"The Iconoclast - Life in the Anthropomorphic Lane"
Macworld magazine, May 1991, Pg 43-47
Another basic, but decent review of MIT's AI Robot labs.
"People - A Mind of Their Own"
Connoisseur Magazine, May 1991, Pg 42-46
A more personal look at Rodney Brook.
"Robot Insects"
Popular Science, March 1991, Pg 52-55,86
Popular Science does it's regular quality article.  Some detail, but not
to technical. Good, basic read.
"New Approaches to Robotics"
Science Magazine, Vol.253, September 1991, Pg 1227-1232
Very complete & technical document by Rodney Brooks.  Has a very
complete reference & notes section.

"Artificial Intelligence - Building a Better Mouse"
Omni Magazine, ??, Pg 22,126
Interesting Article about Dave Otten, the micro-mouse champ.  Short,
but interesting read.
"Tech Update - Transformer Robots Crawl Up Stairs"
Popular Mechanics, March 1993, Pg 17
Not much to say, but look at the pictures - what innovation!
"Mighty Mouse"
MIT Reporter, July 1991, Pg 12
A short piece about Dave Otten's micromice.
"The OMNI Photovore - How to build a robot that thinks like a roach"
Omni Magazine, October 1988, Pg 201-210,212
MIT developed this basic robot for the magazine.  A really interesting
read, with good technical.  Haven't built mine yet, but I have all the
parts... (Excellent article)
"Annual Report of Microbot Technology, Inc."
Omni Magazine, ??? Pg 68,70,76
Omni's interesting futuristic look of the possibilities with micro robots.
"Tech Update - Mechanical Caterpillar"
Popular Mechanics, June 1992, Pg 24
Another neat idea to look at.

"Tech Update - Silicon Ants Could Prove Tireless Workers"
Popular Mechanics, May 1992, Pg 21
Interesting little bit on the future of solar powered microbots.  Neat
"Trends - Let's Get Small"
Technology Review, Aug/Sept 1992, pg 18-19
Article on JPL/IS Robotics small robots.  Decent article
"Go Robots, Go!"
Popular Science, December 1992, Pg 97-102,138,140
Interesting overview of the AAAI Mobile Robotics Competition held in
San Jose.
"New Trends - Legs win over wheels for moon work"
Machine Design Magazine, February 11 1988
A dated article on Georgia Tech's "Skitter".  Short, but has
"Light Elements - RoboHockey"
Discover magazine, May 1990, pg 82
Interesting bit about MIT's Mech Eng 2.70 competition.
"Society - Technology - For the Love of Robotics"
Newsweek magazine, March 9 1992, Pg 68-69
Public-robot fodder.  Nothing new here but some interesting pictures. 
Covers the Austin area Robot Group
"Robots Go Buggy"
Science News Magazine, Vol 140, November 30 1991, Pg 361-3
Very good article about the comparison between "simple" robotics and
biologics (bugs)
"Build This Robot Bug"
Radio-Electronics Magazine, June 1992, Pg 33-38
_Very_ basic robot.  Not a bad place to start tho...
Science Digest, April 1983 p68
"The Rise of the Robot" by Tom Parrett. Article includes photos of the
"Atlanta Robotics Special Interest Group" founded by John W. Gutmann
with the support of Bill Dodd, owner of Hobby Robot CO.  The first
meeting was held on April 21st of 1981.

[4.2.4] Online Technical Reports

 There are emerging sources on the net for tech reports and papers. If
 you know of additional ones please send me email. Thanks.

The Kahaner Reports

This directory archives reports written about computing in Japan by
Dr. David Kahaner, a numerical analyst current on assignment with the
Office of Naval Research Asia (ONR Asia).  The file INDEX contains a
short description of each report in alphabetical order.  The file
INDEX.bydate contains the same descriptions ordered by the date the
report was written.

Some relevant files:
robots  (Feb 28, 1991)
    Overview of trends in robot manufacturing, use, and sales in Japan.

robots.93  (Dec 10, 1993)
     Summary of the 24th International Symposium on Industrial
     Robots (ISIR), the 1993 International Conference on Advanced Robotics
     (ICAR), and the 1993 International Industrial Robot Exhibition, all held
     in Tokyo 1-5 Nov 1993.

The 6.270 Robot Builder's Guide (See also the Miniboard section in this FAQ)
by  Fred Martin
         filenames:     *.PS.Z
   This directory contains "The 6.270 Robot Builder's Guide", the
   course notes to the 1992 MIT LEGO Robot Design Competition.
   Hardcopy also available for $15 from:
         E&L Memo Requests
         MIT Media Laboratory
         20 Ames Street Room E15-309
         Cambridge, MA 02139 USA
         Check made out to 'MIT Epistemology and Learning'
   Contact: Fred Martin at

Cambridge University
        Tech report on 3D object model acquisition and recognition:

Carnegie Mellon University SCS Technical Reports
1) The machine is the offical SCS machine for
   ftping SCS technical reports. Directories containing .ps files
   (compressed and uncompressed, dependent on size) are stored for
   ease of access. You can use the instructions below to browse the

2) The reports appearing in our ftpable directories are also automatically
   transferred into MOSAIC. Authors retain the right to decide whether
   their report(s) should or should not appear in the public ftp

3) A third mechanism for storing and making reports available is
   MERCURY--the scanned image, full text, online database (part of the
   LIS system). Whether the report is scanned into the system is again
   left up to invidivual author choice.  The CMU community is able to
   view text for the reports, as they appear, at their desks using
   Mercury.  This system, supported by ARPA and CNRI, will open soon
   to MIT, Stanford, Cornell, and we can all share online
   text of reports.  Down the road, it is anticipated that more and
   more universities will become a part of this service.  We scan 
   original copies of reports into the system,

        URL: or

   The reports are in postscript format (.ps).  The index file
   is called README.mss.  The reports are listed in the directory
   by their example,,
   and so on.  The majority of the files are not compressed, although
   any compressed files will be listed as .  A very few
   reports have been broken down into multiple postscript files.  They
   will appear as,, etc.  The README.mss will
   indicate the reports that have multiple .ps files.

MIT AI Laboratory
tel: 617.253.6773
fax: 617.253.5060
        MIT bibliography, general info about the lab and most recent
research publications is choice of ascii or .ps files

NASA Jet Propulsion Labs (JPL)
        filenames:      bc4pe.rtf, aaai92.rtf, nats.rtf
        Note that all files are in Microsoft Word RTF format.
        Contact <> if you don't have access
        to a Mac.

New York University
Recent experimental and analytical evidence indicates that direct drive
robots become very practical and economical at miniature and
microscopic scales, so it is interesting to understand quantitatively
the properties of direct drive robots under scaling transformations.  This
leads to a study of  how screws and their dual co-screws behave under the group
of similarity transforms.  This group is the group of isometries
together with dilations.  Several different representations are found
on the space of screws and complementary representations are found on 
the dual space of co-screws.  From the electromagnetic theory
of the force and torque on a magnet in a magnetic field, we derive the
scaling properties of the electromagnetic wrench.  Hence, these
results can be directly applied to the scaling of direct drive motors.
We conclude by proposing a scale-invariant measure for direct drive 
actuator performance.

        filenames:      [several compressed PS files]
University of Massachusetts:
        filenames:      [The files are compressed postscript, topics include
                        path planning, neuroscience, and control.]
University of Kaiserslautern FTP-Server is :
        subdirectories: 1993/papers, 1994/papers, etc

SPIE abstracts:
        filenames: 1831.txt [From Mobile Robots VII 1992]
        SPIE bookorders can be made through

JTEC report on Japanese Space Robotics
Available from NTIS (see below)
        A summary of the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center (JTEC)
panel's report on the state of the art of Japanese robot technology.
Lots of pictures of wierd and wonderful robots -- elephant trunk,
caterpillar, space tentacle, wall builder, Komatsu's walking undersea
rubble-leveler, humanoid two-armed assembly robot, 4-legged stair
climber.  Also tells where to write for videotapes of these machines
in action.  Here's the info (two years old, remember) ...  Tape with
narration by William "Red" Whittaker:
 cost: $37.50
 University Video Communications
 Box 20006
 Stanford, CA USA 94309
 tel: 415.327.0131
Shorter tape of highlights from many Japanese labs:
 National Technical Information Service (NTIS)
 5285 Port Royal Road
 Springfield, VA USA 22161
 tel: 703.457.4650
Article: "Japan robotics aim for unmanned space exploration"
William L. Whittaker, Takeo Kanade. IEEE Spectrum, December 1990

[4.2.4] Videos
	(new section - looking for additional material)

MIT Press has a number of companion videos - Legged Robots That
Balance and others. See Publications for address etc.

Video Proceedings from the 8th International Symposium on Unmanned
Untethered Submersible Technology (UUST 93) September 27-29, 1993
Marine Systems Engineering Lab, University of New Hampshire, Durham,
New Hampshire USA
     The video proceedings are now available for $35 US for VHS (NTSC)
format and $50 US for PAL format.  The video is being made publicly
available on a non-profit basis.  Printed abstracts and points of
contacts are included in a pamphlet with each video.  The program is
available eclectronically via anonymous ftp to
After AUgust 1 1994, you may order this video (or printed conference
proceedings) by sending a check or money order to:
     Autonomous Undersea Systems Institute (AUSI)
     8 Earle Drive
     Lee, New Hampshire  03824  USA
     (603) 862-4600
postscript copy:
Video Contents:
   01:20 AUVs for Scientific Research 
         in Hazardous Conditions
   07:15 A Versatile Testbed:  The "Twin-Burger"
   13:55 ARPA/Navy Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV)
   31:30 Summary of MBARI/Stanford ARL Joint Underwater Robotics
         Research Program
   43:05 Development of an Aquatic Walking Robot for Underwater
         Inspection:  "AQUAROBOT"
   47:30 Naval Postgraduate School Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
   50:15 The Rational Behavior Model (RBM) Software Architecture
   57:25 Mobile Undersea Systems Test (MUST) Laboratory
1:02:10  The Advanced Unmanned Search System (AUSS)
1:11:20  credits

End of Part 1-- 

aka: Kevin Dowling			Carnegie Mellon University
tel: (412) 268-8830			The Robotics Institute
adr:			Pittsburgh, PA 15213

aka: Kevin Dowling			Carnegie Mellon University
tel: (412) 268-8830			The Robotics Institute
adr:			Pittsburgh, PA 15213